Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Exam 2

6 Common Elements of Sticky Ads
1. Simplicity
2. Concreteness
3. Emotionality
4. Story telling
5. Credibility
6. Unexpectedness
1. Simplicity
Profound, simple, represents a core idea, strips down to critical essence, very basic
•Example: Justin Timberlake and Jimmy Fallon iPhone 6 with just their hands and voices
2. Concreteness
Substantive words (clear, concise, straightforward, factual)
3. Emotionality
Connects to thoughts, feelings and emotions. Pulls at your heart strings
•Example: Budweiser puppy and horses ad, Extra gum commercial
4. Story Telling
Story with a plot and characters
5. Credibility
Making it believable, a sense of authority
•Example: Bounty paper towels
6. Unexpectedness
Something that stands out, surprises or generates curiousity •Example: Loctite Super Bowl ad
6 Creative Ad Styles
1. Unique selling proposition
2. Brand image
3. Resonance
4. Emotional
5. Generic
6. Preemptive
1. Unique Selling Proposition
Identifying an important difference that makes the brand unique and supports a claim that competitors cannot match •Example: Lincoln/Lexus comparative ad?
2. Brand Image
Developing an image or identity for a brand by associating the brand with symbols that provide transformational context
3. Resonance
Attempting to match “patterns” in an advertisement with the target audiences stored experiences •Example?
4. Emotional
Aiming to reach the consumer at a visceral level through the use of emotional strategy
5. Generic
Making no attempt to differentiate the dominant brand from competitive offerings or to claim superiority—do it for the category •Example: Got Milk ads?
6. Preemptive
Making a generic type claim but doing so with an assertion of superiority
•Made 1st in a category of goods with little differences tends to be over others in the category (Kleenex, Brawny)
Means End Chain
Represents linkages among brand attributes- we have values that drive us in terms of decision making
•The consequences obtained from using the brand and “consuming” the attributes, the personal values that the consequences reinforce.
•Example: Subaru commercial “they lived” for safety purposes

Attributes > Consequences > Values
Means > End

Features or aspects
What consumers hope to receive (benefits) or avoid (detriments)
What people hold as important
10 Universal Values
*=most relevant to ad/mktg
2. Stimulation*
3. Hedonism*
4. Achievement*
5. Power*
6. Security*
7. Conformity
8. Tradition
9. Benevolence
10. Universalism
1. Self-direction
Freedom, indepence, individualism, in charge of your own destiny
•Example: Rolex advertisement
2. Stimulation
Desire for variety, adventure, excitement
3. Hedonism
Pleasure, joy
•Example: Steak commercial
4. Achievement
The idea of personal success
•Example: Home Depot advertisement
5. Power
The idea of status or prestige
•Example: Hummer advertisement
6. Security
Longing for safety and security
7. Conformity
Fitting in/belonging
8. Tradition
We value family traditions and cultural customs, could be religious
9. Benevolence
The idea of good will or charity
10. Universalism
The idea of social justice, fairness, equality and tolerance
What is a creative brief, and what is it for?
•Promotes teamwork, fosters the creative process
•Explains what the campaign will accomplish
•Provides basic framework or guidelines to get team moving in the same direction
•Informal pact between client and the ad agency
•Leaves plenty of room for creativity in solutions
Elements of a Creative Brief
Asks questions about:
•Target audience
•Thoughts and feelings
•Objectives, “take away”, and outcome
•Positioning and personality
•Message/medium or other specific vehicle
•Social media marketing plan
Attracting Voluntary Attention
•Appeals to informational and hedonic needs (when we elaborate on something, spend time processing info)
•Use of novel stimuli (anything that is a little different or unexpected is good)
•Use of intense or prominent cues (loud, bright)
•Use of motion
•Examples: Loctite Super Bowl ad
Comparative Ads (Pros/Cons)
•Especially helpful for new brands
•Brands with small market share, gain awareness
•Used often in political advertising
•Is illegal in some countries
•Can be seen as unethical
Comparative Advertising
Is the practice in which advertisers directly or indirectly compare their products against competitive offerings and claim superiority
•Varies in the direct explicitness of comparisons
•Direct comparison: Nyquil vs. Tylenol, Mac vs. PC
•Indirect comparsion: Allegra vs. most allergy medicines, Nyquil lasts longer than other brands
Fear and Guilt Ads (Pros/Cons)
Gives us info that makes us think about safety, health, security
•Feelings of guilt can be relieved by product or by doing something (consumers avoiding negative consequences, fomo, conformity)
•Can be seen as manipulative
•If guilt appeal lacks credibility
•Can backfire if threat is too high
Humor Appeal Ads (Pros/Cons)
•Aids attention & awareness
•Aid in retention (often most memorable)
•Enhances liking of the ad
•Creates positive mood and enhances persuasion
•Not effective in bringing in sales
•May wear out faster than non-humor ads
•Does not aid in credibility
•May be too distracting (forgets message)
•Effects can differ based on audience
•Effective only when evaluations of brand are already positive
Sexual Appeal Ads (Pros/Cons)
•Initial attention lure
•Enhance recall of message points
•Evoke emotional responses (lust or romance)
•Elicit a positive reaction *only if content is relevant to subject matter*
•Example: Carl’s Jr. girl in bikini
•Interference with processing of message arguments
•Reduction in message comprehension
•Could be found degrading and offensive
•Demeaning to males or females
Recency Effect
Ending arguments are remembered best
•Middle not so much
•Why in Pharmaceutical Ads company places negative side effects in the middle with music and an active background
Primacy Effect
Beginning arguments are remembered better
•Highest recall of messages is in the beginning!!)
•Middle not so much
Differences Between Media and Vehicles
1. Media
•General communication methods that carry out the advertising methods
•TV, newspaper, online, social media
2. Vehicles
•Specific broadcast programs or print choices in which ads are placed
•American Idol Program, WSJ, YouTube
Hand in Glove
Ad messages and media considerations are very related—creative and media specialists must team up to design ads.

