International Management CH.3

Culture
The shared values, understanding assumptions and goals that over time are passed on and imposed by members of a group or society
Convergence
The phenomenon of increasing similarity of leadership styles resulting from a blending of cultures and business practices through international institutions as opposed to the divergence of leadership styles necessary for different cultures and practices
Self-reference criterion
An unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values; understanding and relating to others only from one’s own culture frame of reference
parochialism
The expectation that foreigners should automatically fall into host-country patterns of behaviors
ethnocentrism
The belief that the management techniques used in one’s own culture are best no matter where or with whom they are applied.
contingency management.
having a back-up
GLOBE Research Project Dimensions
Assertiveness;Performance Orientation;Future Orientation;
Humane Orientation
Assertive
High: Greece, Austria, Germany
Low: Sweden, New Zealand, Switzerland
Performance Orientation
Low: Russia, Argentina, Greece
High: New Zealand, Honk Kong, Singapore
Future Orientation
Low: Russia, Argentina, Poland
High: Netherlands, Switzerland, Singapore
Humane Orientation
Low: Germany, Spain, France
High: Malaysia, Ireland, Philippines
Hofstede
Power distance (High Malaysia/Low Austria)
Uncertainty-avoidance (High Germany/Low Denmark)
Individualism(high United States/Collectivism New Zealand)
Masculinity (High Japen/Low Sweden
Long-term/Short-term Orientation (High China/ Low United States)
Trompenaar’s Values Dimensions
Obligation;
Emotional Orientation in Relationships;
Privacy in Relationship;
Source of Power and Statues
Obligation
Universalistic ( High-rules and system objectively- United States)
Particularistic (Low-relationship first-China)
Emotional Orientation in Relationships;
Neutal (High-hard to read- Japan)
Affective (Low-openly to express-Italy)
Privacy in Relationship;
Specific (High-separate work and personal-United States)
Diffuse (Low-work spills over in personal-Spain)
Source of Power and Statues
Personal (High-acheivement- United States)
Society (Low-ascrciption- China)
Saudia Arabia
Tribalism (Paternalism) Arabs value personal relationship honor and saving face for all concerned; Getting to know your host before bring up business if you do this would be offense to Saudi Arabia. Close and warm friendship (avoidance of judgment) Arabs avoid open admission of error at all cost because weakness is a failure to be manly. It is hard for westerns to get the truth because of the Arab need to avoid of showing weakness. Honor and Shame (Private correction of mistakes)
China
Small, family businesses predominate
“Guanxi” connections( the network of relationships the chinese cultivate through friendships and affection it entails exchange of favors and gifts to provide an obligation to reciprocate favors; share an unwritten code)
People are put ahead of business (Human-centered management)
Organizations do not include “middle management”