HM406 Chapter 10

motivation p.306
the inner striving conditions (wishes, desires and drives) that activate or move a person
process of motivation p. 306
needs > drives or motives > achievement of goals
needs (process of motivation) p. 306
produce motives that lead to the accomplishment of goals or objectives.
caused by deficiencies that may be physical or psychological
physical needs (innate or primary needs)- food, water, shelter
psychological needs (acquired needs)- esteem, affection, power
motive p.306
something that prompts a person to action
“whys of behavior”
maintain activity and determine the general direction of an individuals behavior
achievement of the goal in the motivation process satisfies the need and reduces the motive
positive motivation p.306
driving force toward some object or condition
negative motivation p.306
driving force away from some object or condition
positive goal p.306
desirable and the object of directed behavior
negative goal p.306
undesirable and behavior is directed away from it
goals depend on p.306
an individuals subjective experience, physical capacity, prevailing norms and values, and the potential accessibility of the goal
individuals perception also influence goals
behavior when goals/needs are blocked p.307
withdraw- individual becomes less involved in work
aggression- individual directly attacks the source of frustration
substitution- individual puts something in place of the original object
compensation- when an individual goes overboard in one area/activity to make up for deficiencies in another
revert or regress- individual’s uses childlike behavior when dealing with a situation
repression- individual loses awareness of or forgets incidents that cause anxiety/frustration
projection- individual attributes his/her own feelings to someone else
rationalization- individual presents a reason that’s less ego deflating or more socially acceptable than a true reason
theories of motivation p.307
need hierarchy
achievement-power-affiliation
two factor
expectancy
reinforcement
Maslows need hierarchy p.307
physiological- needs of the human body to sustain life (water, food, shelter)
safety- protection
social- needs for love, affection, belonging
esteem- needs relating to feelings of self-respect and self-worth, pride
self-actualization- needs related to one’s potential
* as needs are met, one is motivated
prepotent need p.307
need that is dominated over all others
achievement power affiliation p.308-309
all people have three needs:
a need to achieve
a need for power
a need for affiliation
existence relatedness growth (ERG) theory p.308
human needs can be grouped into 3 categories that were not hierarchical in nature:
existence: basic needs for for food shelter water and safety
relatedness: involvement with family friends co-workers and employers
growth: desire to be creative productive and complete meaning of tasks
Herzberg two factor theory p.309-310
focuses on the rewards or outcomes of performance that satisfy needs
two sets of rewards
1. related to job satisfaction
2. related to job dissatisfaction (maintenance or hygiene factors)
expectancy theory p.310
explains the behavior in terms of an individuals goals, choices, and expectation of achieving these goals
people act in such a manner as to increase please and decrease displeasure
people are motivated to work if they believe their efforts will be rewarded and if they value the rewards that are being offered
increased efforts= increased performance
increased performance= increased rewards
valence p.311
value an employee places on rewards offered by the organization
reinforcement theory p.311
theories deal with how the consequences of a past action influence future actions in a cyclical learning process
reinforced behavior will be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced is less likely to be repeated
intrinsic motivation p.311
is within the individual and is driven by the interest in, enjoyment of, learning from, and or satisfaction from the task being done
extrinsic motivation p.311
factors outside of the individual that drive behavior (pay, occupation)
job satisfaction p.312
the individuals mind set about the job or
feelings and beliefs an individual has about the job
morale- related to group attitudes and job satisfaction is concerned with individual attitudes
relates with job performance but not turnover
organizational commitment- feels focused more broadly on the organization
organizational citizenship behaviors (ocb’s) p.312
positive, voluntary behaviors that enhance organization efficiency
2 types of organizational commitment p.312
affective commitment- commitment to the organization that employee displays because they are happy to be members of the organization, believe in it and what it stands for, and intend to do what is best for the organization
*stay because they want to stay
continuous commitment p.312
commitment that exists when an employee feels the costs of leaving the organization are too great (medical benefits, pension, loss of seniority)
leadership p.312
process of influencing the activities of an individual or group in efforts towards goal achievement
leadership process- L=f(l,f,s)
L is identified as a function of the leader
l is the follower
f and other situational
s variables
Power p.313
one of the means by which a leader influences the behavior of followers
resource that enables a leader to induce compliance or influence others
position power- derived from a persons official position in the organization
personal power- comes from personal attributes and expertise
seven bases (demsions) of power p.313
legitimate power- comes with the position, stems from internalized values (the higher the position, the higher legitimate power tends to be)
reward power- based on ability to reward other (increased pay, promotions)
coercive power- authority to punish those who do not comply (fire, threaten, or give undesirable work assignments)
expert power- knowledge gained through education or experience. viewed as being competent in their job
referent power (charisma)- based on identification of followers. leader is generally well like and admired by others, thus can influence others bc of this identification and admiration)
information power- access to information that others see valuable
connection power- relationships with important people
leadership effectiveness p.315
one that is able to lead and achieve objectives in a certain situation
influences others
formal leaders- formal authority to exert influence on others
informal leaders- no formal job authority but exert considerable influence bc of special skills or talents
characterists of leaders p.315
character
charisma
communication
listening
passion
responsibility
vision
MUCH MORE ON PAGE 315
four basic management styles p.316-317
exploitative autocratic
benevolent autocratic
consultative
participative
exploitative autocratic p.316
employees are motivated by fear, threats, and punishment and seldom reward. decisions made by top management and only occasionally does communication move up from employees to the manager
benevolent autocratic p.316
indicates that only certain minor decisions are made by employees and commication moving upward is generally ignored.
