HLS410.01 Final Study Questions (All Sets)

Participation in the VHA Medical Team Training program was associated with
a lower surgical mortality rate
To convince higher level management that teamwork is worth the effort, one should point to
-improved communication
-increased productivity
-increased job satisfaction among team members
-decreased nursing turnover
Nursing turnover costs are about
$65,000 per lost nurse
Costs of teamwork include
-opportunity costs
-costs of rearranging schedules to meet
-coffee
-interpersonal costs, loss of time
Lucente, Rea, Vorce, and Yancey’s examination of a new multidisciplinary team organization demonstrated that
Staff did not like change
Teams go through the following stages, in the following order
Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjoruning
Virtual teams are being used for
Telemedicine and Telecommuting
One of the questions you should ask when you are assigned to a team is
What are the goals of the team?
Tame problems can be….;
wicked problems are…..
Defined;
difficult to define and hard to solve
A wicked problem has which of the following features
-no stopping rules
-no test of a solution
-is a symptom of another problem
MBTI stands for
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The MBTI can be used to
-determine leadership strength
-assess followership
-evaluate introversion
-estimate extroversion
Which of the following is correct about emotions
-we are hard-wired to learn emotions through mimicry and mirroring
-emotions are communicated in nanoseconds
-women and people in helping professions are more sensitive to emotions
-emotions are contagious
Social facility does NOT include
Primal empathy (goes under social awareness)
social facility does include: synchrony, self-presentation, influence, concern
Frequent, positive organizational communication can
-increase team trust
-empower employees
-improve job satisfaction
-retain nurses
Eisenhardt, Kahwajy, and Bourgeois found that teams with minimal interpersonal conflict…
– maintained a balance of power and injected fun into the process
-worked with more information, not less
-debated facts, not personalities
-had multiple alternatives to enrich debate
Crew resource management is…
The application of airline industry training to the hospital
A free rider is
Someone who does none of the work and get credit on a team and a social loafer
Guidelines for teamwork can
-improve communication
-establish goals
-delineate responsibilities
The failure to provide a service when it’s benefits outweigh cost is called
Underuse
Who introduced concepts underlying Statistical Process Control?
Walter Shewhart
What is NOT included in the CQI?
structure focus
4 letters of PDCA model
Plan, do, check, act
Medicare for reimbursing hospitals
DRG (diagnosed related group)
Determination of total costs for producing a specific assigning costs is called
Cost allocation
Using work capital to enhance “good will” includes
future investors
Type of Budget that forecast cash inflows/outflows for the next year
Operating/cash budget
CMI stands for
Center for Medicare/Medicaid Innovation
Resident work hours have change due to…
the death of an 18 year old college student Libby Zion
An example of a supporting plan that is driven by the strategic plan is..
All of the Above
How can intelligence on competitors’ strategies best be gathered.
Both A&B
How do the Mission, Vision and Value statements tie to the strategic plan?
They are reaffirmed during the planning process to ensure they are aligned with future strategic directions.
What is the main purpose of strategic planning?
To identify how market forces may affect the organization.
What is the purpose of an organizational dashboard?
To facilitate management discussion regarding execution of strategies.
What is the purpose of tactical plans?
Identify the who, what, where, when and how of implementation.
What is the purpose of the planning assumptions in development of the organizational volume forecast?
C & D
Which aspect(s) of the SWOT analysis aim to identify external market forces?
Market Assessment.
Which of the following is necessary for successful strategy execution?
A & C
Which of the following is not a critical success factor for effective strategic planning?
Business plans for individual service lines.
Which of the following is not part of the market assessment model?
Power of Hospitals
Which of the following should be a major consideration in collecting leadership input to development of the strategic plan?
Input will necessarily be value laden.
Which of the following stakeholder groups should not be included in strategic planning?
All of the above should be included as appropriate
Which of the following statements about the inclusion of key financial indicators in the planning process is true?
Pricing and/or rate setting arrangements should be included.
Which of the following statements is/are true?
Resource availability should be considered when selecting strategies.
Why is execution of the strategy so important?
The strategic plan is useless unless it is executed appropriately
Why is it important to consider Innovations in Technology in development of the strategic plan?
They may represent a threat of substitute products
Why is it important to include past strategic performance as a part of future strategy development?
Understanding why past strategies succeeded or failed can help with future strategy success.
The difference between a hospital’s charges for an inpatient stay in the facility and the amount the hospital has agreed to accept from the patient’s insurance carrier is called
A contractual allowance
Which of the following is NOT a possible outcome of the decision-making process in cost accounting in healthcare organizations?
Management of financial investments for the organization
The determination of the total cost of producing a specified healthcare service through assigning costs into revenue-producing departments is referred to as
Cost allocation
The types of costs that change directly in relation to changes in volume are called
Variable costs
Private health insurance coverage includes the following types
All of the above
The growth in health insurance in the U.S. came about as a result of:
All of the above
In purchasing health insurance, which of the following is NOT typically a consideration?
Liability
Which type of HMO offers the most flexibility for participating physicians?
Independent Practice Association
Which type of managed care offers patients flexibility in accessing their physician of choice?
a and b above
Access to the care of specialist physicians is limited in which type of health plan?
Health Maintenance Organization
Efforts to control the costs of Medicare have been undertaken via legislation mandated to create prospective payment systems for
Skilled nursing facilities using RUGs
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement & Modernization Act of 2003 includes provisions to:
All of the above
The chief financial officer (CFO) of a hospital supervises all of the following officers EXCEPT
The Independent Auditor
The Medicare prospective payment system for reimbursing hospitals utilizes
DRGs
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of not-for-profit healthcare organizations?
May participate in political campaigns
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 implemented cost controls for Medicare expenditures in all of the following healthcare sectors EXCEPT
Pharmaceutical companies
The largest category of healthcare workers is:
Nurses
Residency Training lasts from ___to ___, depending on the specialty.
3 to 10 years
Resident work hours have changed due to
The death of an 18-year-old college student, Libby Zion
Licensure is
B and C
Criminal Background Checks for nurses and physicians are
Mandatory in most States for licensure
Board certification is:
B and C
CME is
A and C
Physician credentialing is:
A and C
Which of the following indicates the need for more health care workers in the future?
Aging baby boomers
Which of the following is an example of an “employee retention” function?
Managing compensation and benefits
Incentive compensation is believed to have what effect on employee performance?
Increase motivation
Performance appraisals are useful to
All of the above
Not all HR functions are carried out exclusively by HR staff. Which of the following would be carried out by line managers?
All of the above
Recent information from the literature concerning employee perceptions suggests that:
Benefits are more important than compensation
A team is:
All of the above
One of the ways to engage medical staff is to:
Promote alignment between hospitals and physicians.
Some of the benefits of effective healthcare team are:
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT correct about Cross Functional Teams (CFTs)?
Do not include clinicians
Teamwork is taught in:
All of above
Participation in the VHA Medical Team Training program was associated with:
A lower surgical mortality rate
To convince higher level management that teamwork is worth the effort, one should point to:
All of the above
Nursing turnover costs are about:
$65,000 per lost nurse
Select all the terms that can be used interchangeably with cultural competency.
B. cultural proficiency

c. cultural conditioning

d. cultural sensitivity

Concerns with the term cultural competence include
a. changing nature

b. inability to achieve 100%

c. difficulty measuring

d. subjectivity

The National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services provide for:
e. All of the above
Public policies to address health disparities could include:
a. access to primary care
c. consumer protection
Vulnerable populations are more exposed to risks from:
a. marketing unhealthy foods

b. lack of access to care

c. tobacco marketing

Benefits of a diverse health care workforce include
e. All of the above
By 2050, more than half the population of the U.S. will be comprised of minorities.
