Horticulture IPM

What is the biological control of plants pests?
using living natural organisms or material for control of plant pests and the oldest pest control method
Crop rotation can help control some soil diseases and some insects. To be effective rotations should be..
three or four years long
Baciullus Thruingiensis is a biological control agent that will control..
most caterpillars
why is it important to know the life cycle of a pest in order to effectively control it?
so we can figure out when the best time is to control the pest
Why is it so important to be looking to natural pest control at this time?
to save money, avoid poisoning the environment, and to produce chemical free crops.
What is the first step in selecting a pesticide?
Identify the pest
What are the three routes by which pesticides can enter the body?
oral, dermal, and inhalation
Acute toxicity is a measure of how poisonous a pesticide is after ( ) exposure.
single
Chronic toxicity is a measure of how poisonous a pesticide is after ( ) exposure.
repeated
The more poisonous a pesticide, the (higher, lower) the LD50 number is.
lower
Stomach poison insecticides work best on what?
chewing insects
An example of inorganic insecticide is?
sulfur
Systemic insecticides are most effective in killing insects that feed by what?
sucking and chewing
Insecticides that remain active in the environment for the longest period of time are what?
chlorinated hydrocarbons
The insecticides that are the most toxic to human beings are the what?
organophosphates
Fungicides are chemicals used to control what?
plant rust disease, fungus diseases, and plant mildew
fungus diseases are spread by small reedlike structures called what?
spores
Fungicides cause a protective film to coat plant leaves and….
kill the fungus spore before it can enter the plant cell
A weed is a plant that is….
growing where it is not wanted
Weeds can be controlled without the use of herbicides by what?
Hand weeding and cultivation, mulches and cultivation of crop, or hoeing and weeding.
The herbicide 2, 4-D controls the serious weed problem cause by what?
dandelions
Post emergence application of an herbicide means that the chemical is applied when?
after the crop is up
herbicides kill plants how?
preventing photosynthesis, upsetting cell division and respiration, and preventing seed germination.
the three different times for applying weed killers are what?
preplant, preemergence, and postemergence
What is integrated pest management?
how to reduce pest damaging with the least disruption
What happens in the first phase of IPM?
Nonchemical, pest identification, monitoring, and see if thresholds exceed
What happens in the second first of IPM?
biological, evaluate all possible control measure and choose the one that has the least impaction to the environment
A key component to an IPM program is what?
regular monitoring
What is the relationship between the EIL and the action threshold?
AT is lower than EIL at 80%, this allows a buffer
If the number of pests exceed the AT what control methods should be used first? second? third?
Cultural/mechanical, biological, lastly chemical
if the number of pests does not exceed the threshold what actions are taken?
continuing monitoring the pest
Examples of cultural pest control
crop rotation, erosion, proper plant spacing, and management techniques to control pest
Examples of biological pest control
gmos, trap cropping, predator, and natural pesticide
Examples of chemical pest control
timing and pesticide selection
Why does crop rotation work as a pest management strategy?
different crops have different pests and it disrupts the life cycle
What is the different between biotic and abiotic?
abiotic- nonliving, non infectious, caused by nonliving harmful thing
biotic- living, infectious, caused by pest, insect, fungus, or virus
What are inorganic compounds?
mineral organism/stomach poison
What are organic compounds?
derived from plant/stomach poison/ contact
What are synthetic organic compounds?
toxic to human
Which synthetic organic pesticide stays in the environment for the longest?
chlorinated hydrocarbons
Which synthetic organic pesticide is the most toxic?
Organophosphates
What is the difference between an organic pesticide and a synthetic organic pesticide?
Organic- can be denied from plant
syn- they break down rapidly
How does a systemic pesticide work?
poison in sap and the pests suck the juice
How are polymers being used in IPM?
they are initially applied to keep in moisture (cultural)
How do farmers prevent slugs from eating their crops?
gentile compaction of ground after seeding
What is DDT and what problems did it cause? d
it doesn’t break down and it is a type of synthetic organic compounds called chlorinated hydrocarbons
what problem is the herbicide atrazine causing in frogs?
