International Marketing – Ch. 4

An understanding of the origins and differences of culture will help international marketers:
Foresee changes in current markets of operation
Michele Phillips has just begun to understand French culture, even though she has lived in France for two years. She is nearly fluent in French. However, learning to live in France will take some time. The process of how a person learns and adjusts to a new culture is called.
Acculturation
In the context of social institutions, the _____ of a country is a potent force in economic development
Literacy rate
In the context of Hofstede’s four dimensions, the _____ Index measures the tolerance of social inequality within a social system.
Power Distance
The adoption of yoga as a means of physical fitness in the U.S. demonstrates:
Cultural borrowing
_____ deals with a group’s design for living
Culture
The manner in and amount which people consume, the priority of needs and wants they attempt to satisfy, and the manner in which they satisfy them are functions of their _____ and temper, mold, and dictate their style of living.
Culture
______ is the human – made part of human environment – the sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.
Culture
Markets are the result of the ________ of a marketer’s efforts, economic conditions, and all other elements of the culture
three-way interaction
______ affects every part of our lives, every day, from birth to death, and everything in between.
Culture
As countries move from agricultural to industrial to services economies, ______ decline.
Birthrates
Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede refers to culture as the “_________”
Software of the mind
Most traditional definitions of ______ center around the notion that _____ is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned and shared by a group of people, then transmitted from generation to generation
Culture
The expression “_______” recognizes that large collectives of people can, to a great degree, be like minded.
A culture
Measures the tolerance of social inequality, and its, power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system.
Power Distance Index
Measures the tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity among members of a society
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Cultural values can predict such consumer behaviors as ______ and impulsive buying
Word-of-mouth communications
Linguistic distance is an important factor that helps in determining differences in values across countries and the among of trade between countries because:
crossing “wider” language differences increases transaction costs
Hofstede’s data on cultural values suggest that:
Diffusion of innovations will be slower in countries that are low on individualism and high on uncertainty avoidance.
What is the most important factor in determining what kind and how much of an innovation will be accepted by culture?
The degree of interest in the particular subject
According to Edward Hall’s comments on culture, which of the following could hurt companies and careers in foreign markets?
Ignorance of cultural differences in the foreign market
Governments influence thinking and behavior through the:
Enforcement of a variety of laws affecting consumption and marketing behaviors
With regard to resistance to change, observations indicate that those innovations most readily accepted are those that:
Hold the greatest interest within the society and those that are least disruptive
Based on the Individualism/Collectivism Index, in which culture will the “virtual social” activity of online chatting be most acceptable?
One in which individualism reigns supreme
When marketers first introduced the personal digital assistant (PDA) to the American consumer, they performed the role of being ______ because the cultural impact of the product became widespread.
Agents of change
Cultures which are low in Uncertainty Avoidance index:
Take a more empirical approach to understanding and knowledge
In the context cultural values, the _____ index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one’s self interest
Individualism/Collectivism
What term pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups?
Collectivism
When designing a product, the style, uses, and other related marketing activities must be made _____ if they are to be operative and meaningful.
culturally acceptable
In some parts of the world, language is itself thought of as a social institution, often with political importance. What country best exemplifies this statement?
France
In the context of the relationship between language and international marketing, recent studies indicate that a new concept, _____ , is proving useful to marketing researchers in market segmentation and strategic entry decisions.
Linguistic distance
The most useful information on how cultural values influence various types of business and market behavior comes from work done by:
Geert Hofstede
The sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society is called ______
Culture
Which technological innovation has had a great impact on the gender-based determining of responsibilities and roles?
Birth Control Pills
Which social institution that influences culture has comparatively the least impact on culture?
Government
According to Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede, culture is referred to as the:
Software of the mind
In most cultures, the first social institution infants are exposed to outside the home takes the form of a :
Religious instition
The anthropologist, Edward T. Hall tells us that culture is:
Communication
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and _____ among members of a society
Ambiguity
One of the advantages of the emergence of gender equality is the ______ gap between the sexes being narrowed in many places around the world.