TRUE
Which of the following is not a primary source of ethics?
Legal decisions
What are the main sources of American law?
e. All of the above
What are some of the ways in which healthcare organizations protect the rights of their patients?
e. All of the above
A wrong against society as a whole, even if a particular individual is harmed, is considered a violation of which type of law?
Criminal
Contract violations are generally considered to be part of which type of law?
Civil
Which of these elements is NOT necessary for a contract to be binding?
Must be for something of value
A wrongful act against a person or organization is considered what type of violation?
Tort
For a health provider’s action to be considered negligent, which of the following factors is NOT necessary?
Malice
The investigative and enforcement authority to deal with fraud and abuse violations was granted to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) through?
Stark Laws
Examples of healthcare fraud and abuse include?
e. All of the above
Violations of the Criminal Disclosure Provision of the Social Security Act include penalties of
Up to 5 years in prison and/or up to $25,000 in fines
An example of a Stark Law violation is:
e. All of the above
Violations of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) include all of the following, except:
Completing a Medical Screening exam and stabilizing the patient
The Anti-Kickback Statutes
e. All of the above
Seven Essential Elements of An Effective Compliance Program include:
e. All of the Above
ORT is an acronym that stands for
Operation Restore Trust
A patient’s health record
Primary data
Databases that collect information from many health records
Secondary data
affilliated inside a healthcare facility
Internal user
Users from outside a facility or organization
External user
It is a systematic collection of data specific to a type of disease, exposure to hazardous material or trauma and treatment
Registry
A person with a given disease or condition who will be included in a registry
Case
A list of signs and symptoms that establish a clinical diagnosis
Clinical case
A method through with all eligible cases to be included in a registry are identified, put into a registry, and abstracted
Case finding
A set of predetermined data is obtained from patient records and other sources
Abstracting
Focuses on theoretical concepts and fundamental principles
Basic research
Research that uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques to solve problems
Applied research
The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities, and individuals
Public Health definition
Prevent, Detect, Resolve
Corporate compliance goals
Committed knowingly
Fraud
May not be committed knowingly
Abuse
Fraud
Billing for services not provided
Fraud
Upcoding for a higher reimbursement
Fraud
Misrepresenting the dates of service
Fraud
Corruption involving kickbacks
Fraud
Waiving co-payments or deductables
Abuse
Patient abuse
Abuse
Providing services that are not medically necessary
Abuse
Billing Medicare on a higher fee schedule than non medicare patients
Theft of narcotics ,falsification of medical records, Abuse or murder of a patient by medical staff
Crimes of corporate compliance
Submission of false claims, fraudulent coding practices, failure to comply with gov. mandates
Improper billing
Determine content, comply with laws, regulations, accreditation standards, data dictionary, data steward
Establishing a database
Quality, performance and patient safety, Research, Population health, Administration
Purposes of secondary data sources
Comparing organizations performance to peer organizations already known for excellence
Benchmarking
Brings knowledge to caregivers to assist them in making decisions about patient care, provides links to resources
Clinical Decision Support
a list of providers in order by physicians name or number
Physicians index
DHHS, FBI, DEA, OIG, IRS. State Attorney General, DOJ, CMS
Agencies involved in corporate compliance
HIPAA, Balanced Budget Act, and Federal False Claims Act.
What three agencies impose penalties for health care providers who engage in fraudulent practices?
Monetary penalties, criminal penalties, removal from participation of Medicare, loss of licensure.
Failure to comply with government statutes, rules, and regulations can lead to what?
Provide greater financial accountability.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was created to do what?
Attest to effectiveness of internal controls, and undergo an external audit.
Management under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act must annually do what?
Oversees the audit of public companies and guards the public interest.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 led to the creation of (PCAOB) Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.
What do they do?
Instituted by CMS to identify and recover many of these improper or inadvertent payments. HIM works with them.
Recovery Audit Contractor program (RAC)
Rely on core values and code of ethics
What is the best way for HIM to avoid sacrificing ethical principles?
AHIMA
What organization has information and resources to help organizations develop and administer compliance programs?
Laws, rules, regulations, and guidelines
When designing and maintaining systems providers must be familiar with federal and local?
Fiscal intermediary organizations that help process and adjudicate bills for services.
Medicare Administrative Contractors (MAC)
Coding diagnoses, and procedures, submitting claims
Participators in Medicare are expected to have systems that meet Medicare requirements for what areas?
Accurately describe the service provided, justify the need for the service, have diagnoses and services coded correctly, have the bill for services submitted with sufficient information, have the bill for service in the correct format.
What are some important areas in documentation in the clinical record?
The main difference between direct care and non direct care setting is:
Provision of care
External domains of healthcare management include all of the following except
Patient Satisfaction
Internal domains of healthcare management include all of the following except:
Medicare/Medicaid
This function requires the manager to set a direction and determine what needs to be accomplished
Planning
This function refers to the overall design of the specific division for which the manager is responsible
Organizing
This function referes to acquiring and retaining human resources
Staffing
The focus in this function is on initiating action in the organization through effective leadership
Directing
This competency involves the ability to critically analyze and solve complex problems
Conceptual
This competency reflects expertise of ability to perform a specific work task
Technical
Talent Management refers to which of the following
ALL OF THE ABOVE (Recruitment, Retention and Training)
Studier views the organization as needing to be results oriented, with which of the following pillars of excellence?
ALL OF THE ABOVE (People, service and finance)
Griffith says “championship processes” need performance measures in each of the following except
Directing
Dashboards are:
A way to measure organizational performance
Succession Planning is
Planning to replace managers who retire or move up
Healthcare policy is
Every healthcare managers job
Self management means
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Which of the following competencies is more leadership oriented that management oriented?
Determining strategies for the future
Which is a new trend for healthcare governance
Evaluations used to identify issues and correct
Which is a guideline for healthcare leaders when being responsible to their employees as per the ACHE Code of Ethics
Ensure a safe work enviornment
Which statement is NOT true about the “Great Man” theory?
Behavior is an important component in determining what make a good leader
Which theory places its attention on the leaders style and the work situation but also recognize the importance of setting goals for employees?
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Find a leadership theory that correctly matches the stated leadership focus
Leader- Member Exchange Theory of leadership: Interactions between leader and subordinate
Which one of the EI (Emotional Intelligence) dimensions has the definition of “Social awareness skill, putting yourself in anthers shoes”?
Empathy
From the Leadership styles for Healthcare personnel, which one focus on personal development and recommended for the top personnel?
Coaching style
Choose an inappropriate key leadership protocols
Perfectionism
Which is a barrier of key healthcare leadership?
New Technology
Which is a challenge of key healthcare leadership?
