HRM Chapter 10-Performance Management and Appraisal

An effective performance management system must have all the following characteristics EXCEPT
a.
it must link organizational strategy to ultimate results.
b.
it must allow individual employees flexibility in how they will achieve ultimate results.
c.
it must translate organizational strategies into unit-level actions.
d.
it must assign unit-level actions to individual employees.
b.
it must allow individual employees flexibility in how they will achieve ultimate results.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a.
If ethical behavior were evaluated in a performance appraisal system and rewarded, employees would sometimes be rewarded for causing immediate or long-term financial losses to the organization.
b.
Performance appraisal systems are most effective when the behaviors evaluated are objectively measurable or observable. This is the main reason why most performance appraisal systems do not incorporate specific evaluations of the ethical aspect of employee performance.
c.
An organization’s ethical culture is independent of its performance management system.
d.
A performance-driven organization culture, especially one using management-by-objective performance appraisal, is incompatible with strict ethical standards for employee behavior.
a.
If ethical behavior were evaluated in a performance appraisal system and rewarded, employees would sometimes be rewarded for causing immediate or long-term financial losses to the organization.
____ is the process of determining how well employees do their jobs relative to a standard and communicating that information to the employee.
a.
Employee development
b.
Performance management
c.
Process improvement
d.
Performance appraisal
d.
Performance appraisal
Ultimately, performance management links organizational strategy to organizational
a.
culture.
b.
goal setting.
c.
rewards.
d.
results.
d.
results.
In order to translate organizational strategies in to employee behaviors that support these strategies, performance management systems use a variety of techniques at the individual employee level. These techniques include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
informing the employee of the expected performance levels.
b.
rewarding the individual employee based on his/her performance.
c.
ensuring that the individual employee is satisfied with his/her performance appraisal.
d.
providing feedback on individual employee performance.
c.
ensuring that the individual employee is satisfied with his/her performance appraisal.
In comparison to some Asian countries such as China and Japan, U.S.
a.
managers are brutally honest in communicating negative information to employees in performance appraisals.
b.
performance appraisal systems over-emphasize traits rather than behaviors.
c.
performance appraisal systems are based on fewer sources of information.
d.
managers tend to be so tactful in communicating performance decrements to employees that employees often do not know where they stand.
a.
managers are brutally honest in communicating negative information to employees in performance appraisals.
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding performance management in a global setting?
a.
Because human psychology is the same worldwide, a well-designed performance management system will work in any cultural setting.
b.
Business organizations in every culture include some type of formal performance feedback for employees.
c.
U.S.-style performance management systems are becoming more widely used overseas because of their effectiveness in increasing employee performance.
d.
U.S. companies may need to eliminate their performance management processes in certain countries.
U.S. companies may need to eliminate their performance management processes in certain countries.
Research has shown that performance-driven organizational cultures
a.
are based on eliminating differentiations among employees and commitment to equality of rewards for employees.
b.
is typically welcomed by employees when it is instituted in a formerly entitlement-based organizational culture.
c.
require behavior-based performance measures.
d.
tend to have significantly higher financial results compared with other types of organizational cultures.
d.
tend to have significantly higher financial results compared with other types of organizational cultures.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a.
Pay-for-performance systems do not work well for CEOs because most CEO performance is not objectively measurable.
b.
Performance-based pay systems for CEOs typically build in penalties for unethical behavior.
c.
Performance-based pay systems for CEOs are a key factor in an organization’s development of a performance-driven culture.
d.
Pay-for-performance systems do not work well for CEOs because organizational performance is strongly affected by economic factors beyond the CEO’s control
c.
Performance-based pay systems for CEOs are a key factor in an organization’s development of a performance-driven culture.
At SafeGreen, Inc., there is little variation in pay among employees within the existing job categories. Raises are essentially the same for average and excellent performers. Although performance appraisals are performed regularly, everyone views the process as paper-shuffling. The from the point of view of its performance appraisal system, the culture of SafeGreen, Inc., can best be described as
a.
entitlement-based.
b.
bureaucratic.
c.
performance-driven.
d.
equity-driven.
a.
entitlement-based.
At Evergreen Cosmetics, the top executive team’s bonus is based on the profitability of the firm. Each executive receives the same percentage bonus as the increase in profits over the previous year. This shows
a.
a lack of ambition on the part of the executive team.
b.
a disconnect between executive compensation and the compensation of regular employees.
c.
the pervasiveness of an entitlement culture even into top management ranks.
d.
executive commitment to performance management.
c.
the pervasiveness of an entitlement culture even into top management ranks.
