Information Technology Project Management Chapter 6

activity
An element of work normally found on the WBS that has an expected duration, cost, and resource requirements; also called a task
activity attributes
information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity
activity list
a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule
activity-on-arrow
a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities; also called arrow diagramming method
arrow diagramming method
a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities; also called activity-on-arrow
backward pass
a project network diagramming technique that determines the late start and late finish dates for each activity in a similar fashion
baseline dates
the planned schedule dates for activities in a Tracking Gantt chart
buffer
additional time to complete a task
burst
a single node followed by two or more activities on a network diagram
crashing
a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of scheduling compression for the least incremental cost
critical chain scheduling
a method of scheduling that takes limited resources into account when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date
critical path
Generally, but not always, the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of project. It is the longest path through the project. (see also CPM)
critical path method
a project network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
dependency
the sequencing of project activities or tasks; also called a relationship
discretionary dependencies
sequencing of project activities or tasks defined by the project team and used with care since they may limit later scheduling options
dummy activities
activities with no duration and no resources used to show a logical relationship between two activities in the arrow diagramming method of project network diagrams
duration
the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time
early finish date
the earliest possible time an activity can finish based on the project network logic
early start date
the earliest possible time an activity can start based on the project network logic
effort
the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task
external dependencies
sequencing of project activities or tasks that involve relationships between project and non-project activities
fast tracking
a schedule compression technique in which you do activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence
feeding buffers
additional time added before tasks on the critical path that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks
finish-to-finish dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram where the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be finished
finish-to-start dependency
A relationship on a project network diagram where the “from” activity must be finished before the “to” activity can be started
float
the amount of time a project activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date; also called slack
forward pass
a network diagramming technique that determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity
free slack
The amount of time you can delay the start of a task without delaying the early start of a successor task.
gantt chart
a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format; sometimes referred to as bar charts
late finish date
the latest possible time an activity can be completed without delaying the project finish date
late start date
the latest possible time an activity may begin without delaying the project finish date
mandatory dependencies
sequencing of project activities or tasks that are inherent in the nature of the work being done on the project
merge
two or more nodes that precede a single node on a network diagram
milestone
a significant event that normally has no duration on a project; serves as a marker to help in identifying necessary activities
multitasking
working on more than one task at a time
murphy’s law
the principle that if something can do wrong, it will
network diagram
a schematic display of the logical relationships or sequencing of project activities
node
the starting and ending point of an activity on an activity-on-arrow diagram
parkinson’s law
work expands to fill time available for completion.
PERT weighted average
(optimistic time + 4 * most likely time + pessimistic time)/6
precedence diagramming method
A network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities
probabilistic time estimates
duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations instead of using one specific or discrete estimate
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
a project network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty with the individual activity duration estimates
project buffer
additional time added before the projects due date
project time management
the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project
relationship
the sequencing of project activities or tasks; also called a dependency
resource breakdown structure
a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type
resources
people, equipment, and materials
schedule baseline
the approved planned schedule for the project
slack
the amount of time a project activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date; also called float
slipped milestone
a milestone activity that is completed later than planned
SMART criteria
guidelines to help define milestones that are specific, measurable, assignable, realistic, and time-framed
start-to-finish dependency
a relationship on a project network diagram where the “from” activity cannot start before the “to” activity is finished
start-to-start dependency
A relationship on a project network diagram where the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity starts
task
an element of work normally found on the WBS that has an expected duration and resource requirements; also called an activity
Theory of Constraints
a management philosophy that states that any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that is limiting its ability to achieve more of its goal
three-point estimate
an estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate
total slack (total float)
the amount of time an activity may be delayed form its early start without delaying the planned project finish date
tracking gantt chart
a Gantt chart that compares planned and actual project schedule information