Physicians
Find an incorrect statement about leadership in today’s healthcare industry
Many clinicians have the management training which would help them in their new roles
Which is a leader development rather than a leadership development
The leader in collaboration with the superior
The healthcare leader who is concerned about the future, as well as today’s business must
Continuously reassess how he/she fits in the organization
Extrinsic rewards come from within the individual employee
False
Healthcare managers have power over employees and can force them to acti in certain ways
False
Everyone is motivated
True
Satisfaction progression refers to the interplay up and down Maslow’s continuum of needs
False
Herzberg’s theory of hygienes and motivators is not easily understood by managers
False
Avoidance learning is often referred to as positive reinforcement
False
Reinforcement theory is an appropriate way of characterizing how employees behave in organizations
False
Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z are all forms of motivation theories developed from a management perspective
True
Theory Y is derived from Japanese approaches to management
False
Intrinsic rewards are tangible
False
Intrinsic rewards are what motivate people
False
All employees are motivated by money
False
Motivation is not manipulation
True
People are born to motivate
False
Disengaged healthcare workers have an impact of an organizations bottom line
True
The future US workhorse will mirror the population and become younger, as well as more tonically and racially diverse
False
Understanding what motivates employees in different generations is becoming increasingly important for healthcare managers
True
Engaged employees are not as loyal beaches they are more interested in the best best opportunity
False
Motivation in the workplace is a new concept that needs more research in order to consider important
False
By 2020 a shortage of healthcare workers such as physicals, nurses, and public health professionals is expected
True
Maslow’s needs-based theory of motivation includes the following types of needs
Belonging
Self Actualization needs focus on
Higher level needs
Alderfer’s motivation theory is based on which of the following needs
All of the Above (growth, existence and relatedness
The Acquired Needs Theory was developed by
None of the Above ( Herzerg, Taylor and Vroom)
Acquired needs resulting form life experiences focus on
Affiliation
Extrinsic theories of motivation include
None of the Above
Scientific Management involves which of the following
determining the most efficient way to per form a job
Which of the following are considered to be types of extrinsic rewards
A and B above ( Money and Benefits)
managers interested in revitalizing employees focus on getting them to
All of the above ( get rest and relaxation, maintain fitness and eat right)
Engaged health care workers demonstrate the following characteristics
All of the Above ( focus on patient care, are productive, model behavior for others)
Between 2008-2018 total employment is expected to increase
10.1 %
What percent of all new jobs between 2008-2018 are projected to be in professional and service providing occupations?
50%
This generation values education, training and growth opportunities, flexibility and is considered risk averse
Generation X
This generation is respectful of authority, values duty, sacrifice, and accountability and recognition of hard work and a strong work ethics
Traditionalists
This generation values individuality, teamwork, and work-life balance
Baby Boomers
This generation is image conscious, team- oriented, values instant gratification and is achievement oriented
Millennials
A__________ is a tool for identifying and organizing the possible causes of a problem in a structured format (Hint: also called a Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram).
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
True or false: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author describes that for any medical condition, only a single outcome measure is needed to capture the results of care.
False
According to Philip Crosby, quality should be defined as:
Conformance to requirements
According to Brian Joiner, what is the key to success for any organization that wants to implement quality improvement?
Teamwork
lean spaghetti diagram
helps establish the optimum layout for workspace based on observations of distances traveled by customers
Root-cause analysis (RCA)
represents a “post hoc” approach to evaluating a process deployed in response to a problem or error
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
mean of evaluating a process prospectively to prevent errors before the occur; has become a wildly used tool in
SMART
defines criteria to implement solutions to remedy underlying causes problems
In the past few years, the healthcare industry has discovered that teams only play a minor role in improving performance and ensuring safe and high-quality care.
False
Quality Improvement in healthcare improves the processes of delivering care thereby increasing customer satisfaction with:
Service outcomes, Clinical outcomes, Reducing costs (i.e., cost outcomes)
CMS has put forth a number of measures that are used in its continuing effort to ensure quality care for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Which one of the following measures for patients aged 18 years and older with stroke and stroke rehabilitation is INCORRECT:
percentage with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke whose time from symptom onset to arrival is less than 6 hours who were considered for t-PA administration.
The run chart is a good way to display departmental statistics because staff can see trends.
True
Which country ranks 37th among developed nations for infant mortality rates:
United States
After gathering data using a check sheet, what CQI tool(s) can be used to illustrate the data?
Histogram, Pareto chart, and Run chart
QI may help improve patient care but also:
Enhances performance and processes, Prioritizes departmental activities, Saves money; reduces waste
Fill in the blank: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author states: “There is no substitute for measuring actual _____?_____, whose principle purpose is not comparing providers but enabling innovations in care. Without such a feedback loop, providers lack the requisite information for learning and improving.”
outcomes
Two Institute of Medicine (IOM) studies have demanded provider action about medical errors, clinical quality and patient safety. The first, To Err is Human (1999), emphasized the surprisingly large scale of the ___?___, while the second, Crossing the Quality Chasm, focused more on ___?___.
problems (e.g., medical errors); solutions (e.g., evidence-based guidelines)
This team tool follows a process similar to brainstorming, but the goal is not to increase the number of ideas under consideration but to bring the list under more control. It provides a method for making a long list of alternative ideas more useful by removing duplicates and combining similar ideas.
list reduction and multivoting
Although it may seem intuitive for a quality professional, healthcare practitioners often have a hard time recognizing that all work in health care can be evaluated using the same process analysis tools that have been applied in the industrial sector for decades. An important aspect of this recognition is the need to concede that all work in health care is based on processes, all of which are subject to the tools of process analysis applied daily in industries throughout the world.
True
Counted medical errors are almost always in outpatient settings, leaving the hospital setting, where the bulk of care in the United States is provided, largely unmonitored.
False
A bar graph that uses data to determine priorities in problem solving is called a ____?____. This type of bar graph plots the causes of a problem and its frequency showing results in descending order from left to right with the largest category on the left.
Pareto chart
The PDCA cycle method provides an overall framework for CQI. This CQI method was developed by Walter Shewhart in the 1920s, a very early pioneer in statistical quality control. However, it is sometimes called the Deming Cycle because W. Edwards Deming popularized its use in Japan. PDCA consists of these steps: plan, do, check, and act. These statements are:
True
a scatter diagram
shows a possible relationship between two variables
CQI/Performance improvement goals should be focused on:
Meeting customers’ needs
Also known as the “group passing technique,” this CQI tool is an approach that stimulates a group of reticent individuals within the team to contribute to the brainstorming process. It can is used when the facilitator is having trouble gaining input from all participants because it requires people to participate (i.e., each person in a circle writes down one idea and the piece of paper is passed to the next person who adds some thoughts until everyone gets his or her original piece back).
Brainwriting
A lean six sigma project often relies on the “theory of constraints.” When a process has a resource constraint, which of the following rules should be followed?
Identify the system’s constraint(s) (e.g., bottlenecks) and Decide how to exploit the system’s constraint(s) (e.g., reduce setup time, eliminate waste and rework, optimize run time)
CQI tool that identifies the driving and restraining forces of a problem.
force-field analysis
A simple tool used to determine how often an event occurs (i.e., tally sheet) is called a:
check sheet
Implementing a QI program in the patient registration department will:
Identify ways to better satisfy the customers (both internal and external) of the department
The brainstorming process is designed to help each team member feel empowered to contribute to the group effort. The basic framework of the procedures includes all the following EXCEPT:
generate constructive criticism
The situations in which teams may be effective include all the following EXCEPT:
projects that must be completed in a very short time
A widely accepted definition of quality, as given by ______________, is “the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.”
The Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Displays “before and after data.” Shows how the strengths and weaknesses of certain variables change over time.
Radar chart
What is an effective QI program?
a continuous cycle of improvement activities
The United States has one of the highest rates of diabetes among developed countries. One factor that relates to the increase in diabetes prevalence is the higher rate of obesity in the U.S. population.
True
As a traditional approach to project selection, this principle states that 80% of the problems in a process are caused by 20% of the possible sources (i.e., by addressing 20% of the causes, you can remove 80% of the problems). Therefore, using this analysis tool, you can set priorities as it clearly indicates what upstream processes are the most likely “culprits for intervention.”
