Human Resource Planning

training
a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job related competencies
learning
acquiring knowledge
informal learning
occurs without a trainer or instructor, learner initiated
formal learning
programs, courses, and events that are developed and organized by the company
knowledge management
process of enhancing company perfomance by designing and implementing: tools, processes, systems, structure
explicit knowledge
well documented, easily articulated, and easily transferred from person to person
tacit knowledge
personal knowledge based on individual experiences that is difficult to codify, result of informal training
intellectual capital
codified knowledge that exists in a company: ex. copyrights,patents,trade secrets
social capital
relationships in the company
customer capital
value of relationships with persons or other organizations: ex, brands, customer loyalty
cross training
training employees in a wide range of skills to fill any of the roles needed to be performed
subject matter expert
employees, academics, managers, technical experts, trainers who are knowledgeable with regard to any skill required for a successful job performance
crowd sourcing
asking a large group of employees to help provide information for needs assessment that they are not traditionally asked to do
benchmarking
using information about other companies’ training practices to help determine the appropriate type, level, and frequency of training
skill
competency in performing a task: reading and writing skills
ability
physical and mental capacities to perform a task
competency
Ability to properly perform a specific task ex: knowledge, skills, attitudes, values
locus of control
degree to which individuals make internal or external attributions about outcomes
internals
outcomes based on my own behavior, so the individual has control
externals
outcomes attributed to luck or actions of others
self efficacy
belief in one’s capability to perform a specific task
train ability
is a function of the individuals ability and motivation
transfer of training
trainees effectively and continually applying what they have learned in training to their jobs
generalization
trainees’s ability to apply what they learned to on the job work problems
maintenance
process of trainees continuing use what they learned over time
over-learning
trainees need to continue to practice even they have been able to perform the objective several times
process of social learning theory
attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivational processes, match modeled performance
discuss social learning theory
emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable,
the theory recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated,
learning new skills or behavior comes from:
Persons self efficacy can be increased
verbal persuasion
logical verification
observation of others
past accomplishments
Dominant Learning Types
Diverger
Assimilator
Converger
accomodator
Diverger
Concrete Experience
Reflective observation
assimilator
abstract conceptualization
reflective observation
converger
abstract conceptualization
active experimentation
accomodator
concrete experience
active experimentation
andagogy
theory of adult learning
theory of adult learning
adults have the need to know why they are learning something, need to be self directed,
expectancy
mental state that learner brings to the instructional process
perception
ability to organize the message from the environment so that it can be processed and acted upon
working storage
rehearsal and repetition of information occurs
semantic encoding
actual coding process of incoming messages
feedback
information to see how well people are meeting the training objectives
program design
organization and coordination of the training program
design document contains
purpose
goals
target audience
training time
method
number of participants
locations
prerequisite
problems and opportunities
instuctor
Learning sequence
stimulus situation
apprehension phase(learning)
acquisition
storage
retrieval (remembering)
performance
A lesson plan overview matches major activities of a training program and
specific times or time intervals
Which of the following statements is true of knowledge management?
Creating communities of practice and using “after-action reviews” at the end of each project facilitates knowledge management.
Explicit knowledge:
can be managed by a knowledge management system.
A lesson plan overview matches major activities of a training program and _____.
specific times or time intervals
If trainers in a firm want access to valuable information about the transfer of training problems that trainees encounter, they should typically use the _____.
electronic performance support system
A(n) _____ gets learners into the appropriate mental state for learning and allows them to understand the personal and work-related meaningfulness and relevance of course content.
concept map
The _____ job is to develop, implement, and link a knowledge culture with the company’s technology infrastructure, including databases and intranets.
chief learning officer’s (CLO)
The only way to deal with disruptive trainees is to ask them to leave the training session.
false
Giving trainees frequent breaks so that they can leave the room and return ready to start learning again is a good practice in training.
true
When a series of steps must be followed in a specific way to complete a task successfully, then training should be designed with an emphasis on far transfer.
false
Good at inductive reasoning, creating theoretical models, and combining disparate observations into an integrated explanation are learning characteristics of individuals in the _____ learning style.
assimilator
According to the _____, transfer will be maximized to the degree that the tasks, materials, equipment, and other characteristics of the learning environment are similar to those encountered in the work environment.
theory of identical elements
Behavior modification is a training method that is primarily based on _____.
reinforcement theory
_____ refers to the learner’s involvement with the training material and assessing their progress toward learning.
Self-regulation
Which of the following is an example of the internal conditions necessary for learning outcomes?
Recall of prerequisites, similar tasks, and strategies
In the learning processes, semantic encoding typically involves:
providing learning guidance to the learners.
The adult learning theory assumes that adults enter a learning experience with a subject-centered approach instead of problem-centered approach to learning.
false
The stimulus generalization approach emphasizes near transfer of training.
false
Individuals with a learning orientation find that errors and mistakes cause anxiety and thus want to avoid them.
false
In which of the following instances is training required for employees?
Employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform a job, but the other factors are satisfactory
In the process of developing a competency model, the job or position to be analyzed is identified after:
the business strategy and goals are identified.
Which of the following method of needs assessment is inexpensive and allows the collection of data from a large number of persons?
Questionnaire
In task analysis, the next step after selecting the job or jobs to be analyzed is to:
develop a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job by talking to those who have performed a task analysis
Which of the following statements is true of competency models?
Traditionally, needs assessment failed to focus on competencies.
Which of the following statements is true of needs assessment?
The role of the needs assessment process is to determine if training is the appropriate solution.
Which of the following is considered as a part of “input” in the process for analyzing the factors that influence employee performance and learning?
Social support
Work-group norms may encourage employees not to meet performance standards.
true
Pressure points such as changes in customer preferences or employees’ lack of basic skills do not necessarily mean that training is the right solution.
true
Job incumbents should be included as SME’s in the needs assessment process since they tend to be the most knowledgeable about the job.
true
Which of the following is an example of human capital?
Work-related competence
Team building, conflict avoidance, and change management are typically specialized by _____ professionals.
organizational development
_____ is a companywide effort to continuously improve the ways people, machines, and systems accomplish work.
Total quality management
Which of the following steps of the training design process involves person and task analysis?
Conducting needs assessment.
Companies separate training from the human resource function because it allows the training function to be decentralized.
true