The performance committee of Everyoung Physical Therapy Associates has identified: (1) the progress of the patient according to medical guidelines, (2) patient satisfaction, (3) meeting treatment deadlines, and (4) therapist presence at work as ____ upon which the committee will base the measure of physical therapist performance.
a.
job duties
b.
performance measures
c.
subjective criteria
d.
critical incidents
b.
performance measures
All of the following are common criteria of employee performance EXCEPT
a.
meeting deadlines.
b.
achieving quality standards.
c.
being present at work.
d.
acting in accordance with ethical principles.
d.
acting in accordance with ethical principles.
Essentially, ____ identify what the organization is paying an employee to do.
a.
performance measures
b.
job duties
c.
job qualifications
d.
expected performance levels
b.
job duties
15. Clementine Import-Export, Inc., has a language-proficiency test for its sales representatives in Latin America. Part of the test requires that sales representatives to be able to ask and answer in Spanish basic questions about prices, quantities, shipping dates and product characteristics. This performance standard can be classified as all of the following EXCEPT
a.
the standard trait-based.
b.
the standard is job-related.
c.
the standard is observable.
d.
the standard is non-numerical.
a.
the standard trait-based.
Not all of an employee’s job duties are equally important. Performance appraisal systems can best take this into account by
a.
using results-oriented performance measures for the most important duties and behavior-based or trait-based measures for the lesser-important duties.
b.
measuring performance only for the most important duties.
c.
using a critical incident method to measure employee performance.
d.
weighting the more important duties more highly than the less important duties.
d.
weighting the more important duties more highly than the less important duties.
One of the items on the performance appraisal form at Bioengineering Devices, Inc., is “The employee demonstrates creativity, inventiveness and openness to new ideas.” This can be considered ____ performance information.
a.
results-oriented
b.
behaviorally-based
c.
objectively observable
d.
trait-based
d.
trait-based
SafeCleanGreen, Inc., has used a ________ performance appraisal system for some 10 years. The company uses this for both administrative and development purposes. SafeCleanGreen has terminated Jerry, who belongs to a protected class, because of inadequate performance, especially on the “creative behavior” element of his performance. If Jerry sues the company for discrimination, the courts will likely be unfavorably disposed to SafeCleanGreen’s performance appraisal system.
a.
trait-based
b.
results-based
c.
behavior-based
d.
productivity-based
a.
trait-based
Results-based information, used for evaluating performance,
a.
is effective in promoting ethical behavior since lawsuits and regulatory fines are easy to measure.
b.
is difficult to use for most jobs since few jobs have observable and measurable results.
c.
is best used on a group or organization-wide basis since few individual employees have a direct effect on organizational success.
d.
may cause difficult-to-measure aspects of the work to be neglected by employees.
d.
may cause difficult-to-measure aspects of the work to be neglected by employees.
At a large on-line catalog retail company, supervisors randomly listen in on calls handled by customer representatives to make sure that the customers are greeted politely, orders are taken accurately, order details are repeated to the customer, and that customers are thanked for their orders. This is a ____ -based type of performance information.
a.
productivity
b.
trait
c.
results
d.
behavior
d.
behavior
Which of the following is true about using behavior-based information for evaluating job performance?
a.
The aim is to identify the one critical employee behavior which will lead to job success.
b.
In effect, behavior-based performance appraisal systems penalize employees who use unusual approaches to gain successful results.
c.
Behavior-based performance appraisal systems are the easiest to develop.
d.
Behavior-based information looks at what the outcomes the employee has achieved.
b.
In effect, behavior-based performance appraisal systems penalize employees who use unusual approaches to gain successful results.
The auditors in a public accounting firm are assigned to new project teams as their current projects end. Consequently, an auditor may work on one project for an entire year or the auditor may be assigned to several different shorter-term projects during a year. All of the following are behaviors that would be important to encourage through the performance appraisal system EXCEPT
a.
competitiveness.
b.
achievement orientation.
c.
initiative.
d.
information-seeking.
a.
competitiveness.
Michael, the owner of a moving company, has developed a performance appraisal system for his customer representatives and truck drivers. He evaluates each of these employees on accuracy of weight estimates, meeting delivery deadlines, and dollar value of breakage. Michael’s performance appraisal system is ____ based.
a.
trait
b.
results
c.
behavior
d.
productivity
b.
results
Counting the number of items a clerk scans per hour is be an example of a/an ____ measure of performance.
a.
quality
b.
subjective
c.
behavior-based
d.
objective
d.
objective
Performance measures are said to be ____ if they leave out some important job duties.
a.
subjective
b.
contaminated
c.
deficient
d.
biased
c.
deficient
One of the performance criteria for a sales representative who covers Saskatchewan as the sole Western Canadian representative is “relationship with co-workers.” This criterion results in a performance measure that is
a.
distorted.
b.
contaminated.
c.
deficient.
d.
objective.
b.
contaminated.