small rewards are given but threats and punishment are the norm
consultative style p.316
employees gain confidence
information flows up and down, but all major decisions come from the top
participative management style p.316
operates on a basis of trust and responsibility
employees discuss the job with their superiors and communication flows up down and laterally
decision making is spread evenly through the organization
basic leadership styles p.316
autocratic leader- makes most decisions
laissez-faire leader- allows the group to make the decisions
democratic leader- guides and encourages the group to make decisions
University of Michigan Leadership styles p.316
employee orientation- identified by their special emphasis on the human relations part of their job
production oriented leaders- emphasized performance and the more technical characteristics of work
supervisors of high producing sections were most likely to have these traits-
receive general rather than close supervision from their superiors
spend more time in supervision
giver general rather than close supervision to their employees
be employee oriented rather than production oriented
Ohio State Leadership Studies (two dimensions of leadership behavior) p.317
1. consideration- indicates that behavior that expresses friendship, develops mutual trust and respect and develops strong interpersonal relationships with subordinates
supportive of their employees, use employees ideas and allow frequent participation in decisions
2. initiating structure- indicates behavior that defines work and establishes well-defined communication patterns and clear relationships between the leader and subordinate.
structure emphasized goals and deadlines, give employees detailed task assignments and define performance expectation in specific terms
leadership grid (7 possible leadership styles) p.318
1. impoverished management
2. country club management
3. authority obedience management
4. middle of the road management
5. team management
6. paternalistic management
7. opportunistic management
leadership practices inventory (successful leaders exhibit 5 best practices) p.319
measuring practices they found in common leaders
-challenging the process
-inspiring a shared vision
-enabling others to act
-modeling the way
-encouraging the heart
situational and contingency approaches p. 319
emphasize leadership skills, behavior, and roles thought to be dependent on the situation
based on the hypothesis that behavior of effective leasers in one setting may be different from that in another
leadership continuum p.319
range of possible leadership behaviors
3 components affect the leadership appropriate in a given situation- the manager
the subordinates
the situation
described as..
tells decision, sells decision, discusses decision, asks for input on decision, collaborates on decision, delegates responsibility for decision
contingency approach p.320
three variables seem to determine if a given situation is favorable (degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert influence over the group) to leaders-
leader member relations
task structure
position power
leader effectiveness model p.321
task behavior
relationship behavior
transformational vs transactional leaders p.325
transformational leadership- occurs when leaders transform or change their followers in ways that lead the followers to-
trust the leader
perform behaviors that contribute to the achievement or organizational goals
perform at a high level
transactional leaders- guide and motivate their followers by clarifying role to task requirements and by use of rewards and punishment
servant leadership p.325
servants first, not leaders first; those who worked to be sure that others needs were met and helped others to grow both physically and emotionally
emerging leadership competencies p.325
several additional leadership competencies have been identified-
emotional intelligence
social intelligence
metacognition
leadership development p.327
process of helping individuals identify and improve their abilities to function in leadership roles
techniques used in leadership development programs-
360 degree feedback
networking
executive coaching
mentoring
job assignments
action learning
comparison of management and leadership p.328
both used interchangeably to describe the role of someone who has responsibility for overseeing the work of others and directing that work toward achievement of organizational goals