Pareto analysis (or principle) and 80-20 rule
If you wish to generate a number of new ideas on a particular subject or ways to solve a problem, which CQI tool would you use?
Brainstorming
How does Nominal Group Technique (NGT) differ from brainstorming?
It determines the importance of responses through a rating system
The prestigious Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) honors organizations that demonstrate superior performance in seven categories of performance. Which of the following is not one of the seven categories?
focus on low cost products
True or false: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author recommends aligning provider reimbursement with value, which rewards providers for efficiency in achieving good outcomes, by providing bundled payments covering the full care cycle or, for chronic conditions, covering periods of a year or more (i.e., tracking outcomes and costs longitudinally).
True
According to Deming, which of the following encourages employees to follow QI?
Break down barriers between staff areas
This tool is usually applied when a significant change is implemented and the extent of of the “buy-in” is unclear, or when the change is encountering resistance from individuals or groups within the organization.
Benefits and barriers exercise (BBE)
Forming
dialog centers around the goals for the team and what data needs to be collected; “ground rules” are established
Storming
people are comfortable enough to start disagreeing with one another; strengthens the team to deal with
Norming
begin to discuss constructive approaches to complete the groups work; subgroups based on mutual trust
Performing
highly productive, problem solving unit that can come to consensus over useful solutions; highly cohesive and
CMS has developed programs like pay for reporting that remit financial rewards for practitioners who submit data for certain metrics considered important for patient care quality and safety. Use of the data for determining reimbursement rates was not implemented until 2008, but CMS has begun to tighten rules for paying providers for complications that shouldn’t occur like pressure ulcers and catheter-related bloodstream infections. CMS refers to these complications of care as:
“never events”
What are purchasers looking for to optimize value (i.e., the value proposition)?
higher quality/lowest cost
Which of the following would NOT be considered a benefit of flowcharting?
diminished respect and teamwork
The payment system that is characterized by the providers being paid an incentive amount based on their performance on certain quality metrics is called?
pay-for-performance (P4P)
Generally, the vertical y-axis of a histogram measures ____?____; and the horizontal x-axis measures ____?____.
Frequency of the occurences; chart time intervals
A ____?____ is a graphic representation of data elements that are part of a whole. The total seqments must add up to 100%.
Pie chart
A team size of with greater than seven or eight members usually require additional facilitation and often require subgroups to allow the team to operate efficiently; and, larger teams of more than eight members often have an “executive group” or core leadership subgroup to oversee the overall project and subgroups.
True
patient-centered
compassion, empathy, and responsiveness to the needs, values, and expressed preferences of the individual patient
efficient
requires maximizing quality and minimizing waste
safe
Ensures correct diagnoses, avoidance of unnecessary risks, and ensuring patients give informed consent for
Equitable
provides care that does not vary because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location
Timely
prevents customers from experiencing harmful delays in receiving needed diagnostic or therapeutic interventions
Effective
Emphasizes the importance of using evidence-based guidelines to provide high-quality care
PERT
developed primarily to organizing planning and scheduling of complex projects; identifies “critical path”
Deployment flowchart
consist of a sequence of activity steps arranged in a way that allows assignment to specific individuals or groups
L-shaped matrix
produce tables of information that relate two variables to each other; can be use din almost all types of decisions
decision tree
uses a graphic representation to model a set of criteria leading to a decision or the consequences of a specific
decision matrix
helps support decisions where several complex alternatives exist; includes rows for weights so that several options
four-quadrent matrices
intended to describe product or service lines in an organization in a visually appealing and easily understandable
Statistical process control (SPC) is a mature statistical tool for examining healthcare processes and identifying opportunities for improvement, and control charts are important at several stages of of the improvement process. Perhaps the most common error that leads to inappropriate use of SPC is the selection of the wrong chart. These statements are:
True
An approach to assigning actual costs to process steps is called:
ABC
Walter A. Shewhart defined the state of statistical control of a process as one in which all data points fell within plus or minus 2 sigma limits, which defines common cause variation, or variation that is 99.73% likely to be due to chance variation in the process.
False
In the NEJM article “Medical Malpractice,” the authors describe that conventional tort reforms can be divided roughly into three families. Which of the following IS NOT part of the three?
combining group practice liability insurance
Performance measures are used for quality improvement, accountability, and research. Examples of situations in which metrics are used for accountability include all the following EXCEPT:
layoffs of employees
Compliance measures are important to ensure that an organization has performed all the necessary process steps to comply with the multitude of regulations for healthcare organizations (e.g., local and state health departments, OSHA, CMS).
True
Many enterprise systems evolve using “best in class” software for each application, and the interoperability, or communication and ability to exchange information, becomes a major undertaking. Data-sharing standards have been established for some applications, like the _____?_____ standard for data interchange in electronic health record (EHR) systems.
HL7
A subpoena duces tecum differs from a subpoena in that it:
requires the production of documents (e.g., medical records, business records)
The area of highest risk is in the non-clinical areas:
False
Examples of CMS measures from the Physicians Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI) include all the following EXCEPT:
Screening for anorexia nervosa
Although medical insurance claims data provide the most widely used sources of information for analyzing utilization and quality of care, the most robust source of data is the _____?_____.
Medical Record
Bigger systems (macrosystems) are made of smaller systems; smaller systems (microsystems) produce quality, safety, and cost outcomes at the front line of care; and, ultimately, the outcomes from macrosystems can be no better than the microsystems of which they are formed – this suggests that it is necessary to intervene within each microsystem in the organization if the organization as a whole wants to improve. This statement is:
True
All improvement requires change, but not all change results in improvement. The only way to determine if changes have been beneficial is through measurement, which consists of three steps. Which of the following IS NOT one of those steps?
acknowledging the process will always be complicated
According to Lighter, having the proper infrastructure in place (structure indicators) is a guarantee that quality care will follow.
False
According to the Lighter book, there are three major categories of quality measures. Which measure would be applied to this statement — “The percentage of elderly patients in a practice diagnosed and treated for influenza”?
Outcome measure
Collection and analysis of data about patient incidents that occur in a hospital is a job responsibility of the:
Risk manager
One of the fundamental axioms of quality and performance improvement is stated: “You can’t manage what you don’t measure.” The ability to make improvements in processes requires answering all the following questions EXCEPT:
Who is to blame for the inefficient process
According to Lighter, physicians have been quick to adopt EHRs; thus, the penetration of EHR systems into medical practice has been extremely high.
False
Customer satisfaction measures are of increasing importance to many healthcare organizations, and most of these metrics are collected after a healthcare service is delivered (e.g., after patient discharge). Which of the following organizations developed a new approach called the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Performance Survey (CAHPS) that divides health care quality into the two major components of clinical aspects and consumers’ experiences:
AHRQ
The standard of care is established by:
Introduction of expert testimony
Statistical thinking implies that application of statistical data provides the best possibility of reducing variation and improving processes. Understanding the difference between common cause variation and special cause variation helps to identify opportunities for improvement. Common cause variation generally occurs within a process because of its _____?_____ and is predictable; whereas, special cause variation is _____?_____ and entirely unpredictable.
design; unanticipated
In order for a plaintiff to establish a cause of action alleging negligence, he or she must:
prove four elements (i.e., duty, breach of duty, proximate harm, damages/injuries)
Statistical analysis packages (e.g., SPSS, QI Macros) can help by applying techniques like predictive modeling and data mining. Predictive modeling identifies _____?_____; whereas, data mining identifies _____?_____.
high-risk (high-cost) patients from historical utilization data for earlier preventive care; trends within data that may surpass traditional statistical analysis to target opportunities for improvement
The most common theory in a malpractice case is:
negligence
The best protection against injuries and ensuing financial liability is prevention. Ideally, the Risk Management (RM) program, when integrated with the facility’s Quality Improvement (QI) program, focuses on prevention by identifying and monitoring high-risk and problem-prone processes.
