Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and marketing communications: 5th edition

Noise
Anything that distorts or disrupts a message, including marketing communications
Clutter
Exits when consumers are exposed to hundreds of marketing messages per day, and most are tuned out (the most common form of noise affecting marketing communication)
IMC
Integrated Marketing Communications; The coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues, and sources in a company into a seamless program designed to maximize the impact on customers and other stakeholders
Brand parity
occurs when there is the perception that most goods and services are essentially the same
Flanker brand
The development of a new brand by a company in a good or service category in which it currently has a brand offering, ex. P&G
brand extension
the use of an established brand name on goods or services not related to the core brand, ex. Nike
brands
names generally assigned to a good or service or a group of complementary products
family brand
when a company offers a series or group of products under one brand name
co-branding
offering two or more brands in a single marketing effort, ingredient (one brand within another), cooperative (joint venture), complementary (co-consumption)
brand equity
a set of brand assets that add to the value assigned to a product
private brand (private label)
proprietary brands marketed by an organization and normally distributed exclusively within the organization’s outlets
corporate image
overall consumer perceptions or end-user feelings toward a company along with its good and services
corporate logo
the symbol used to identify a company and its brands, helping to convey the overall corporate image
involvement
the extent to which a stimulus or task is relevant to a consumer’s existing needs, wants, or values
evoked set
consists of the set of brands a consumer considers during the information search and the evaluation processes
inept set
part of a memory set that consists of the brands that are held in a person’s memory but are not considered because they elicit negative feelings
inert set
part of a memory set of brands that hold the brands that the consumer has awareness of but has neither positive nor negative feelings about
cognitive maps
simulations of the knowledge structures embedded in an individual’s brain
market segmentation
identifying specific groups (target markets) based on their needs, attitudes, and interests
demographics
population characteristics such as gender, age, educational levels, income, and ethnicity
psychographics
patterns of responses that reveal a person’s activities, interests, and opinions (AIO)
product positioning
the perception in the consumer’s mind of the nature of a company and its products relative to the competition
benchmark measures
starting points that are studied in relation to the degree of change following a promotional campaign
threshold effects
the point at which an advertising or promotional program has begun to affect customer responses
carryover effects
the point at which a consumer has been exposed to the company’s message for so long that, when the time comes to buy, the individual remembers the company
wear-out effects
declines in advertising effectiveness that occur when an ad or marketing communication becomes “old” or “boring”
decay effects
declines in advertising effectiveness that occur when advertising stops and consumers begin to forget about the company
message theme
an outline of key ideas the advertising campaign conveys
leverage point
the key element in the advertisement that taps into, or activates, a consumer’s personal value system (a value, idea, or concept)
crowdsourcing
process of outsourcing the creative aspect of an advertisement to the public
focus group
a set of consumers or businesspeople who are retained to talk about a particular topic, product, or brand
top-of-mind brands
the brands that quickly come to mind when consumers are asked to identify brands from a product category
pulsating schedule
continuous advertising with bursts of higher intensity (more ads in more media) during the course of the year
flighting schedule
a schedule whereby companies present ads only during specific times and not at all times during other times of the year
continuous campaign schedule
when the company advertises in level amounts throughout the year
support
the facts that substantiate the unique selling point of a creative brief
hierarchy of effects
a marketing approach suggesting that a consumer moves through a series of six steps when becoming convinced to make a purchase: (1) awareness (2) knowledge (3) liking (4) preferences (5) conviction (6) actual purchase
means-end chain
an advertising approach in which the message contains a means (a reasoning or mental process) to lead the consumer to a desired end-state, such as a key personal value
tagline
a catchy, easy to remember phrase in an ad used to make the key point and reinforce the company’s image to the consumer
severity
part of the fear behavioral response model that leads the individual to consider how strong certain negative consequences of an action will be