Higbee Farm Implements one location, a rural Iowa area. Higbee has been experiencing slow sales of tractors and other expensive large agricultural equipment such as combines over the last few years because of the low profitability of the farms in its sales region. In order to increase its profits by increasing the sales of equipment, Higbee has announced that the salesperson who writes the highest dollar volume in sales contracts will win an all-expense-paid trip to Hawaii for two for a month. Naturally, this has motivated the sales staff. What is the likely result of this contest?
a.
The Higbee sales staff will work together smoothly as a team to meet local farmers’ equipment needs.
b.
Higbee’s salespersons will pressure farmers to buy machinery they do not really need.
c.
Higbee’s system for measuring performance is contaminated.
d.
This is a “rank and yank” system and will result in Higbee’s sales staff becoming demoralized.
b.
Higbee’s salespersons will pressure farmers to buy machinery they do not really need.
____ define the level of performance that is expected by an employee.
a.
Job criteria
b.
Job expectations
c.
Performance standards
d.
Essential elements
c.
Performance standards
All of the following are potential performance measures for an insurance salesperson EXCEPT
a.
number of cold calls on potential clients per week
b.
materials cost per month
c.
number of direct client-service hours per month
d.
dollar amount of new contracts written per week
b.
materials cost per month
All of the following are common reasons why performance appraisal systems are ineffective EXCEPT
a.
managers lack the courage to tell subordinates they are performing inadequately.
b.
managers and subordinates collude to inflate performance appraisals.
c.
managers inflate evaluations to protect subordinates from being fired or losing promotions.
d.
managers use the performance appraisal system to achieve political goals.
b.
managers and subordinates collude to inflate performance appraisals.
Performance appraisals are widely used for all the following types of employees EXCEPT
a.
non-exempt employees.
b.
professional employees.
c.
managers in service industries.
d.
unionized production employees.
d.
unionized production employees.
The two general uses of performance appraisal, which are often in conflict, are
a.
salary administration and discipline.
b.
training and development.
c.
administrative and development.
d.
coaching and career planning
c.
administrative and development.
Which of the following best describes the manager’s role in the developmental aspect of performance appraisal?
a.
judge
b.
parent
c.
antagonist
d.
coach
d.
coach
Which of the following is an example of the administrative role of performance appraisal?
a.
identifying individual subordinate’s weaknesses to determine coaching needs
b.
measuring subordinate’s performance for making retention decisions during a layoff
c.
identifying the organization’s training needs
d.
communicating feedback to the employee
b.
measuring subordinate’s performance for making retention decisions during a layoff
What is the purpose of developmental feedback?
a.
to plan for the employee’s future opportunities inside the organization
b.
to motivate employees to perform at a higher level
c.
to compare individuals’ performance with once another
d.
to assure that employees know the reasons for changes in their compensation
a.
to plan for the employee’s future opportunities inside the organization
All of the following are developmental uses for performance appraisals EXCEPT
a.
selection of training seminars for a particular employee for the upcoming year.
b.
prioritizing employees for layoffs of various sizes.
c.
identification of jobs to which the employee could be promoted.
d.
counseling the employee in more effective interpersonal relations.
b.
prioritizing employees for layoffs of various sizes.
During the performance appraisal process, employees tend to focus on
a.
whether they will get a raise or not.
b.
the emotional content of their supervisor’s communications.
c.
their areas of weaknesses as shown by the performance appraisal.
d.
the suggestions for future development contained in the performance appraisal.
a.
whether they will get a raise or not.
If most employees in an organization consider their pay raises inequitable, even though the organization uses performance-based compensation, the most likely cause is that
a.
the majority of employees are poor performers.
b.
the organization has an entitlement culture.
c.
the work performed by the organization does not lend itself to objective performance appraisal.
d.
some part of the appraisal process has failed.
d.
some part of the appraisal process has failed.
As a vendor providing automated performance appraisal products, you would probably be able to promise purchasers of your system all of the following EXCEPT
a.
ease of use compared to manual performance appraisal systems.
b.
time savings compared to manual performance appraisal systems.
c.
aggregation of performance information.
d.
lower total costs compared to manual performance appraisal systems.
d.
lower total costs compared to manual performance appraisal systems.