True
What is defined as a relatively new healthcare discipline that deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of data in health and biomedicine.
Medical Informatics
In the NEJM article “Medical Malpractice,” the authors state: “There are three social goals of malpractice litigation…” What one of the following IS NOT one of the three social goals mentioned in the article?
to encourage additional testing during routine health exams
Hospitals were historically immune from professional liability litigation through the doctrine of charitable immunity until landmark cases (e.g., 1957 Bing v. Thunig; Darling v. Charleston Community Hospitals, 1965 and 1966). This statement is:
True
The science of medical informatics has been evolving since the 1950s, when physicians and computer scientists at the Massachusetts General Hospital developed a computing language for medical applications called:
MUMPS
W. Edwards Deming proposed the Theory of Profound Knowledge, which serves as the basis for the concept of statistical thinking. Which of the following IS NOT one of the four parts of Deming’s Theory of Profound Knowledge?
Company slogans
Which compelled hospitals to establish a more stringent physician credentialing process:
corporate liability
The assessment of quality was identified with what approach(es) according to Dr. Avedis Donabedian?
Structure (inputs), Process (steps in organizational activities and tasks), and Outcome (outputs or results)
The Joint Commission (TJC)
this organization provides accreditation to healthcare organizations around the world, require quality improvement
National Committee for quality assurance (NCQA)
this organization was an early adopter of performance metrics for healthcare payers through HEDIS.
MDS
A standardized, primary health status screening tool used to assess physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors for all residents in a Medicare and/or Medicaid-certified long-term care facility. This data set contains extensive health status information for this patient population.
MEDPAR
claims data for service provided to beneficiaries admitted to medicare certified inpatient hospital and SNF
AHRQ
this government agency maintains the principle clinical practice guideline repository in the U.S.
RBRVS
A standardized physician payment schedule in which the cost for each service is divided into three componenets: physician work, expected practice expense (e.g., overhead), and professional liability insurance (e.g., malpractice insurance)
AHA
one of the best sources for U.S. hospital information that conducts a yearly survey of hospitals that serves as the
P-chart
Relies on binomial distribution; used when dealing with ratios, proportions, or percentages of conforming or
U-chart
Monitors process information due to fluctuations in defects per item or group of items and is useful to determine
Stratification and ANOM
Two strategies that may be useful when larger samples “hide” underlying variation because of the statistical
DOE
Developed as a strategy for planning research to conduct valid experiment is the presence of naturally fluctuating
ANOVA
Used to test hypotheses about differences between two or more means; tests which group means are significantly
Regression Analysis
Used to try to quantify the direction, strength, and magnitude of relationships between variables.
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
the commonly used statistical tool that connotes the strength of a linear association between two variable.
NP-chart
Relies on the binomial distribution but the sample size must be constant; use of control charts for diagnosis
Answer
The defendants legal complaint to the allegations of negligence.
Interrogatories
Part of discovery process in which there is an exchange of questions between the defendant and plaintiff parties
Depositions
Given under oath, recorded word for word, can be used in all or in part during trial proceedings
Subpoena
Means by which courts request and required attendance of witnesses
Summons and Complaint
notice to the defendant from the court that a legal civil action has been commenced and a judgment will be taken if
Res ipsa liquitor
“the thing speaks for itself” typical cases involves foreign body left in patient and burns
Respondent superior
Employer is vicariously liable for an employee (i.e., let the employer answer for the actions of the employee).
corporate liability
Holds organizations responsible for monitoring the activities of the people who function within their facilities, whether employees or independent contractors such as physicians
Ostensible agency
Purports to hold the hospital legally liable for negligence, if it can be substantiated that the hospital represented, ot “held out” to the claimant that the independently contracted professional waas an employee of the hospital (e.g., commercial that states “visit our friendly physicians”).
Hold harmless clause
Facility wants other party to accept financial and legal responsibility for its own actions and agree to indemnify the
Reliability
the measure is reproducible and consistent
Validity
the metric measures what it is intended to measure
Feasibility
measurement data are easy to collect and identify
Precision
the measure correctly differentiates between different levels of performance or responses
Responsiveness
the measure is sensitive to changes that are important to patients/customers
Risk analysis
Evaluation of current and past experiences to determine the effect risk will have on the hospital, and which risk are
Risk identification
Identifying areas of potential or existing loss
Risk Control
An organizations response to areas assessed as having significant risk as well as its response to limit the liability
Risk Financing
Funding your organization for real or potential losses
The techniques used for elimination of mura include:
production leveling, pull production, heijunka
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, elimination or reducing inadvertent errors requires that work tasks be designed with which of the following rules in mind?
It should be easier to do the task right than do it wrong and Errors should be immediately obvious
An important aspect of Six Sigma is the recognition of the effects of measurement error on performance metrics; therefore, Six Sigma professionals include the evaluation of measurement error in statistical analysis. Applying the ANOVA, the evaluation of measurement variation is termed:
gauge repeatability and reproducibility (gauge R & R)
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the quote “…avoid common modes of failure and single points of failure”, means to avoid the situation in which one catastrophe can knock out two of the systems or machines at once.
True
The approaches to choosing projects (i.e., clinical processes) that could be considered for lean process management include Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints and the Pareto Principle, but in clinical setting the _____?_____may also be used as criteria.
“three highs” (i.e., high cost, high risk, high volume processes)
In terms of process efficiency, a sigma level of 2 indicates:
69.2% efficiency
Over the long term, processes usually do not perform as reliably as in the short term. To account for this real-life increase in process variation over time, an empirically based _____?_____ was introduced into the Six Sigma calculation.
1.5 sigma shift
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, people that are qualified to train Six Sigma Black Belts are called Master Gold Belts.
False
Sample selection and size is an important part of Six Sigma project design because samples that are too large may waste resources, whereas samples that are too small may not yield results that are statistically significant; therefore, we need to utilize a formula to determine the appropriate sample size. In this formula, the difference between the sample and the population means can be thought of as a(n) _____?_____.
error (E) and margin of error between the observed sample mean and the true value of the population mean
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Poka Yoke means prevention of advertent error.
False
Why is it important to establish a complaint tracking system?
Its existence will make it easier for employees and customers to discuss their complaints, It provides a mechanism for a department to generate useful ideas to improve processes and identify opportunities for change, and It proves to customers that the department is committed to CQI
All of the following are sources of input for developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) EXCEPT:
Physicians on the hospital medical staff only
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Six Sigma is a management method for achieving very high goals for correct outcomes.
True
The DMAIC approach is the foundation of Six Sigma today used to improve existing processes. This approach consists of all of the following stages EXCEPT:
Capitalize – on your investments as your team moves forward
This agency/organization published a report in 2000 titled “To Err is Human” that estimated that there were 98,000 deaths a year from medical errors, to which physicians and consumers were “appalled, angered, and skeptical.”
IOM
Many organizations are aligning incentives with physicians who follow CPG recommendations. In addition, payers like the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are beginning to penalize providers for not following recommendations and ending up with “never events.” All of the following are “never events” EXCEPT:
informed consent given prior to surgical procedure
Established by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to serve as a primary source of clinical practice guidelines from many organizations in the United States and throughout the world.