vulnerability
part of the fear behavioral response model that leads the individual to consider the odds of being affected by the negative consequences of an action
decorative models
models in an advertisement whose primary purpose is to adorn the product as a sexual or attractive stimulus without serving a functional purpose
contact point
any place where customers interact with or acquire additional information about a firm
constraints
the company, legal, and mandatory restrictions placed on advertisements. They include legal protections for trademarks, logos, and copy registrations
executional framework
method used to deliver the advertising message
visual Esperanto
a universal language that makes global advertising possible for any good or service by recognizing that visual images are more powerful than verbal descriptions
stimulus codability
items that easily evoke consensually held meanings within a culture or subculture
geodemographics
identifies potential customers using demographic information, geographic information, and psychographic information
Trends in consumer buying environment
Age complexity, gender complexity, individualism, active busy lifestyle, cocooning, pleasure pursuits, health emphasis
difficulties of establishing a brand vs. changing a brand’s image
Establishing a brand means asking where the brand stands now, what are the objectives, strength, weaknesses, etc. There must be repetition in establishing a brand and the brand name should be associated to the product’s most prominent characteristic. Changing becomes necessary when target markets have begun to shrink or disappear. First, must evaluate what they wish to change, why they wish to change it, and how they intend to accomplish it. It may include trying to change the the view of the industry or service, such as St. Patrick’s Behavioral Hospital
Challenge of clutter
Clutter has become the biggest problem in the marketing industry. Advertisements are everywhere and breaking through the clutter has become more and more difficult. However, as discussed in The Persuaders, there are ways advertisers have found to breakthrough. One way is using product placements. The product or service is seen being used by celebrities and this helps bring the product out from the clutter. There is also the use of companies such as Acxiom which help in targeting markets to specific areas.Then there is word choice which can have a huge impact on an audience. A slight change in phrasing can have the ability to bring an advertisement out of the clutter.
concept of sales response curve and the point of threshold effects
When advertising is first introduced, there is a minimal effect, however, over time, consumers are repeatedly exposed to the same marketing message and therefore will be able to recall the company name or brand enough to make a purchase. The threshold effect is the point where advertising begins to affect consumer response.
Strong corporate logo
-designed for compatibility with name
-Recognizable
-Familiar
-Elicit a consensual meaning among consumers
-evoke positive feelings
strong brand name
sets attitude, tone (overt, implied, conceptual, iconoclastic)
steps involved in consumer decision-making process: hierarchy of effects model
1. Awareness
2. Knowledge
3. Liking
4. Preference
5. conviction
6. actual purchase
-Problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, post purchase evaluation
3 components of attitude
-Affective: feelings or emotions a person has about the topic or idea (Budweiser commercial)
-Cognitive: refers to a person’s mental images, understanding and interpretation
-Conative: an individual intention, action, or behavior (Text this to this number to donate to this cause)
three things that influence consumers external searches
1. ability to search
2. motivation to search (level of involvements, need for cognition, level of shopping enthusiasm)
3. costs versus benefit search
types of advertising appeals
1. Fear: it works, but too strong will backfire too low won’t be noticed
2. Humor: captures viewer attention, good mood associated with product; can’t let the humor overpower the message
3. Sex: it is effective; give sense of dissatisfaction of ones body
4. Music: familiar music will share the emotion to the brand
5. Rational: are informative, but may be ignored
6. Emotion: get noticed
7. Scarcity: value, perceived value, will increase
main roles within an agency
account executive: go between for agency and client, solicit accounts, finalize details
creative: develop, design advertisements
traffic manager: coordinator
account planner: advocate for the consumer
quality communication: relationship between client and agency
method of market segmentation
demographic, psychographic, generations, geographic, geodemographics, benefits, usage
role of creative brief
the objective, target audience, message theme, support, and constraints. This is taken by creative to produce advertisements
analyzing competition
primary research (visiting competitor stores), secondary data (advertisements, annual reports), other people (word of mouth, reviews)