Which of the following comments by a supervisor during an appraisal interview illustrates the development function of performance appraisal?
a.
Unless you are able to meet your quota next quarter, you will be terminated.
b.
How can I support your sales efforts better in the coming year?
c.
I am going to pair you with Alex for a month so that you can learn his technique in closing sales.
d.
Next year the dollar amount of contracts you must sell for an acceptable rating will be increased 10%.
c.
I am going to pair you with Alex for a month so that you can learn his technique in closing sales.
The main responsibility for conducting performance appraisals lies with
a.
HR specialists
b.
managers
c.
consultants
d.
top management
b.
managers
All of the following statements are true about team-based performance appraisal EXCEPT
a.
team performance appraisal is most effective in the administrative aspect of performance management.
b.
teams tend to avoid awarding individual team members larger or smaller pay increases based on performance.
c.
team members are often more familiar with a team member’s work performance than the supervisor is.
d.
team members may use the team performance appraisal as a way to attack other team members.
a.
team performance appraisal is most effective in the administrative aspect of performance management.
A/an ____ appraisal is conducted as part of the day-to-day working relationship between a manager and an employee.
a.
spontaneous
b.
systematic
c.
developmental
d.
informal
d.
informal
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding informal appraisals?
a.
Frequent informal feedback to employees can prevent surprises later when the formal evaluation is communicated.
b.
Well-done and frequent informal appraisals are more easily defended in court than traditional annual performance appraisals.
c.
Frequent informal performance appraisal can make an annual formal performance appraisal unnecessary.
d.
The day-to-day working relationship between a manager and an employee is disrupted by unscheduled informal appraisals, so these should be minimized.
a.
Frequent informal feedback to employees can prevent surprises later when the formal evaluation is communicated.
Performance appraisals at Swamp Blossom Designs, Inc., always occur on the employee’s anniversary of employment. A standard protocol is in place to report managerial impressions and observations on employee performance. This is an example of
a.
objective evaluation.
b.
subjective evaluation.
c.
systematic appraisal.
d.
informal appraisal.
c.
systematic appraisal.
In the typical division of appraisal responsibilities, the HR unit is responsible for
a.
rating performance of employees.
b.
designing and maintaining the formal system.
c.
reviewing appraisals with employees.
d.
providing regular informal appraisals.
b.
designing and maintaining the formal system.
In most companies and for most employees, the typical time period for formal performance appraisals is
a.
semi-annual.
b.
monthly
c.
annual
d.
continuous
c.
annual
At Decahedron Software, Inc., appraisals for non-technical employees are conducted annually. Technical employees receive evaluations every six months. This is probably because the technical employees
a.
have many job opportunities and semiannual evaluations allows for raises every six months as a retention tool.
b.
need more performance guidance from their managers than do non-technical employees.
c.
tend to be younger employees who require more intense management attention.
d.
have shorter developmental cycles than non-technical employees because technology changes so rapidly in the software industry.
a.
have many job opportunities and semiannual evaluations allows for raises every six months as a retention tool.
All of the following are requirements for performance appraisal supported by the courts and the EEOC EXCEPT
a.
performance criteria must be based on job analysis.
b.
appraisal activities must be documented.
c.
the rater must have personal knowledge of and contact with the appraised individual.
d.
performance criteria must be numerical and objective.
d.
performance criteria must be numerical and objective.
Why are job-related, non-discriminatory and documented performance appraisals necessary when organizations terminate employees?
a.
They help explain the connection between merit and seniority.
b.
They provide developmental information to the employees.
c.
They are a legal defense if employees sue over such decisions.
d.
They are an important input to the strategic planning process.
c.
They are a legal defense if employees sue over such decisions.
In order to lessen the conflict between the administrative and the developmental roles of performance appraisal, the recommended practice is to
a.
combine both types of feedback into the same appraisal interview, but deal with pay issues first as that is the employee’s primary concern.
b.
separate the administrative feedback and the developmental feedback into different interviews.
c.
have the employee’s manager deliver the administrative feedback, including pay information, and have HR staff address the developmental issues in a separate interview.
d.
communicate all feedback to the employee in writing two weeks before the appraisal interview so there will be no surprises during the interview.
b.
separate the administrative feedback and the developmental feedback into different interviews.