National guideline clearinghouse
The tools that can be used for elimination of muda include:
value stream mapping, five S (known in health care as Six S), kanban, poka yoke
When looking at a pie chart of the hospital’s budget, Nan learned that all of the following are tied to the number of employees within each department, except:
equipment
One of the two pillars of the Toyota Production System (TPS) is Jidoka. Which of the following denote the meaning of Jidoka?
any employee can stop the production line if a defect is identified anywhere along the line (e.g., can be applied in healthcare in the surgical suite) and focuses on the need for machines to notify humans when they need to be adjusted or repaired (e.g., optimizes safety and effectiveness of the machine/human interface)
Given the idea initially from Sanjar, in order to reduce errors in communication, Nan suggests the hospital try a pilot program following the Navy’s way of repeating orders.
True
Nan suggested some ideas to Maggie for reducing inadvertent errors within the nurse department such as _________.
implementing individual retraining and hiring a clinic receptionist
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, in order to evaluate her own performance as a manager, Maggie explained that she sets separate goals for herself beyond the management-by-objective forms regularly used by hospitals.
True
A higher sigma count means a lower expectation of favorable outcomes.
False
One way to make bar coding work, as explained by Nan’s sister, is to ____
redesign the workspace so it is possible to use them, make it possible to check the screen to see what is being scanned in:, and simplify the correction process
In Nan’s words, Six Sigma is a system that was developed as a better way of getting manufacturing to get average yields.
False
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, a questionnaire was sent out after the Lunchtime Theater to get feedback on whether verbal orders are a matter of concern and if other solutions were known.
True
Nan suggested that the nurses be retrained on routine tasks such as CPR, following the airline model of putting pilots through simulation every year.
False
Six Sigma was created by GE and was soon adopted by Motorola, IBM, and other first class manufacturing companies.
False
While the DMAIC approach is the foundation of Six Sigma used to improve existing processes, what is the mnemonic that describes the Six Sigma approach used proactively to ensure that a particular process is created for high performance (i.e., design for Six Sigma – DFSS)?
DMADV
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Six Sigma is about incremental change and starts with a numerical goal, working backward to insist that each stage of the operation get into conformance.
False
Six sigma limits are often termed:
3 DPMO
The seven types of waste include:
overproduction, waiting, conveyance, overprocessing, inventory, motion, product defects
In many cases, staff members can be enticed by the lean approach through assurances that “lean” does not equate with “fewer employees” but rather realignment of work and elimination of non-value added work, what we in health care sometimes call “_____?_____.”
scut work
The sigma level is simply a determination of opportunities for improvement regardless of the type of process that is being reviewed, with lower sigma levels connoting worse performance and greater areas for improvement.
True
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the Six Sigma management attitude encourages management to do all of the following, except:
forget it
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, “If one team makes a design error, it’s pretty likely that the other teams will make the same goof”; this is called common mode failure.
True
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have assumed increasing importance in health care as the industry tries to reach the STEEEP aims set by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Which of the following is NOT one of the STEEEP aims?
Physician-centered
From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the Japanese follow the belief that if a mistake is made, it is the fault of the ________.
system
Is a crucial element of lean process management that ensures that required process items and resources are available at the right place and at the right time.
JIT
Master black belts
act as in-house couches for six sigma teams; in an ideal setting, these experts devote all their time to six sigma
six sigma black belts
may operate independently to manage multiple six sigma projects, devote 100% of their time to six sigma initiatives
six sigma green belts
comprise the backbone of six sigma improvement program; serving the role of project management.
six sigma champions
Ensure that resources are available for six sigma initiatives; set the vision for the company’s performance
six sigma yellow belts
not an official six sigma designation; provided basic training in performance improvement with emphasis on six sigma.
muda
connotes a set of “tools” or approaches to efficient and effective management that focus on identifying and
mura
connotes a set of techniques or approaches to eliminate unevenness or lack of uniform to flow in the work system
autonomation
automation with a human touch to approve patient safety and efficiency
kaizen event
the Japanese term for improvement; an organized frame work for implementing lean principles by focusing on
Value stream mapping (VSM)
a lean technique that involves flowcharting the steps, activities, material flows, communications, and other process.
kanban
a simple part-movement system that should only deliver components to the production line when they are needed
takt time
time required for a specific output (specific services)
Voice of Business (VOB)
draws from financial information and data to identify market weaknesses
Voice of employee
most often measured through surveys
Voice of process
most often measured on control charts
Health care policy is
every health care manager’s job
Team management means
assigning work tasks
review of performance
task interdependencies
The main difference between direct care and non-direct care settings is
Provision of care
This competency reflects expertise or ability to perform a specific work task
technical
Employment of medical and health services managers is expected to change by what percent between 2008 and 2018?
plus 16 percent
Griffith says “championship processes” need performance measures in each the following areas except
directing
Succession planning is
Planning to replace managers who retire or move up
Larger organizations are more likely to have all of the following except
informal chain of command
This function requires the manager to set a direction and determine what needs to be accomplished.
planning
Organization management means
sharing of information
collaboration
communication
This competency involves the ability to critically analyze and solve complex problems:
conceptual
This function refers to acquiring and retaining human resources
staffing
This competency enables a manager to communicate with and work well with other individuals
interpersonal
Talent management refers to which of the following?
Recruitment
Retention
Training
Internal domains of health care management include all of the following except
medicare/medicaid
Studer views the organization as needing to be results oriented, with which of the following pillars of excellence?
People
Service
Finance
This function refers to the overall design of the specific division for which the manager is responsible.
organizing
External domains of health care management include all of the following except
patient satisfaction
This function refers to monitoring staff activities and performance
controlling
Which is a guideline for healthcare leaders when being responsible to their employees as per the ACHE Code of Ethics?
ensure a safe work environment
Which of the following competencies is more leadership oriented than management oriented?
Determining Strategies for the Future
Which statement is true about Followership?
It should be recognized as a necessary component for an effective leader.
Which of the following is not a contemporary leadership model?
great man theory
Choose an inappropriate key leadership protocols.
closed communicator
From the Leadership styles for Healthcare personnel, which one focuses on personal development and recommended for the top personnel?
coaching style
Which is an incorrect statement about the future of the healthcare field?
The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care for America Act will provide full health care reform.
Which is a guideline for healthcare leaders when begin responsible to their profession as per the ACHE Code of Ethics?
comply with laws
Find an incorrect statement about leadership in today’s healthcare industry.
Many clinicians have the management training needed to help them in their new roles.
Which one of the EI (Emotional Intelligence) dimensions has the definition of “Social awareness skill, putting yourself in another’s shoes”?
empathy
Which model of leadership supports the concept known as “tough empathy”?
inspirational leadership
Find a leadership theory that correctly matches the stated leadership focus.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory of leadership: Interactions between leader and subordinate
The healthcare leader who is concerned about the future, as well as today’s business, must
continuously reassess how he/she fits in the organization
Which theory places its attention on the leader’s style and the work situation but also recognize the importance of setting goals for employees?
path-goal theory of leadership
Which leadership domain would the competencies honesty and integrity be placed?
Self-Development and Self-Understanding
Which is a new trend for healthcare governance?
Evaluations used to identify issues and correct
Which statement is not true about the “Great Man” theory?
Behavior is an important component in determining what makes a good leader
What is (are) the focus area(s) for healthcare leadership ethics?
bioethics
managerial ethics
Which of the following are considered to be types of extrinsic rewards?
praise
benefits
Acquired needs resulting from life experiences focus on which of the following?
affiliation
What percent of all new jobs between 2008-2018 are projected to be in professional and service-providing occupations?