Atrazine is thought to change testosterone to estrogens causing male frogs to female characteristics
If chemicals are used to control pests, how are they applied?
small areas, apply early/ use least toxic
What the two major benefits of using less chemical pesticides?
it protects the environment and it is cost effective
What is biological pest control?
the oldest pest control; natural enemies or natural substances
What are 6 examples of biological control?
plant resistance, produce agents that kill, eat pest, plant chemicals that are toxic, parasitizing insects, and compete for food
Why use biological pest control? (6 reasons)
cost effective, insects are resistant, chemicals getting into water, environmental friendly, human health hazard, and EPA restricting use of pesticides
What are the 5 requirements for a pesticide?
kills or control pest, doesn’t injure plant, least harmful to environment, suitable for use with available equipment, and label recommends its use for plant and pest
What is LD50 and LC50
LD50 is acute oral and LC50 is acute inhalation
What does EPA stand for?
environmental protection agency
define insect
animal with three body region and three pairs of legs
what is stomach poison?
poison plant and pest eats it (rotenone)
What are contact poisons?
animal gets stuck on plant; not consumed (malathion)
What are systemic poisons?
poison in sap (orthene) (most popular)
What are fumigants
gases that kill pest when breathed
What are repellents?
drives pest away (aluminum foil)
What are attractants and pheromones?
lures insect to their death ( japanese beetle and gypsy moth)
What are chlorinated hydrocarbons?
long residual control/ accumulate in warm blooded animals
What are organophosphates?
controls pest/ toxic to warm blooded animals
What are carbatmates?
breaks down rapidly (2 to 7 days)
What are the two types of herbicides and what do they do?
Nonselective- kills all plants
Selective- kills only certain plants with certain characteristics (monocot or dicot)
What is atrazine?
prevents photosynthesis and kills broad lear and grass
What is 2,4-D?
upsets cell division, respiration and food reserves (dicot)
What is Dacthal?
controls animal grasses; prevents seeds from sprouting
What is preplanting?
herbicide mixed in or spread on soil
what is preemergence?
put down on any plants; after planting but prior to weed growth
What post emergence?
chemical applied to root; after crops and weeds have sprouts
Why herbicides sometimes fail…
incorrect selection, mature of weed, excess rain, or soil type and amount of organic matter
How does the corn borer harm the crop?
it extracts the nutrients and moisture of the corn
Will the new GM variety of corn kill all corn borers?
lethal to 90%
Why isn’t the GM variety not effective on the other 10%?
the corn DNA varies with the plant
What is the green revolution?
development of technology?
what is the biological revolution?
change over time of the research of the science research
What is the action threshold?
the predetermined level at which pest control is needed; usually 80% of EIL
What is biodegradable?
capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms
Insect growth is affected by what two main factors?
time and temperature
Why do insects require a certain amount of heat to develop through their lifecycle?
to develop from 1 stage to another
Define minimum developmental threshold
temp below which insect development is negligible
Define maximum developmental threshold
temp at which insect growth stops
Developmental thresholds are (the same or different) for all insects
different
The amount of heat required by an organism to complete its development is known as what?
physiological time
What are degree day measures?
insect growth and development in response to daily temps
Why/ how degree days are used in IPM?
They allow us to predict when significant biological events may occur
What is the degree day formula?
max temp+ min temp/2 – minimum threshold
How do pest cause injury?
damage plant parts, compete for space and nutrients, reduce quality of crops, and increase production cost
What is the EIL?
The lowest population density of a pest that will cause economic damage
What caused the need for IPM?
Invasive species
when are conditions favorable for pest occurrence?
spring, summer, and good conditions
If pests are identified do you automatically implement curative treatments?
no you have to maintain environmental integrity
Define chemical control
using pests and chemicals to exterminate the pest