Lisa is a project manager for a large consulting firm. She supervises multiple project teams over a single year. Often, the teams work at distant locations, so Lisa rarely meets with every employee on each project team. Nevertheless, Lisa’s company requires her to conduct performance appraisals on each team member. Lisa is concerned that her performance appraisals will not hold up in court if the one of her subordinates later sues for discrimination. Lisa is correct to be concerned because in the present performance appraisal system
a.
one manager evaluates each employee.
b.
individuals are being evaluated even though they work on teams.
c.
the manager has little personal knowledge of and contact with the appraised individual.
d.
this type of evaluation is prima facie evidence of disparate impact.
c.
the manager has little personal knowledge of and contact with the appraised individual.
Traditional ratings of employees by supervisors is based on the assumption that
a.
employees are more receptive to criticism from their immediate supervisors than from other sources such as co-workers or managers who are not their direct supervisors.
b.
supervisors have regular day-to-day opportunities for informal appraisals.
c.
the supervisor is the person most qualified to evaluate the employee’s performance realistically and fairly.
d.
supervisors are more aware of their subordinates’ desires and goals than are other potential evaluators.
c.
the supervisor is the person most qualified to evaluate the employee’s performance realistically and fairly.
The vice-president of HR for Blue Horizon Mental Health is designing a performance appraisal system that includes subordinate ratings of their supervisors. The supervisors are concerned about this and have raised all of the following objections EXCEPT
a.
the supervisors are concerned that they will be rated on how nice they are to subordinates rather than on their true supervisory performance.
b.
the supervisors believe that employee feedback will be overly focused on objective performance criteria and not intangible leadership qualities.
c.
the supervisors are most opposed to using the evaluations for administrative purposes, although they are more open to using the evaluations for development purposes.
d.
the supervisors argue that subordinates will not want to give them negative feedback because of fear of reprisals.
b.
the supervisors believe that employee feedback will be overly focused on objective performance criteria and not intangible leadership qualities.
All of the following are reasons to have subordinates evaluate the performance of their supervisors EXCEPT
a.
compensation for managers tends to be more equitable when subordinates have input into these decisions.
b.
employee ratings can identify competent managers.
c.
when subordinates rate managers, managers become more responsive to their subordinates.
d.
subordinates can identify areas for growth for their managers.
a.
compensation for managers tends to be more equitable when subordinates have input into these decisions.
In which of the following situations would peer ratings be most appropriate?
a.
A group of salespeople meets monthly as a committee to talk about strategies for improving customer relations.
b.
The manager is too busy to meet with each subordinate for a formal appraisal interview.
c.
The members of the work group are highly cohesive and have strong friendships with one another.
d.
The supervisor manages a large geographical region and travels extensively, while the employees work with each other daily.
d.
The supervisor manages a large geographical region and travels extensively, while the employees work with each other daily.
Common difficulties with team appraisals include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
some employees may use the appraisal as an excuse to attack a team member.
b.
team members feel the supervisor is abdicating his/her responsibility to make tough decisions.
c.
team members may “go easy” on their colleagues to spare feelings.
d.
potential negative effects on teamwork.
b.
team members feel the supervisor is abdicating his/her responsibility to make tough decisions.
How can teams be useful in the appraisal process?
a.
Team members tend to be more objective in their ratings than are supervisors.
b.
Team members may have more opportunities to view an employee’s performance than does a supervisor.
c.
Team ratings are useful for development information because the anonymity of the evaluation makes the raters “brutally honest.”
d.
Teams are better able to allocate rewards based on merit than are supervisors.
b.
Team members may have more opportunities to view an employee’s performance than does a supervisor.
The HR director feels it is necessary for each individual employee to analyze his or her personal strengths and weaknesses and set concrete goals for improvement. Consequently, the HR director is designing a ____ program.
a.
facilitated appraisal
b.
self-appraisal
c.
team evaluation
d.
introspective analysis
b.
self-appraisal
An artist has been a visiting instructor at a noted art academy for three years. The academy’s process for moving a temporary/visiting instructor to regular faculty status is to have the artist’s portfolio of work examined by a panel of noted artists who are not affiliated with the academy. This is a version of a/an
a.
field review.
b.
external audit.
c.
body-of-work appraisal.
d.
team appraisal.
a.
field review.
“Multisource” rating, also called ____, recognizes that employee performance crosses departmental, organizational and, in some cases, global boundaries.
a.
team appraisal
b.
global rating
c.
field review
d.
360 feedback
d.
360 feedback
As director of HR, you have decided to implement a multisource rating system for employee performance. The employee population for which you will use this system numbers about 1,000, with an average of 15 employees in each work unit. Which of the following statements is likely to be TRUE?
a.
You will need to implement this as a Web-based system.
b.
This system will be most useful for making compensation decisions affecting employees.
c.
There will be fewer problems with rater bias because individual biases “wash out” statistically when there are multiple raters.
d.