50%
Which of the following is considered to be a good motivational strategy?
tailor rewards
Managers interested in revitalizing employees focus on getting them to do which of the following?
get rest and relaxation
maintain fitness
eat right
True or False? By 2020 a shortage of healthcare workers in our nation is projected of approximately 1 million nurses and 250,000 health professionals.
true
Self-actualization needs focus on which of the following?
higher level needs
The creator of this theory believes managers can be classified into 2 groups; one view employees as unmotivated, while the other assists employees in achieving higher levels.
McGregor’s
Which generation below values individuality, teamwork, and work-life balance?
baby boomers
True or False? Everyone is motivated.
true
Maslow’s needs-based theory of motivation includes the following types of needs?
food, water, and sexual drive
desire for social contact
employment, shelter, and money
Which generation below is image conscious, team-oriented, values instant gratification, and is achievement-oriented?
millennials
Alderfer’s motivation theory is based on which of the following needs?
growth
existence
relatedness
True or False? According to a 2009 study, 40% of managers believe that for their employees it is all about the money!
false
Which of the generations below is respectful of authority, values duty, sacrifice, accountability, and recognition of hard work and a strong work ethic?
traditionalists
Between 2008-2018, total employment is expected to increase by which of the following?
10.1%
Scientific management involves which of the following?
determining the most efficient way to perform a job
Extrinsic theories of motivation include which of the following?
none of the above
This generation values education, training and growth opportunities, flexibility, and is considered risk averse.
generation X
True or False? Avoidance learning is often referred to as positive reinforcement.
false
Recognizing a problem and goal setting are in what phase of problem solving?
problem identification
A theory Y manager would believe which of the following about employee behavior?
Most employees seek the opportunity to contribute to their organization
According to the text, managers contribute to organizational learning by
Helping individuals and members change their perceptions and mental models
Which of the following guide the interpretation of information by selectively focusing attention and organizing our understanding?
frames
In attribution theory, which of the following would be an example of a situational cause of employee performance?
good luck
Managers can best address information misperceptions by
Encouraging employees to recognize their perceptions and assumptions
___________ is based on positive beliefs about employee behavior while ____________ is based on negative beliefs about employee behavior.
Theory Y, Theory X
While expectancies and schemas are concerned with how we receive and store information, __________ are concerned with how we use that information in our reasoning.
mental models
A physician who believes a medical error occured due to __________________ may be making a fundamental attribution error.
a negligent radiology technician
Organizational behavior draws upon which of the following?
sociology, communication, and psychology
Which process uses the following: 1. creating our own opportunities and constraints 2. processing events that often emerge into a meaningful pattern called understanding 3. organizing information to create a plausible understanding of a situation for organizational action and learning?
sensemaking
Work behaviors can be studied at these three levels in an organization:
group, organizational, and individual
Which of the following is a part of Torbert’s Action Inquiry to check assumptions?
framing
advocating
illustrating
inquiring
According to expectancy theory, an employee’s motivation depends on believing that
One can perform the task and that valued outcomes will be received
Which of the following statements best describes how organizational behavior applies to healthcare organizations?
Within the health care field certain issues are more prevalent.
Senge’s five “disciplines” that characterize a learning organization include all but which one of the following.
Focusing on the performance of each organization element separately
Which of the following best describes the purpose of studying organization behavior? it
improves the management of people in the workplace
A(n) ____________ is a mental structure used to organize and simplify knowledge and expectations of the world around us.
schema
Because human capacity to accurately process large amounts of information is limited, how do people compensate?
by simplifyng rules called heuristics
Which of the following is one of the manager’s most powerful tools to create a shared, common focus?
communication
Which of the following is/are true regarding successful strategies?
They are focused on a desired future state.
They allign internal capabilities with market opportunities and threats.
They are funded and resourced long term.
By identifying specific __________, healthcare organizations can better target their services and potential growth opportunities.
community needs
Which of the following is not a “pro” as it relates to using surveys for data collection?
time for response
For a successful strategy execution in a radiology department, which of the following stakeholders must “buy in”?
radiologists
nurses
radiologic technologists
administrators
How do the Mission, Vision, and Value statements tie to the strategic plan?
They are reaffirmed during the planning process to ensure they are alligned with future strategic directions.
Although there are many parts in the development of a strategic plan, what is its main purpose?
to identify how market forces may affect an organization and determine ways to counteract these forces
“University Radiology Associates strives to be the premier provider of diagnostic imaging services through high-quality service to patients, referring physicians and mutually beneficial relationships with radiologists who provide expert interpretations of diagnostic images” is an example of which of the following?
mission
In a market assessment, which of the following innovations in technology may represent a threat to replace standard operations and services?
PACS
Which of the following describes an organizations statement of purpose
mission
What are the components of Strategy Execution?
Monitoring and Control
Rollout and Implementation
Strategy Tactical Plans
Strategy Identification and Selection
Which of the following is a component of the strategic planning process?
monitoring and control
rollout and implementation
strategy tactical plans
strategy indentification and selection
Which of the following is the central focus of customer service in a healthcare organization?
patient
An example of a supporting plan that is driven by the strategic plan is
Marketing plan
Capital plan
Operating plan
Personnel plan
Which of the following had the greatest impact on healthcare organizations to develop strategic plans in order to successfully compete in a demanding environment?
PPS
How can intelligence on competitors’ strategies best be gathered?
Observation of their market activities.
Tracking of their service volumes and market share.
What is the department manager’s role in strategic planning?
Monitor market activity and report to senior leadership.
Maintain knowledge of organizational strategy and intent.
Ensure subordinates understand the organizational strategy.
Identify ways to support the organization’s strategy.
SWOT analysis includes which areas of focus?
Healthcare Workforce and Innovations in Technology
Mission and Financial Condition
Competitive Rivalry and Organizational Strengths
Which of the following is NOT a stage in the consumer decision-making process?
assuring a guaranteed outcome
When marketing savvy medical practices divide the total market into groups that have relatively similar healthcare needs they are implementing which of the following?
marketing segmentation
Which of the following seeks to understand how every day people select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy their needs?
consumer behavior
Judy set up a health savings account (HSA) at her financial institution and contributed consistently for future medical expenses after retirement. Upon eligibility, she had to travel many miles across the country to see a specific dermatologist, but it was worth it to her because she believed the treatment would make her feel healthier. The difference between the benefits Judy perceived and the costs to receive the benefits explain which of the following?
customer value
The controllable variables of the organization are referred to as which of the following?
4 P’s
Which of the following strategic marketing elements brings tactical implementation closer (in other words: determines which market to serve and then gets ready to face the competition)?
positioning
Which of the following does NOT represent a business-to-business (B2B) healthcare marketing application?
Family decision making unit chooses an inclusive medical package from a long term assisted living offering
All of the following are layers of segmentation at the healthcare manager’s disposal except:
physiological
Strategic healthcare marketing seeks to satisfy customer needs through profitable relationships by creating, communicating, and delivering ________________ in selected markets.
customer value
Which of the following best defines marketing?
creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large
According to our text, addressing the dark side of marketing is primarily a government responsibility.
false
The practice of selecting target markets, and creating, communicating, and delivering value to selected customers in manner that is both sustainable and differentiated for the competition is called which of the following?
marketing management
Jill, a manager in healthcare, is leveraging market strategies and tactics that will alter or create behaviors that have a positive effect on the targeted individuals or society as a whole. Jill is implementing which of the following?
social marketing
Which of the following best describes a production oriented healthcare organization?
achieving organizational goals through product and clinical quality and the marketing adoption is low
As part of it’s ethical and social responsibility, the marketing discipline must take into consideration the impact that marketing activities have on which of the following?
individual
society
group
organization
A marketing oriented healthcare organization focuses of which of the following?
achieving organizational goals by identifying health care needs, creating, communicating, delivering value and marketing concept adoption is high
The term effectiveness of clinical care can be addressed with which of the following questions?
