Information Technology Project Management CH 5 6ed

analogy approach
creating a WBS by using a similar project’s WBS as a starting point
bottom-up approach
creating a WBS by having team members identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then grouping them into higher level categories
decomposition
subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces
deliverable
a product, such as a report or segment of software code, produced as part of a project
Joint Application Design (JAD)
using highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on to jointly define and design information systems
project scope management
the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project
project scope statement
a document that includes, at a minimum, a description of the project, including its overall objectives and justification, detailed descriptions of all project deliverables, and the characteristics and requirements of products and services produced as part of the project
prototyping
developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system to help define user requirements
requirement
a condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formal document
requirements management plan
a plan that describes how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed
requirements traceability matrix (RTM)
a table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed
scope
all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
scope baseline
the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
scope creep
the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger
top-down approach
creating a WBS by starting with the largest items of the project and breaking them into their subordinate items
use case modeling
— a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them
variance
the difference between planned and actual performance
WBS dictionary
a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item
work breakdown structure (WBS)
a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project
work package
a task at the lowest level of the WBS
c. Scope
1. ________________ refer(s) to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them. a. Deliverables b. Milestones c. Scope d. Product development
a. interviews
2. Which tool or technique for collecting requirements is often the most expensive and time consuming? a. interviews b. focus groups c. surveys d. observation
b. WBS
3. A ___________ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. a. scope statement b. WBS c. WBS dictionary d. work package
d. mind mapping
4. What approach to developing a WBS involves writing down or drawing ideas in a nonlinear format? a. top-down b. bottom-up c. analogy d. mind mapping
c. 2
5. Assume you have a project with major categories called planning, analysis, design, and test- ing. What level of the WBS would these items fall under? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3
d. Dont involve too many users in scope management
Which of the following is not a best practice that can help in avoiding scope problems on information technology projects? a. Keep the scope realistic b. Use off-the-shelf hardware and software whenever possible c. Follow good project management processes d. Dont involve too many users in scope management
c. McDonalds
7. What major restaurant chain terminated a large project after spending $170 million on it, pri- marily because they realized the project scope was too much to handle? a. Burger King b. Pizza Hut c. McDonalds d. Taco Bell
a. verification
8. Scope ____________ is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables. a. verification b. validation c. completion d. close-out
d. Only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
Which of the following is not a suggestion for improving user input? a. Develop a good project selection process for information technology projects b. Have users on the project team c. Co-locate users with developers d. Only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
c. WBS
10. Project management software helps you develop a ___________, which serves as a basis for creating Gantt charts, assigning resources, and allocating costs. a. project plan b. schedule c. WBS d. deliverable