Human Resource Management (HRM)
management of an organization, work force, or human resources.
hardest asset to be managed.
Responsibilities of HRM (4)
1. Attraction – recruitment, application
2. Selection – exam, interview
3. Assessment -evaluation; to know if they are applying their job description to their job specification
4. Rewarding – consist of 2
a. Monetary – additional pay/bonus
b. Benefits – promotion

-also overseeing organizational leadership with employment and labor laws.

Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA)
Agreement between employees and employers.
HRM Function
HRM is to function within an organization that focuses on recruitment or management of and providing direction to people who work in the organization.
Holidays and Overtime Pay
Special Holidays – 30%
Regular Holidays – 100% (double pay)
Overtime – beyond 8 hours, minimum of 1 hour, 25%
of basic salary
Job Analysis
procedure used for determining or collecting information in relation to the operations and responsibility of a specific job. Consisting of job description and job specification.
Job Description
is to establish a level of difficulty for a specific position for the purpose of establishing payments or wages; it describes the job tasks.
Job Specification
a written explanation of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary for effective performance of a given job; qualification.
group of positions that are similar in their duties.
series of work element that produces output.
Uses of Job Analysis (8)
1. For the preparation of job description and the writing of job specification
2. For recruitment and selection of applicant
3. Determining the rate of compensation (salary/wages, mental is higher than physical)
4. Performance appraisal; evaluation
5. Training
6. Career planning and development
7. Safety
8. Labor relations
Methods used in Job Analysis (4)
1. Interview – conversation with the applicant, personnel; direct communication
2. Observation
3. Questionnaire
4. Employee records
Contents of Job Description (8)
1. Date Written
2. Job Status – composed of 4
a. contractual, seasonal, there is due date
b. probationary, 6 months you become regular
c. full time
d. part time
3. Job Identification – dept, division, information
4. Job Summary – brief description about the job; it covers most important description
5. Working relationship, responsibilities, and duties performed
6. Authority of incumbent – telling supervisor
7. Competency requirement
8. Educational Attainment – special skills, working conditions, location of the job, characteristics of the job
Contents of Job Specification (4)
1. Technical Requirements – educational attainment, work experience, training/seminars
2. Interpersonal Requirements – i.e. willing to work outside of the Phils.
3. Educational Requirements
4. Knowledge, skills, and abilities
Recruitment Process (4)
1. Formulating a recruitment strategy – basis is internal or external hiring
2. Searching for job applicants – involves two methods
a. traditional recruitment method – through media, newspapers, magazines, campus recruitment, billboards
b. modern recruitment method – through the internet
c. screening applicants – eliminating individuals who are not qualified for the position
d. maintaining an applicant pool – reserve applicants; individuals who have expressed an interest in pursuing a job
Recruitment Stages (3)
1. Defining requirements – recreation of job description and specification
2. Attracting potential employees – through compensation (salary and benefits)
3. Selecting appropriate people for the job – internal and external sources
Different Parts of a Resume’ (7)
1. Name, address, contact info
2. Job objective
3. Personal background
4. Educational attainment
5. Special skills
6. Work experience
7. Reference (at least 3 people, name, address, contact info)
Important Things to Consider in the Selection Process (6)
1. Performance always depends in part on the employees – basis is through their employees
2. It is costly to recruit and hire employees
3. Company objectives are better achieved by workers who have been properly selected
4. An incompetent worker is a liability to the company
5. Applicants have the degree of intelligence, attitudes, and abilities
6. Labor laws protect employees, making it difficult to terminate or dismiss an incompetent employee
Steps in the Selection Process (8)
1. Review of the application form – initial or primary screening
2. Employment interview – 2 methods
a. unstructured – questions are based on the resume’
b. structured – questions are uniform or the same for all applicants
3. Employment testing – 4 types
a. test of cognitive abilities – includes the general reasoning and specific mental abilities
b. test of motor and physical abilities – strength and stamina testing
c. measuring personality and interest – interests and character questions
d. achievement test – proficiency test, training then test
4. Background investigation and reference – personal, education, employment
5. Final interview
6. Selection decision
7. Physical exam
8. Placement on the job
Major Purpose of HRM (4)
1. Acquisition – job analysis, recruitment, selection, and placement
2. Development – training and development, performance, and coping with changing technology
3. Maintenance – wage, salary, benefits, and services, labor relations, collective bargaining, discipline and complaints
4. Utilization – human resource planning and career development
– is an attempt to improve performance by the specific skills.
– considered as an investment to the company
– upgrading; motivation
– it provides employees border learning which maybe utilized in a variety of settings and for future jobs.
– is a procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the organization, culture, and the job.
– refers to a new employee learning the standards and norms, values, goals, work procedures and the pattern of behavior that are expected by the organization.
2 Types of Orientation
1. Overview orientation/Organizational orientation – overview of the company key policies and procedures, compensation, benefits, safety and accident prevention, employees and union relations, and the physical facilities.
2. Departmental and Job Specific orientation – topics about the department function and the duties and responsibilities of the newly hired employees, policies and procedures, rules and regulations, tour of the department, and introduction to department employees.
6 Objectives of Training and Development
1. It improves the quality and quantity of productivity.
2. Effectiveness in the present job.
3. Create more favorable attitudes, loyalty, and cooperation.
4. Help employees in their personal development and by helping them acquire additional qualifications.
5. Help the organization respond to dynamic market condition and changing consumer demands.
6. Safety of human resources planning requirements.
3 Competitive Challenges
1. Global challenge
2. Quality challenge – TQM
3. High performance work system challenge – Technology
5 Training and Development Process
1. Training need analysis or need assessment – has 5 methods:
a. Interviews – conducted by the HR specialist
b. Survey questionnaire
c. Observation – monitoring the work of employees
d. Focus group – determine the skills and knowledge needed by the employees
e. Documentation examination – measure those absenteeism
2. Designing training programs – has 3 categories:
a. Instructional objective – principles, concepts, facts
b. Organizational and department objectives – absenteeism, tardiness, how to improve productivity, who to reduce the cost
c. Individual and growth objective – forum
3. Validation – introduce the training program to your participants
4. Implementation – training itself
5. Evaluation – open forum; has 4 methods:
a. Reaction
b. Learning
c. Behavior – to evaluate behavior; statistical analysis; evaluate after 6 months
d. Results – level of improvement in their performance
2 Kinds of Training Methods
1. Traditional method – consists of 4:
a. Hands on method – refers to training methods that requires the trainee to be actively learning, ex. OJT, role playing, team building
b. Apprenticeship training – provides beginning work comprehensive training in the practical and the size of work required in a highly skilled occupation, ex. pilot, co-pilot, apprentice
c. Simulated training – the trainee learn the job in the environment that serves as a real office
d. Off the job training – give you a questionnaire, ex. lecture, discussion, audio visual technique, seminar