•Require: general media categories, specific vehicles, MarCom budget, allocations
•Must coordinate: marketing, advertising, media strategy

Media Mix
Proportion of the population that should be reached with vehicles containing advertisement message during a specific period
•Number of people are are exposed to message
•Mature or established brands
•Large share/ loyal customers
•Ad message is simple
•Goal is to remind, reach different audiences
•Also known as 1+, Net coverage
•OTS: opportunity to see
Factors That Increase Reach
•Use of multiple media
•Diversification of vehicles within each medium
•Varying day parts for radio and TV ads
Effective Reach Planning
No fewer than 3 and no more than 10 exposures during a 4-week media planning period, use of multiple medias
GRP and Weight of an Ad Schedule
GRP (Gross Rating Points): Represents the gross weight that a particular ad schedule is capable of
delivering-sum of all vehicle ratings
•Reach x Frequency

Weight: Ad volume required to accomplish ad objectives

•How often/frequently are they exposed to a message
•New brands
•New use or benefit
•Complex message
•Goal is to teach
3 Exposure Hypothesis (Krugman)
A minimum of 3 exposures to an ad message needed to be effective advertising
Recency Planning (Shelf Space Model)
1. The customers 1st exposure is the most powerful
2. Advertisings primary role is to influence brand choice
3. Achieving a high level of weekly reach for a brand should be emphasized over acquiring heavy frequency
Recency Planning (Continuous Presence)
•Influence brand selection by reminding, reinforcing, and evoking earlier messages
•To reach consumers when they are ready to buy a brand
•To reach consumers close to the time when they are making brand selections
•Single exposure cost effectiveness is about 3 times the value of subsequent exposures
•To reach as many consumers for as many weeks as possible rather than sporadically @ select times
Advertising Budget
No single budgeting approach is equally effective for all brands—what works best depends on the particular circumstances of the brand
•Involves how advertising is allocated during the course of a campaign
•Address fundamental issue of how the media budget is distributed:
•Uniformly throughout campaign
•Concentrated period to achieve max impact
•Some other schedule between the two choices
Three Continuity Options
1. Continuous
•An equal number of ad money invested throughout the campaign

2. Pulsing
-Some advertising us used during every period, but the amount of advertising varies from period to period

3. Fighting
•The advertiser varies expenditures throughout the campaign and allocates zero expenditures in some months

What are factors to consider in choosing the best medium?
#1 figure out where audience is!!
•Advertisers objectives
•Creative needs
•Competitive challenge
•Available budget
Newspapers Pros/Cons
•Audience in appropriate mind frame
•Mass audience coverage
•Ability to use detailed messages
•Not highly selective medium
•Higher rates for occasional ads
•Mediocre reproduction quality
•Complicated buying for national ads
•Changing composition of users
•Declining readership
Magazines Pros/Cons
•Some reach large audiences
•Long life
•High reproduction quality
•Ability to present detailed information
•Ability to convey information authoritavily (?)
•High involvement potential

