HTH 458 – Ch. 11

Marketing
A set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers.
Types of marketing
-Social
-Commercial
Social Marketing
Attempts to change behavior for improved health or social outcomes.
Commercial Marketing
Is concerned with generating a financial profit
The basic idea
-Sellers (Program planners)
-Buyers/Market (Priority Population)
-Benefits offered by the product
Sellers
Have a product (program)
Buyers/Market
Want to purchase or obtain a product at their convenience.
Benefits offered by the product must be:
-Be greater than the cost to the consumer.
-Be important to, and of value to, the priority population.
-Be assessed for relevance.
Exchange
trading a product for a certain cost with minimal effort.
Example of exchange
-Goods
-Services
-Events
-Experiences
-Persons
-Places
-Properties
-Organizations
-Information
-Ideas
-Behaviors
Tangible product
specific item
Tangible price
money
Tangible measure of success
number of items sold
Tangible competition
other businesses offering the same or similar product
Tangible Decision
one time choice to buy product
Intangible product
behavior
Intangible price
time, effort, discomfort, etc.
Intangible measure of success
number of people who change behavior
Intangible competition
other behaviors that give more pleasure or satisfaction
Intangible decision
ongoing choices to do the behavior
Market needs
Determining the needs and desires of the present and prospective consumers.
Segmentation
a way to divide the priority population into smaller, more homogeneous, or similar groups
Segmentation allows planner to
meet the needs of the consumer, allowing for a greater chance of an exchange taking place.
Factors/variable used for segmentation
-demographics, geographics, geodemographics, lifestyle/psychographics, benefits sought, and behavioral (readiness to change, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors)
-most of the time, multiple are used to identify factors
All of the following should be based upon what is known about the priority population:
-Type of intervention
-How the intervention is offered
-How much the intervention will cost
-How the intervention will be promoted
Items that must be known about those in the priority population:
-How they see the world
-What makes them tick
-How they spend their time
-What is important to them
When deciding on what segments to focus, possible criteria include
measurable, substantial, accessible, differentiable, and actionable
measurable
how many people in each segment and can the factors be measured?
substantial
is the segment large enough and profitable enough to reach enough people to make a difference?
Accessible
can the segment be reached and services delivered?
Differentiable
are segments different enough that they will react differently to marketing strategies?
Actionable
can products be created to attract segments?
Diffusion theory
Provides an explanation for the diffusion of innovations (something new) in populations; or stated a little differently, it explains the pattern of adoption of the innovations.
Diffusion theory breaks the priority population into five groups
-Innovators
-Early Adopters
-Early Majority
-Late Majority
-Laggards
Innovators
-The first to adopt an innovation just bc they heard about it and wanted to be first.
-Venturesome, independent, risky, and daring.
-Are sometimes not respected by others in the social system.
-Make up 2-3% of the target population.
Early adopters
-Usually very interested in the innovation.
-Make sure others are involved to make sure innovation is good.
-Are respected by others in the social system.
-Make up 14% of the target population.
Early majority
-Need external motivation to become involved in the innovation.
-May deliberate for some time before making a decision.
-Make up 34% of the target population.
Late Majority
-Are skeptical.
-Will not adopt an innovation until most people in the social system have done so.
-Utilize peer programs or constant exposure.
-Make up 34% of the target population.
Laggards
-The very last group to get involved, or the people who never adopt an innovation.
-Very traditional in beliefs, suspicious, or have no interest in innovations.
-They have limited communication networks.
-Make up 16% of the target population.
marketing mix
What planners use to design interventions that will help achieve their objective
Marketing Mix 4 Ps
-Product
-Price
-Place
-Promotion
Product
what the planners are offering that will meet the consumer’s needs, make it easy and convenient to do behavior, and provide the benefit that consumers value.
Types of products
information, ideas, goods, services, events, and behaviors
Price
what is costs the priority population to obtain the product and its associated benefits
Barriers
keep people from responding to an intervention or doing a behavior
Types of prices
Barriers, behavioral, time, effort, physical, psychological/emotional, social
Place
where the priority population has access to the product
Promotion
what most people think of when they hear the word marketing. Communication strategy
Types of promotion
Internet, sales, public relations
Blending of 4 Ps
achieve the planners’ objectives
Brand
a name, term, design, symbol, or any feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
Program name
used to develop informative and persuasive communication flows between the providers of a program and those in the priority population.
Examples of promotion
-Exercise Interventions in Cancer Prevention and Survivorship
-After-School Interventions to Decrease Childhood Obesity in Charlottesville Youths
Promotion 4 primary purposes
1. Inform
2. persuade
3. reinforce
4. differentiate
Inform
increase product awareness or inform consumers
persuade
convince people to purchase the product
Reinforce
remind them that the product exists
Differentiate
position the product as being different from the competition
Continuous monitoring
Keeping clients satisfied and loyal after exchange has taken place.
Keys to Understanding the Marketing Process
-Understand the priority population
-Knowing how to segment the priority population
-Understand the diffusion theory
Understand the priority population made up of:
-Rationale
-Needs Assessment
-Cultural Competency
Importance of continuous monitoring
-Your program is your product.
-Pre-testing will help ensure your marketing mix is appropriate.
-Keeping existing customers is easier than trying to get new ones.
-Satisfied customers help with future marketing.
-Motivation is the key (Gather information as part of the needs assessment.)
-Ways to motivate: using contracts, social support, using media, using incentives, using contests, etc.