Employees tend to rate co-workers more harshly than they rate themselves, so performance ratings will need to be adjusted for rating deflation.
a.
You will need to implement this as a Web-based system.
Brownbrass, Inc., has instituted a multisource rating system. The results will be used for both developmental and administrative purposes, such as compensation and promotion decisions. As an HR consultant hired by the organization, you can predict that
a.
there will be fewer legal issues with this system than with a supervisory rating system.
b.
the employees will view the multisource ratings as more valid than if they were rated only by their supervisors.
c.
there will be little variation in performance ratings across sources.
d.
the performance ratings will be inflated.
d.
the performance ratings will be inflated.
The 360 rating method appears to be less threatening to employees when it is used for ____ purposes.
a.
administrative
b.
customer relations
c.
development
d.
benchmarking
c.
development
The simplest methods for appraising performance are the
a.
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS).
b.
category scaling methods.
c.
comparative methods.
d.
written methods.
b.
category scaling methods.
Performance appraisal systems that combine information from team members and other employee “clients” to develop appraisals for individual employees are best used for ____ decisions.
a.
compensation
b.
developmental
c.
promotion
d.
disciplinary
b.
developmental
At High Flyer Airlines, managers rate their subordinates on a continuum from 1 to 7. A score of 1 indicates unsatisfactory performance, and a score of 7 indicates superior performance. High Flyer uses a ____ as its performance appraisal method.
a.
ranking system
b.
checklist
c.
multisource appraisal
d.
graphic rating scale
d.
graphic rating scale
All of the following statements are true about graphic rating scales EXCEPT
a.
graphic rating scales are easy to develop.
b.
separate traits or performance factors are sometimes grouped together which leads to inconsistency in how evaluators interpret the scale item.
c.
graphic rating scales can either use verbal or numerical scales.
d.
graphic rating scales require less rater training than other methods because the descriptive terms used carry widely-understood interpretations.
d.
graphic rating scales require less rater training than other methods because the descriptive terms used carry widely-understood interpretations.
Which of the following is characteristic of graphic rating scales?
a.
Descriptive words used may have different meanings to different raters.
b.
Graphic rating scales are difficult to develop.
c.
Raters typically try to place the same number of employees at each level of scale.
d.
Raters can use these scales without training because they are self-explanatory.
a.
Descriptive words used may have different meanings to different raters.
Phrases such as “Greeted customer within 10 seconds of customer’s entry into store,” and “Failed to greet customer until customer addressed employee,” would be typical of a ____ performance appraisal method.
a.
forced distribution
b.
a management by objectives
c.
behaviorally-anchored rating scale
d.
ranking
c.
behaviorally-anchored rating scale
Statements that describe both desirable and undesirable employee behaviors on a numerical scale are called
a.
critical incidents.
b.
categorical descriptions
c.
MBO targets
d.
anchors.
d.
anchors.
What is the first step in constructing behavioral scales?
a.
determining a “standard of excellence” for each job dimension
b.
identifying the most important performance factors in an employee’s job description
c.
assessing the performance of the current job holder(s)
d.
specifying the performance goals that each employee must meet within stated time deadlines.
b.
identifying the most important performance factors in an employee’s job description
Comparative methods of rating
a.
are most acceptable to employees when they are applied to administrative decisions rather than to developmental decisions.
b.
can either be statistically-based (such as forced distribution) or simply rankings of each employee against his/her co-workers.
c.
are useful for small groups because the results can be statistically adjusted for small numbers.
d.
are preferred by managers because the results are easy to explain to subordinates.
b.
can either be statistically-based (such as forced distribution) or simply rankings of each employee against his/her co-workers.
Karl handles the HR duties in a small commercial bakery of only 16 employees. Nine of these employees are bakery assistants with the same job duties. Karl has decided to make a list of the bakery assistants placing the best employee at the top and the worst employee at the bottom, with the other bakery assistants placed in between according to how they compare with the best and the worst employees. He is fairly satisfied that this system will work for his small company. Karl is using the ____ system.
a.
checklist
b.
graphic rating scale
c.
ranking
d.
forced distribution
c.
ranking
Cheryl, a branch manager at Prairie Ridge Bank, is upset that all the tellers in the various branches will be evaluated by the ranking system. The tellers’ raises will be determined by their ranking, and the worst-ranked teller in each branch will be terminated. Cheryl has many concerns about using the ranking method, and she has an appointment with the executive vice president of HR to present her arguments. All of the following are concerns she will raise EXCEPT
a.
the size of the difference in performance among individuals is not defined in the ranking method.
b.
