Human Resource Management Exam 3 Chap 9-12

High-Performance Work System
The right combination of people, technology, and organizational structure that makes full use of the organization’s resources and opportunities in achieving its goals.
brand alignment
The process of ensuring that HR policies, practices, and programs support or are congruent with an organization’s overall culture (or brand), products, and services.
HR dashboard
A display of a series of HR measures, showing human resource goals and objectives and progress toward meeting them.
learning organization
An organization that supports lifelong learning by enabling all employees to acquire and share knowledge.
transaction processing
Computations and calculations involved in reviewing and documenting HRM decisions and practices.
cloud computing
The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the internet to store, manage, and process data.
continuous learning
Each employee’s and each group’s ongoing efforts to gather information and apply the information to their decisions in a learning organization
decision support systems
Computer software systems designed to help managers solve problems by showing how results vary when the manager alters assumptions or data.
HRM audit
A formal review of the outcomes of HRM functions, based on identifying key HRM functions and measures of business performance.
expert systems
Computer systems that support decision making by incorporating the decision rules used by people who are considered to have expertise in a certain area.
HR analytics
Type of assessment of HRM effectiveness that involves determining the impact of, or the financial cost and benefits of, a program or practice.
employee engagement
The degree to which employees are fully involved in their work and the strength of their job and company commitment.
performance management
The process through which managers ensure that employees activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals.
critical-incident method
Method of performance measurement based on managers’ records of specific examples of the employee acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective.
management by objectives (MBO)
A system in which people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals; these goals become the standards for evaluating each employee’s performance.
simple ranking
Method of performance measurement that requires managers to rank employees in their group from the highest performer to the poorest performer.
behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
Method of performance management that rates behavior in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance.
forced-distribution method
Method of performance measurement that assigns a certain percentage of employees to each category in a set of categories.
paired-comparison method
Method of performance measurement that compares each employee with each other employee to establish rankings.
graphic rating scale
Method of performance measurement that lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait; the employer uses the scale to indicate the extent to which an employee displays each trait.
mixed standard scales
Method of performance measurement that uses several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait.
behavioral observation scale (BOS)
A perfomance measurement method which uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task
organizational behavior modification (OBM)
A plan for managing the behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement.
360-degree performance appraisal
Performance measurement that combines information from the employee’s managers, peers, subordinates, self, and customers.
calibration meeting
Meeting at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating the influence of rating errors.
involuntary turnover
Turnover initiated by an employer (often with employees who would prefer to stay.)
voluntary turnover
Turnover initiated by employees (often when the organization would prefer to keep them.)
outcome fairness
A judgement that the consequences given to employees are just.
procedural justice
A judgement that fair methods were used to determine the consequences an employee receives.
interactional justice
A judgement that the organization carried out its actions in a way that took the employee’s feelings into account.
hot-stove rule
Principle of discipline that says discipline should be like a _____ , giving clear warning and following up with consistent, objective, immediate consequences.
progressive discipline
A formal discipline process in which the consequences become more serious if the employee repeats the offense.
alternative dispute resolution
Methods of solving a problem by bringing in an impartial outsider but not using the court system.
open-door policy
An organization’s policy of making managers available to hear complaints.
peer review
Process for resolving disputes by taking them to a panel composed of representatives from the organization at the same levels as the people in the dispute.
mediation
Nonbinding process in which a neutral party from outside the organization hears the case and tries to help the people in conflict arrive at a settlement.
arbitration
Binding process in which a professional arbitrator from outside the organization (usually a lawyer or judge) hears the case and resolves it by making a decision.
employee assistance program
A referral service that employees can use to seek professional treatment for emotional problems or substance abuse.
outplacement counseling
A service in which professionals try to help dismissed employees manage the transition from one job to another.
job withdrawl
A set of behaviors with which employees try to avoid the work situation physically, mentally, or emotionally.
role
A set of behaviors that people expect of a person in a particular job.
role ambiguity
Uncertainty about what the organization expects from the employee in terms of what to do or how to do it.
role conflict
An employee’s recognition that demands of the job are incompatible or contradictory.
role overload
A state in which too many expectations or demands are placed on a person.
job involvement
The degree to which people identify themselves with their jobs.
organizational commitment
The degree to which an employee identifies with the organization and is willing to put forth effort on its behalf.
job satisfaction
A pleasant feeling resulting from the perception that one’s job fulfills or allows for the fulfillment of one’s important job values.
role analysis technique
A process of formally identifying expectations associated with a role.
exit interview
A meeting of a departing employee with the employee’s supervisor and/or a human resource specialist to discuss the employee’s reasons for leaving.
job structure
The relative pay for different jobs within the organization.
pay level
The average amount (including wages, salaries, and bonuses) the organization pays for a particular job.
pay structure
The pay policy resulting from job structure and pay level decisions.
minimum wage
The lowest amount that employers may pay under federal or state law, stated as an amount of pay per hour.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
Federal law that establishes a minimum wage and requirements for overtime pay and child labor.
exempt employees
Managers, outside sales-people, and any other employees not covered by the FLSA requirement for overtime pay.
nonexempt employees
Employees covered by the FLSA requirements for overtime pay.
benchmarking
A procedure in which an organization compares its own practices against those of successful competitors.
job evaluation
An administrative procedure for measuring the relative internal worth of the organization’s jobs.
hourly wage
Rate of pay for each hour worked.
piecework rate
Rate of pay for each unit produced.
salary
Rate of pay for each week, month, or year worked.
pay policy line
A graphed line showing the mathematical relationship between job evaluation points and pay rate.
pay grades
Sets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay.
pay range
A set of possible pay rates defined by a minimum, maximum, and midpoint of pay for employees holding a particular job or a job within a particular pay grade.
pay differential
Adjustment to a pay rate to reflect differences in working conditions or labor markets.
delayering
Reducing the number of levels in the organization’s job structure.
skill-based pay systems
Pay structures that set pay according to the employees’ levels of skill or knowledge and what they are capable of doing.