Human Resource Management Chapter 8

What are the 3 main focuses of HR management:
1.) Attracting.
2.) Developing. (training)
3.) Retaining.
Why do people steal:
Because they need, there is opportunity, & rationalization.
The Six Elements of an Ethics and Compliance Program:
1.)Written standards of ethical workplace conduct.
2.) Training on standards.
3.) Company resources that provide advice on ethics issues.
4.) A process to report potential violations confidentially or anonymously.
5.) Performance evaluations of ethical conduct.
6.) Systems to discipline violators.
The process of providing employees w/ specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.
An effort to provide employees w/ the abilities the organization will need in the future.
Training VS. Development:
Training Development
————- ——————-
Focus Current job Current/future jobs
Scope Individual work group or
employees. organization.
Time Immediate Long term
Goal Fix current Prepare for future
skill deficit. work demands.
What are some questions to consider during the training process?
1.) Is training the solution to the problem
2.) Are training goals clear and realistic?
3.) Is training a good investment?
4.) Will the training work?
5.) Does training flow from the strategic goals of the organization?
Three phases of the training process:
1.) Needs assessment: used to determine what training is needed.
2.) Developing and conducting training: most appropriate type of training is designed and offered to the workforce.
3.) Evaluation: the training program’s effectiveness is assessed.
Needs assessment levels of analysis (3):
1.) organizational analysis: examines broad factors such as the organization’s culture, mission, business, climate, long and short term goals and structure.
2.) Task analysis: an examination of the job to be performed.
3.) Person analysis: determines which employees need training by examining how well employees are carrying out the tasks that make up their jobs.
What does KSA’s stand for?
knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform a job adequately.
How should you clarify training objectives?
1.) should be based on the assessment phase and should relate to one or more of the KSAs identified in the task analysis.
2.) state the objectives in terms of behaviors that can be observed and measured.
3.) the objectives should be challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all
4.) should be used to evaluate the training to assess its effectiveness.
on-the-job-training (OJT):
trainee works in the actual work setting, usually under the guidance of an experienced worker, supervisor, or trainer.
Examples of On the job training:
job rotation, apprenticeships, and internships are all forms of OJT.
Benefits to on the job training:
1.) knowledge gained will transfer directly to the job.
2.) spares the organization the expense of taking employees out of the work environment and usually the cost of hiring outside trainers.
Downfalls of on the job training:
1.) can be costly if trainee causes customer frustration.
2.) errors and damage to equipment can occur.
3.) Trainers might be top-notch in terms of skills but inadequate at transferring their knowledge to others.
The _______ and ______ of on the job training can vary substantially across organizations. This makes it difficult for employers to judge the _____ of a potential worker from another organization.
quality and content. & skill level.
When should you use off the job training?
when you need an uninterrupted period to conduct the training and you use an environment that is conducive to learning.
Benefits of off the job training?
1.) helps with distractions.
2.) might find teaching opportunities in a different environment.
Other ways to train new employees:
1.) slides/videotapes
2.) Skype
3.) computers
4.) simulations
5.) virtual reality (training a pilot)
Skills Training:
Specific steps taught. Trainer say’s here’s how you run a machine or run this office environment. Now you do it.
Job aids:
external sources the new trainee can refer to if they have forgotten specific steps.
Retraining provides the employees with the skills they need to keep pace with changing job requirements.
The Job Training Partnership Act (1982):
was set up by the federal government and gives block grants to states, which pass them on to local governments and private entities that provide on-the-job training and help people find jobs.
Cross Functional Training:
helps employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. It makes current workers more versatile and can help to add variety to their jobs.
Team Training:
1.) Content tasks training is focused on tasks that directly relate to a team’s goals.
2.) Group processes pertain to the way members function as a team (e.g. how they behave toward one another or how they resolve conflicts).
Other types of training:
1.) Literacy (continuing education)
2.) Diversity (cultural/sex differences)
3.) Crisis (ALICE)
4.) Ethics (clarify/implication of policies)
5.) Customer Service (meet customer needs and handle conflicts)
6.) Creativity (imaginative & practical)
Participants are given the opportunity to generate ideas openly, without fear of judgment.
What are four ways to brainstorm?
-Analogies and Metaphors
-Free Association
-Personal Analogy (individual trys to see themselves as the problem)
-Mind Mapping (generates topics/ draws lines to represent relationships.)
The evaluation phase:
1.) to get the reaction of the trainees about how they viewed the training.
2.) measure how much they learned by asking knowledge based questions.
3.) measure/observe their behavior after training to see if they have incorporated what they learned into their jobs.
4.) measure the changed behavior in financial terms and relate it back to the return on the investment of the training (ROI).
What is a valid defense for offering training to some groups and not others?
Job relevance.
to help new employees learn the organizational policies and procedures as well as the expectations the organization has for them.
1.) Anticipatory: when the applicants have a variety of expectations about the organization and job.
2.) Realistic job preview (RJP): best method. when the workplace clearly defines what the job is like.
3.) Encounter: when the new hire has started work and is facing the reality of the job.
4.) Settling in: when the new workers begin to feel like part of the organization.