2. Technological method – consists of 3:
a. Multimedia training – combination of computer based and audiovisual training
b. Computer based training – all the learning materials by the computer
c. Virtual reality – the trainee, through 3D

Performance Appraisal/Performance Review
– is the HRM activity by which through observation in the workers efficiency is appraised during a given period of systematic uniform performance standard.
7 Objectives of Performance Appraisal/Performance Review
1. Provides information upon which promotion, transfer, demotion, discharge, and salary decision can be made.
2. Provides an opportunity for the supervision and subordinates review and identify the strengths and weaknesses of his subordinates.
3. Basis in identifying training needs of employees.
4. Help the firm career planning process cause it provides a good opportunity to review the career plans.
5. For easy monitoring and supervision.
6. Help to evaluate individuals in achieving the organization rules.
7. Provides information to evaluate effectiveness of selection and placement decision.
3 Performance Criteria
1. Relevance – appraised your employees through duties and responsibilities.
2. Freedom from contamination – away from economic condition; poor equipment; raw material shortage.
3. Reliability – evaluation
3 Sources of Data under the Appraisal
1. Production Data – quantity and quality of performance
2. Personal Data – absenteeism, tardiness
3. Judgement of others – from other people or co-employees
2 Performance Appraisal Methods
1. Multiple Person Evaluation Method
2. Individual Evaluation Method
3 Multiple Person Evaluation Methods
1. Ranking method – arrangement from highest to lowest
2. Pair comparison – evaluator asks one question to two individuals or do the same task
3. Force distribution – giving performance
10 Individual Evaluation Methods
1. Graphic rating scale – very good, outstanding
2. Critical Incident method – quality then there is a checklist
3. Checklist and weighted checklist – weighted average, checking, pointing system
4. Behaviorally anchored rating scale – behavior
5. Management by objectives (MBO) – method of performance appraisal by which management and subordinates plan, organize, control, communicate, and to jointly established specific measurable goals and periodically provides feedback.
6. Narrative essay – permits connecting on the employees unique characteristics (abnormal); time consuming
7. Multi-rater/360 degree feedback
8. Visual 360 – software
9. 360 Performance appraisal computer system – producing of high level self knowledge
10. Work standard approach
6 Steps of Management by Objectives (MBO)
1. Set the organizational goals.
2. Set departmental goals.
3. Discuss the goal to all employees.
4. Define expected results.
5. Performance reviews
6. Provide feedback