Human Resources Management (Lepak/Gowan) – Chapter 4

Job design
Determining tasks & responsibilities that employees in a particular job are expected to perform as well as how they need to interact with their coworkers to realize those contributions
Job analysis
Systematically IDing the tasks, duties and responsibilities expected to be performed in a single job as well as the competencies (KSAs) employees must possess to be successful in the job
Job descriptions
Written summaries of specific tasks, responsibilities, and working conditions of a job; includes list of job specifications
Job specifications
Specific competencies required by a job holder to be able to perform a job successfully
Time and motion studies
Systematic evaluation of the most basic elements of the tasks that compromise a job
Job specialization
Process of breaking down jobs into their simple core elements
Job simplification
Removing decision-making authority from the employee and placing it with a supervisor
Job characteristics model
Motivational model of job design based on 5 job dimensions and 3 psychological states of employees that affect internal motivation, satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover and productivity
Psychological states
Experienced meaningfulness of the work; experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work; knowledge of the actual results of work activities
Skill variety
Different tasks & activities that challenge and employee’s KSAs
Task identity
Degree to which job involves completing a whole identifiable piece of work
Task significance
Degree to which job has substantial and perceivable effect on the lives of others
Autonomy
Degree to which job permits substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to perform the work
Feedback
Degree to which performing the job requirements results in the individual receiving direct and clear info about the effectiveness of his performance
Growth need strength
Extent to which individuals feel a need to learn and be challenged, a need to develop their skills beyond what they are, and a strong need for accomplishment
Job enlargement
Assignment of additional tasks to employees of a similar level of difficulty and responsibility
Job rotation
Moving workers from one job to another job w/in the organization to provide exposure to different aspects of the company’s operations
Job enrichment
Increases level of responsibility or control employees have in performing the tasks of a job
Empowerment
Aka delegation; providing employees with higher level tasks, responsibilities, and decision making in the performance of their job
Participation
Extent to which employees are permitted to contribute to decisions that may affect them in their jobs
Voice
Specific form of participation; access to channels to complain or express concerns about their work situation
Work teams
Well defined, stable, full time members working under supervisor to produce some good or service
Parallel teams
People from different areas of the company to address a particular problem or issue
Project teams
Exist for limited time under guidance of a project leader; disband after objective is completed
Self-managed teams
Team members supervise themselves, work collaboratively, make team decisions (hiring, planning, scheduling)
Methods for collecting job information
Observation, diaries, interviews, questionnaires, O*NET
Standardized approaches to job analysis
Functional Job Analysis – systematically compare jobs that are dissimilar in the tasks they perform by focusing on job dimensions that apply to all jobs (functional categories); Position Analysis Questionnaire – standardized survey that measures behaviors to perform a wide variety of tasks in different jobs
Custom job analysis
Critical incidents – focuses on specific, behaviorally focused description of work activities; Task inventory – collecting info to ID the tasks necessary to perform job; Job Element – analyze employee competencies rather than tasks to be performed