International Marketing Chapter 15

Distribution Process
The physical handling of goods, the passage of ownership (title), and – especially important from a marketing viewpoint- the buying and selling of negotiations between the producers and middlemen and between middlemen and customers
Distribution Structure
The planned channels of inventory disbursement from one or more sources to field warehouses and ultimately to the customer. There may be one or more levels in the disbursement system. Syn: bill of distribution
Large-Scale retail store law
designed to protect small retailers from large intruders into their market. the law required that any store larger than 5,382 sq feet must have approval from the prefecture gov’t to be built, expanded, etc.
agent middlemen
wholesalers who do not own the products they sell; their main purpose is to help in buying and selling
home -country middlemen
In an international transaction, intermediaries, located in the producers home country, who provide marketing services from a domestic base. Offer advantages for companies with small international sales volume or for those inexperienced in international trade
Export Management Company (ECM)
a company handling all the tasks related to exporting for a manufacturer for a commission(or a percentage of sales). Works well for firms with small international volume, or those unwilling to use their staff abroad.
Trading companies
Firms that develop international trade and serve as intermediaries between foreign buyers and domestic sellers and visa versa.
Export Trading Company Act )
Allowing producers of similar products in the United States to form an export trading company; created a more favorable environment for the formation of joint export ventures, in part by removing antitrust disincentives to trade activists
Complementary marketing
Process by which companies with excess marketing capacity in different countries or with a desire for a broader product line take on additional lines for international distribution; commonly called piggybacking
Daitenho
Large Scale Retail Store Law, is designed to to protect small retailers from large intruders into their market.
MITI
many big businesses were integrated with MITI so much that officials of MITI were hard to distinguish from big business men
-successfully led Japan into the high tech age
-doing well in school and going into a corporation became of great importance in their society
direct marketing
Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships
economy of scale
The relationship that occurs when increased efficiency lowers manufacturing costs as more of a product is made. The price reduction may be passed on to consumers.