•Not intrusive
•Long lead times
•Some what geographic limits
•Variability of circulation patterns by market

Radio Pros/Cons
•Ability to reach segmented markets
•Short lead times
•Transfer of imagery from TV
•Use of local personalities

•No visuals
•Audience fractionalization
•Buying difficulties

TV Pros/Cons
•Demonstration ability
•Intrusion value
•Ability to generate excitement
•One on one reach
•Ability to use humor
•Effective with sales force and trade
•Ability to achieve high impact

•Rapidly expanding costs
•Erosion of viewing audience
•Audience fractionalization
•Zipping/zapping (ffwrd/opt out)

Different Types of TV Ads
1. Network advertising
2. Spot advertising
3. Syndicated programming
4. Cable advertising
5. Local advertising
Network Advertising
*Most expensive*
•Network product nationally on major networks
•Expensive but is a cost effective way to reach mass audience
Spot Advertising
(test marketing, aggressive competition, distr. areas)
•Ads only placed in select areas
•Regional oriented marketing and geodemographic segmentation of consumer markets
•New brand and product, do this before national distribution
Syndicated Programming
(Friends and Seinfeld began on NBC and is now on numerous networks for re-runs)
•Independent company markets show to as many networks affiliated or cable TV as possible, start on major network then branch out
Cable Advertising
(Food Network, MTV, ESPN, HDTV)
•Uses narrowcasting to reach 85% of all households of economically upscale and young viewers
Local Advertising
(Common with TV furniture ads)
•Local advertisers are turning to television as its inexpensive during fringe time
Alternative TV Ads
•Brand placement
•Social TV
•Introduced in the early 80’s
•Essentially long commercials (28-30 minutes)
•Expensive to produce
•Especially effective promotional tool for moving merchandise
Brand Placement
•Can be effective provided brand is displayed in a context that appropriately matches the brands image
•Result of advertisers fear that TV advertising is no longer as effective as it used to be
•Pay to get prominent placement for their brands in popular programs
Example: Ford Focus on The Voice, Heineken in James Bond
•Millennial generation is much more receptive to this
Social TV
•Social media and TV getting watchers to watch live TV and interact with the cast or other fans by live tweeting or hash tags on the screen
•Creates incentives and interest for TV watchers
Example: Political debates, sports events
•Example: Watch What Happens Live
Multi-screen World
With tablets, computers, phones, and TV, we are on more than one medium at once
Benefits/Costs of Online Advertising
•Immediate publishing
•Cost efficiency

•User distraction
•Too many choices
•International coordination
•Rapid change
•Short lead time/cycles

SEA (Search Engine Advertising)
•Captures largest share of online ad spending (47%)
•Includes well known services that people use to seek information (Google, MSN, Yahoo!)
•Place messages in front of people when their search efforts indicate they are interested in buying
•Makes use of paid keywords to increase the odds the firms products or services will be included in the search results and appear as a sponsored link
Options of Online Ads
1. Popups
2. Interstitials
3. Superstitials
4. Video ads
Pop Ups
Ads that appear in a separate window
Ads that appear between 2 content web pages
Short, animated ads that play over and over on top of a web page
Video Ads
Audio-video ads that are similar to 30 second TV commercials, but are shortened to 10-15 seconds and compressed or extended out to several minutes
How can companies use blogs to their advantage?
•Online WOM
•Can use to connect with customers and appear more credible
Advantages of Social Media
•Consumers engage more
•Two-way dialogue
•Improved metrics
•Cost effectiveness
Disadvantages of Social Media
•Lost productivity, addiction, fatigue
•Negative/Meaningless comments
Social Media Campaigns & Common Objectives
•Sharing humor and creativity with consumers
•Deals and contests
-Causes, sponsorship, and events
•Interactive games, virtual worlds, and avatars
•Consumer generated stories and content
How to Make Social Media Campaigns Work
•Encourage storytelling about the brand
•’Step into the real world”
•Evolve with your consumers in being social and human (admit mistakes)
Direct Marketing
An interactive system of marketing which uses one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response and/or transaction at any location
•Often traceable, keep track of responses