Cheryl’s worst performing employee may be better than another branch manager’s average performing employee.
c.
It will be too difficult for Cheryl to distinguish between her best and worst performers.
d.
There are 17 branches and the ranking system will be too unwieldy to use for so many groups.
c.
It will be too difficult for Cheryl to distinguish between her best and worst performers.
Neil, the director of HR for a paper mill, has found that the supervisors in the company give very generous and lenient appraisals to their subordinates, and it is difficult to determine from these appraisals which employees deserve pay raises more than others. Neil has decided to implement a ____ approach to performance appraisal to address this problem.
a.
graphic rating scale
b.
management-by-objectives
c.
forced distribution
d.
peer evaluation
c.
forced distribution
The assumption that the performance of employees in a department correspond to the classic “bell shaped curve” is essential to the ____ method of performance appraisal.
a.
ranking
b.
forced distribution
c.
critical incident
d.
statistical
b.
forced distribution
Of the following performance appraisal systems, the ones most likely to be the subject of a discrimination lawsuit is/are
a.
the forced distribution system.
b.
systems based on critical incidents.
c.
systems using behaviorally-anchored rating scales.
d.
systems using numerical measures of performance.
a.
the forced distribution system.
You are the director of HR for a medium-sized regional utility company. Your CEO attended a speech by Jack Welch, and now she wants to implement his “differentiation” performance appraisal system in the company. This system is similar to ranking and forced distribution. You have some concerns about the appropriateness this system because
a.
this system works best in unionized workplaces and your company is nonunion.
b.
this system can be applied to managerial jobs, but not to non-managerial jobs.
c.
the performance measures in this system tend to be both contaminated and deficient.
d.
forced distribution systems have been subjects of discrimination lawsuits.
d.
forced distribution systems have been subjects of discrimination lawsuits.
All of the following are recommendations for making a performance appraisal system more effective and more defensible legally EXCEPT
a.
the use of specific, objective criteria and standards.
b.
involve employees in planning and designing the program.
c.
train managers and review their ratings to ensure favoritism is not involved.
d.
use multisource methods of performance appraisal.
d.
use multisource methods of performance appraisal.
In the ____ method, the manager keeps a written record of both highly favorable and unfavorable actions in an employee’s performance during the entire rating period.
a.
checklist
b.
paired comparisons
c.
essay
d.
critical incident
d.
critical incident
The manager of a automotive repair shop keeps a logbook in which she records both especially good and especially poor actions of the mechanics. The manager is using the
a.
essay.
b.
forced distribution method.
c.
BARS method.
d.
critical incident method.
d.
critical incident method.
Management-by-objectives is best for
a.
reducing interrater reliability problems.
b.
linking individual performance to organizational goals.
c.
minimizing instrument development time.
d.
evaluating non-exempt employees.
b.
linking individual performance to organizational goals.
____ specifies the performance goals that an individual and his or her manager agree to try to attain within an appropriate length of time.
a.
Performance counseling
b.
Strategic performance management
c.
The critical incident technique (CIT)
d.
Management by objectives (MBO)
d.
Management by objectives (MBO)
The key factor underlying the management by objectives approach is that
a.
the manager and subordinate work together to develop the goals.
b.
the manager has close and daily access to the subordinate in order to monitor his/her progress.
c.
the goals are subjective and intangible.
d.
the goals will push the subordinate to the very highest limits of his/her abilities.
a.
the manager and subordinate work together to develop the goals.
Of the following steps in the development of an MBO performance appraisal system, _____________ falls earliest in the process.
a.
continuous performance discussions between the subordinate and the supervisor.
b.
setting objectives for individual employees based on organizational objectives.
c.
developing accurate job descriptions
d.
devising performance standards
c.
developing accurate job descriptions
Of the types of employees listed below, the management by objective process would work best for
a.
assembly line employees at a commercial bakery.
b.
commercial loan officers in a national bank.
c.
police dispatchers at in an urban police department.
d.
emergency room physicians.
b.
commercial loan officers in a national bank.
Which of the following is FALSE?
a.
Narrative methods and MBO work better for higher-level jobs than for lower-level jobs.
b.
Category scaling methods are not helpful in measuring strategic accomplishments of employees.
c.
The MBO method takes quite a bit of time to define expectations and explain the process to employees.
d.
It is important to use only one type of performance appraisal method for each category of employee.
d.
It is important to use only one type of performance appraisal method for each category of employee.
The training of raters should center on minimizing rater errors and
a.
documenting performance information.
b.
communicating ratings to subordinates.
c.
counseling subordinates to improve performance.
d.
identifying essential performance criteria.
a.
documenting performance information.