Education
Morton Foods has decided to introduce a new line of turkey products to the American consumer. Turkey steaks resemble beefsteak in taste but are made from turkey meat, and are leaner and healthier for a variety of reasons. However, the company is concerned that the product will not be accepted in America. If Morton Foods follows a strategy of _____, they are more likely to have a successful introduction of the new product.
Cultural Congruence
What action is important for foreign marketers in order to be effective in a foreign market?
Learning to appreciate the intricacies of cultures different from their own
The strategy of ______ deliberately sets out to change those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals.
Planned change
What is the main reason for corporations being the forerunners of innovations in society?
The access they have to ideas from around the world
In the context of the elements of culture, rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are:
Learned and repeated
Which social institutions is considered to have had a detrimental effect on American culture?
Media
Mervin is excited about his new home in the Philippines. Though native of Los Angeles, he has been given the opportunity to learn about a new culture, form new friendships, and capitalize on opportunities that were not available in his previous home or workplace. He will go through what is known as _____ as he adjusts to living in the Philippines
Acculturation
To the foreign marketer, the similar-but-different feature of cultures has important meaning in gaining cultural _____
Empathy
What was the Dutch management professor, Geert Hofstede’s perception of culture?
It is a problem-solving tool
_____ refers to a strategy that involves marketing products similar to ones already on the market thereby minimizing resistance.
Cultural congruence
Culture resides in the individuals ______
mind
The best international marketers will not only appreciate the cultural differences pertinent to their businesses, but they will also understand the ______ of these differences.
Origins
Humans make ______ to changing environments through _________
Adaptations, Innovation
Individuals learn culture from social institutions through ______ and ______
socialization , acculturation
Socialization Means
Growing Up
Acculturation Means
Adjusting to a new culture
People make decisions about consumption and production through ______ of their cultural-based knowledge
application
The impact of specific events in _____ can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior.
History
Book published by Adam Smith in 1776
A Wealth of Nations
The ________ still affects consumption patterns around the world
post-War baby boom
For most of the 20th century, four approaches to governance competed for world dominance. They are:
Fascism
Communism
Democracy/free enterprise
Fascism fell in
1945
Communism crumbled in the
1990s
Include family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations all affect the ways in which people relate to one another, organize their activities to live in harmony with one another, teach acceptable behavior to succeeding generations, and govern themselves
Social Institutions
The roles and status positions found within a society are influenced by the ____ of social institutions.
Dictates
The technology of _____ has tremendously affected families and reduced family sizes around the world.
Birth control
______ is one of the most important institutions, affects all aspects of the culture, from economic development to customer behaviro
Education
The ______ of a country is a potent force in economic development.
Literacy Rate
What are the four social institutions that most strongly influence values and culture?
Schools
Churches
Families
Media
Most innovations are introduced to societies by ____, many times multinational _______.
Companies
What are the five elements of culture?
values
rituals
symbols
beliefs
thought processes
The importance of things and ideas
Cultural values
Underlying the cultural diversity that exists among countries are fundamental differences in _________
Cultural Values
The most useful information on how cultural values influence various types of business and market behavior comes from seminal work of _________
Geert Hofstede
Hofstede determined that nations differ along four primary dimensions:
The Individualism/Collective Index (IDV), Which focuses on self orientation
The Power Distance Index (PDI), Which focuses on authority orientation
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Which focuses on risk orientation
The Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), Which focuses on assertiveness and achievement
The ______ dimension has proven the most useful of the four dimension, justifying entire books on the subject
Individualism/Collectivism
Which of Hofstede’s four dimensions has proven least useful?
The Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS)
The ________ Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one’s self-interest
The Individualism/Collective Index (IDV)
Cultures that score high in Individualism/Collective Index (IDV) reflect an “___” mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative, whereas those low in individualism reflect a “____” mentality and generally subjugate the individual to the group.
I, We
IDV
The Individualism/Collective Index
PDI
The Power Distance Index
UAI
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index
MAS
The Masculinity/Femininity Index
The ______ Index measures the tolerance of social inequality, that is, power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system
The Power Distance Index
Cultures with High ______ scores are highly intolerant of ambiguity and as a result tend to be distrustful of new ideas or behaviors
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Life is filled with ____, that is, patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeated.
Rituals
Marriage ceremonies and funerals are good examples of _____
Rituals