•Direct response advertising
•Direct mail via postal service
•Telemarketing (using phone to get to consumers)

Direct Response Advertising
The use of any several media to transmit messages to encourage buyers to purchase from an ad
•Example: Proactiv, Rosetta Stone, Nutrisystem
(when you buy directly from the advertiser, call now ads)
Direct Mail Via Postal Service
Letters, postcards, calendars, catalogs, etc.
•You can get very specific with direct mail as far as target audiences
Other Non-traditional Forms of Ads
•Brand placement
•Yellow pages
•Video game advertising
•Cinema advertising
•Other: Human body, skywriting, back of comic books, dry cleaner hangers, post its, labels on fruits and vegetables, bathrooms, sides of garbage trucks, stadium cup holders
Catalog Advertising
Recipients buy more items & spend more money, saves time, postal rates are the downside
Using phone to get to customers
•Has many disadvantages
Audiovisual Advertising
Electronic devices to present audiovisual advertising messages in videotape form, more effective & less expensive
•Sandals & other traveling companies use this often
Yellow Pages Advertising
Local and national advertisers, online and print medium, users are ages 25-49 that use it, college-educated, income of $60K +
Video Game Advertising
190 million+ households have a video game console, users are young, 40% are female, play online, average of 40 hours per week
Cinema Advertising
Appear prior to a film, younger consumers are more receptive to it, $1 billion market
Enhance Consumer Processing Motivation
1. Increase relevance to consumers
2. Increase curiosity about the brand
Article 1: Lincoln Goes After Lexus
•Lincoln and Lexus are rivals
•Lincoln goes after Lexus in comparative ad campaign
•Young couple with clipboard of questions
•Direct comparison
•Unique selling proposition, attributes
•Use of social media with hashtag – creating dialogue and engaging customers
•Universal values: Power, security, conformity
•Simplicity and concreteness
•Big emphasis that the consumers are the ones asking the questions
•The product is selling itself, Lexus has a better brand image
Article 2: Nationwide
•Humor in advertising
•Gains attention, increases retention, creates positive attitude
•Online contest along with commercial (engaging consumers, creating positive brand image)
•Increase in advertising budget
Article 3: How to Choose the Right Medium for Your Message
•Multi-screen world (lots of new platforms), no longer a direct channel to consumers
•The consumers choose the medium (which is best)
•Rise of millennials
•The medium makes the message (a perfect message is useless if you have the wrong medium)
•Three factors:
1. Audience: the most important factor (example: millennials = social media ads, seniors = traditional print/radio/TV ads)
2. Budget: small budget ≠ small ads, continuous presence, lots of smaller ads vs. one big ad
3. Message: what are the objectives, values, brand image
Article 4: Is Super Bowl Worth $4 Million?
•Superbowl has reach and credibility, great for enhancing brand image or recognition
•Great for smaller or newer brands who need to increase brand awareness
•Extremely risky, hit or miss
•Olympics (global reach, continuous presence) vs. Superbowl (domestic reach, one time)
•Superbowl ads most likely = short term sales bump
•Ads must be clever and engaging (unexpectedness, emotionality) while still conveying clear message
Article 5: David Among Goliaths (Loctite)
•Non-conscious emotions play a central role in how we respond
•Significantly increased brand awareness and image, kept audience engaged
•Created value by showing attributes of product
1. They used engaging/exciting music
2. Continuous repetition or brand name and logo
3.Showed the product in use, reinforces utility
4. Emphasized the benefits of the product
Article 6: YouTube Old Spice Case Study
1. To draw on the long-standing history and expertise of the brand and re-position it to make it relevant to young men
2. Target both men and women in order to generate conversation about the product
•The man your man could smell like YouTube ad
•Social media campaign: engaging, creating dialogue
•Old company using new platforms to sustain and reinvent
Article 7: 2015 Social Media Trends
1. Social media commerce growth (buying things online on Facebook or Twitter)
2. Visual content marketing to engage audience (attracting eyeballs, getting clicks)
3. Social, local and mobile marketing focus (See it online, how and where you can go get it locally) Example: Yelp
4. More spending on social advertising (spending on new platforms rather than traditional ones)
5. Promoting trends on Twitter drives exposure and creates brand advocates