Alvin, a sales representative for a company making industrial solvents, lost a major customer last month. Until then, Alvin’s year has been about average in the dollar amount of sales. Early in the year, Alvin brought in two new customers of about the size of the customer he lost last month. Alvin’s supervisor gives Alvin an unsatisfactory rating in his annual performance appraisal. It is likely that Alvin’s supervisor has committed the ____ error.
a.
contrast
b.
strictness
c.
recency
d.
primacy
c.
recency
A ____ is committed when an appraiser rates all employees as average.
a.
contrast error
b.
central tendency error
c.
generalization error
d.
leniency error
b.
central tendency error
Curtis supervises a large number of clerical employees. Several of his female subordinates have had babies this year. Curtis has taken this into account when conducting the performance appraisals of these subordinates, because he knows that new mothers are frequently sleep-deprived and that this can negatively affect their accuracy and performance levels. Curtis raises these employees’ evaluations higher than what they would have objectively been otherwise. Curtis has committed the error of
a.
leniency.
b.
similar to me.
c.
contrast.
d.
varying standards.
d.
varying standards.
Ambrose was rated as having average performance levels when he worked in the design department of the Midwestern region of the company. Last year Ambrose was transferred to the Northeastern region where he holds the same job. Although Ambrose’s production numbers have been consistent, he has been rated as an outstanding performer this year. It is most likely that Ambrose’s varying performance appraisals have been affected by the ____ error.
a.
central tendency
b.
primacy
c.
halo
d.
contrast
d.
contrast
During the appraisal interview with a poor-performing subordinate, the manager should NOT
a.
focus on future development issues because the performance being evaluated is in the past.
b.
insist on the subordinate’s agreement with the negative evaluation.
c.
consider his or her own role in the subordinate’s poor performance.
d.
allow the subordinate to respond to negative feedback
b.
insist on the subordinate’s agreement with the negative evaluation.
Glenda was transferred into her current department in October. In December, Glenda is required to evaluate her subordinates’ performance. Glenda’s ratings are likely to be affected by
a.
central tendency error.
b.
the varying standards effect.
c.
similar to me error.
d.
sampling error.
d.
sampling error.
An appraisal interview technique that encourages employees to identify their own performance deficiencies is termed a/an ____________ approach.
a.
self-auditing
b.
confessional
c.
introspective
d.
analytic
a.
self-auditing
In order for employee performance data to be evaluated as evidence of good or poor performance,
a.
it is necessary for performance standards to be developed.
b.
the performance data must be quantifiable.
c.
a specific action plan for performance improvement must result.
d.
multiple sources of performance data must be combined.
a.
it is necessary for performance standards to be developed.
The performance appraisal interview is a type of feedback system. The components of a feedback system include all of the following EXCEPT
a.
evaluation of data.
b.
data.
c.
acceptance of the evaluation as fair.
d.
action based on the evaluation.
c.
acceptance of the evaluation as fair.
George supervises the work of 15 subordinates. These individuals are in a state-subsidized work program for the chronically-unemployed that is intended to help them learn good work habits and job skills that will allow them to move into jobs in the local economy. George is required to appraise his subordinates’ performance each month. George
a.
should focus on positive feedback because these employees may have a low sense of self-efficacy and will be discouraged by negative feedback.
b.
must keep in mind that his performance appraisal may negatively affect the employee’s ability to continue in this work program and the employee’s ability to actually earn a living in the future.
c.
must emphasize the performance shortfalls of the employees so that they understand the competitive, win/lose environment they will be in when they get jobs in the local economy.
d.
owes each of these employees a true picture of his/her performance, no matter how difficult the conversation may be or how difficult the employee is.
d.
owes each of these employees a true picture of his/her performance, no matter how difficult the conversation may be or how difficult the employee is.
George is a supervisor of 15 employees. Because the company pays wages lower than the average in the locality, many of George’s subordinates have substandard skills and poor work habits. George views his department as a training ground, where low-quality workers have the opportunity to become higher-quality workers. Consequently, George takes the approach that performance appraisal
a.
should show his subordinates how they would compare with employees in a higher-quality organization as well as how they are meeting the expectations of their current employer.
b.
in this situation is best used as a tool to develop substandard employees into more valuable resources.
c.
should be a meeting of the minds between himself and the subordinate he is appraising where both agree on the performance appraisal.
d.
is best used as a disciplinary tool to focus workers’ attention on the performance standards required.
b.
in this situation is best used as a tool to develop substandard employees into more valuable resources.