Are the right things done?
Which of the following is NOT a structural variable in the Baldrige Award Criteria for quality improvement?
staff focus
Which of the following would be an example of common-cause variation?
minor electrical voltage fluctuations
Flowcharting is a quality improvement technique used for which of the following?
process mapping
Good measurement requires all of the following except:
measurement variation
Based upon customer focus within a hospital organization when pertaining to continuous quality improvement, who is considered “the customer”?
the patient
the physician
the staff
During the early 1980’s, the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) created the most commonly used quality improvement framework in the healthcare industry called which of the following?
FOCUS-PDCA model
The definition of quality provided by the Institute of Medicine is the most widely accepted definition of health care quality. Which of the following is NOT a part of the definition? They should
incorporate multiple stakeholder perspectives to understand healthcare quality
The “failure to provide a service whose benefit is greater than its risk” is the definition of which of the following terms?
underuse
The Institute of Medicine publication entitled “To Err is Human” reported that between ____________ and _____________ people die each year from medical errors.
44,000; 98,000
Which of the following occurs when “the right service is provided badly and an avoidable complication reduces the benefit the patient receives”?
misuse
Which of the following is NOT one of the three core policy issues for a healthcare system?
community
Which of the following quality improvement techniques helps to identify and organize the possible cause for a problem in a structured format?
fishbone diagram
Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)?
technology focus
The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care documents what aspect of health care?
Wide variation in medical practices which cannot be explained by illness severity or patient preference
Avedid Donabedian defined health care quality as having which of the following?
the technical managment of health and illness
the amenities of care
the ethical principles that govern the conduct of affairs in general and the health care enterprise in particular
the management of the interpersonal relationship between the providers of care and their clients
Physicians resistance to acknowledge nurses and other healthcare professionals as colleagues can lead to which of the following?
poor teamwork
interpersonal conflict
poor communication
poor patient outcomes
Residency training for physicians lasts from ________ to ________, depending on the specialty.
3 to 10
Overworked healthcare providers who have high patient-to-practitioner ratios lead to which of the following?
patient mortality
job dissatisfaction
job burnout
millions of dollars in turnover cost
As a healthcare manager working in HMO, it is important to question gaps in a physician’s resume to determine if their credentials are legitimate.
true
Which of the following would be considered a “sentinel event”?
Delivery of radiotherapy to the wrong body region.
Invasive surgical procedure on the incorrect limb.
Patient fall that results in a severe head injury
Criminal background checks for physicians are:
mandatory in most states for licensure
Which of the following is true concerning licensure?
It is granted by the state.
It is mandatory for medical, nursing practice, and other allied health professionals.
All of the following are examples of FP Core Privileges for care of infants and children, adolescents and adults for most illnesses, disorders and injuries EXCEPT:
delivery of babies
Resident work hours have changed due to which of the following?
the death of an 18 year old college student
IMG’s:
represent approximately 25% of the physicians in the US
have traditionally served poor inner city and rural populations
can be US or foreign born
must pass rigorous exams before taking residency training
Turnover of physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals:
impacts continuity of care
is costly
Which disruptive behavior would be considered a sentinel event?
Shouting at a co-worker while in a private room
Refusing to help a co-worker move a patient
Threatening a co-worker in the parking lot
All of the following are examples of conflict of interests:
gifts from companies in exchange for ordering their products
owning stock in biomedical firms that supply your employer
speaking for a pharmaceutical firm in exchange for a fee
Which of the following best describes mid-level practitioners?
they work “midway” between the level of physicians and nurses
Which of the following is the largest category of healthcare workers?
nurses
Which of the following is/are true statements?
Board certification is voluntary.
Board certification is a form of credentialing that verifies a physician has competency in a specific area.
Which of the following is NOT a key environmental force that affects human resources within HSO’s?
decreasing competition among HSO’s
“Benefits” include all of the following except:
salary
Job analysis is necessary to:
define jobs, duties, responsibilities, and activities
Which of the following requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations for applicants and employees with physical and mental disabilities?
ADA
Staff shortages can lead to which of the following?
Dissatisfied staff
Staff turnover
Reduction and elimination of services offered
Recent information from the literature concerning employee perceptions suggests which of the following?
benefits are more important than compensation
The best way for management in HSO’s to avoid unions is to:
foster positive communication with employees
encourage feedback from employees
show interest in and meet the needs of employees
A 360-degree performance appraisal is helpful because it:
Includes the perceptions of others in addition to an employee’s manager
Which of the following is an example of an HSO’s Employee Relations and Engagement efforts?
walk-arounds” by managers
Position descriptions are necessary for which of the following?
They define the employer expectations for the job.
They specify job duties.
They identify knowledge, skills, and training required for the job.
Which of the following is a typical measure used by senior management to directly assess performance of HR efforts?
Staff Satisfaction
Which of the following prohibits discrepencies in pay between men and women who perform the same job?
equal pay act
Which of the following is true regarding performance appraisals?
They identify areas of performance needing improvement.
They can be used to adjust compensation based on performance.
They are helpful in determining promotion opportunities for staff.
Flexible benefits are helpful to employees because:
they can choose benefits in line with their needs.
Nursing turnover costs about:
$65,000 per lost nurse
Which of the following is incorrect concerning Cross Functional Teams (CFTs)?
they do not include clinicians
The MBTI can be used for which of the following?
determine leadership strength
assess followship
evaluate introversion
estimate extroversion
Virtual teams are being used for which of the following?
telemedicine
telecommuting
Education for the “how-to” of teamwork dynamics is taught during which of the following?
none of the above
To convince higher level management that teamwork is worth the effort, one should point to which of the following?
improved communication
increased productivity
increased job satisfaction among team members
decreased nursing turnover
Which of the following is an important question that should be asked when you are assigned to a team?
What are the goals of the team?
Which of the following is NOT correct concerning Cross Functional Teams (CFTs)?
they do not include clinicians
Which of the following is a way to engage medical staff?
promote alignment between hospitals and physicians
Lucente, Rea, Vorce, & Yancey’s (1995) examination of a new multidisciplinary team organization found that:
staff did not like change
A wicked problem has which of the following features?
no stopping rules
no test of a solution
is a symptom of another problem
A study of participation in the VHA Medical Team Training program was associated with which of the following?
a lower surgical mortality rate
Which of the following is true regarding a team?
a group of people working together to achieve a common goal
a short term group pulled together to address a specific agenda then disbands after a report is issued
a long-term entity with revolving members, elected for 3 year terms, staffed by a full-time employee
a group central to the effective functioning of healthcare organizations
Teams go through the following stages, in the following order:
forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
Which of the following could be costs associated with teamwork?
opportunity costs
costs of rearranging schedules for teams to meet
coffee and food costs
interpersonal costs
Which of the following is a benefit of an effective healthcare team?
improved coordination of care
more efficient use of health care services
increased job satisfaction among team members
higher patient satisfaction
Which of the following terms can be used interchangeably with cultural competency?
culturally effective care
cultural conditioning
cultural proficiency
cultural sensitivity
Which of the following is not considered a benefit of a diverse health care workforce?
decreased cultural competency
According to the US Census Bureau, by 2050, what percent of the population of the US will be comprised of minorities?
54%
Healthcare practitioners who are committed to the issues of diversity, equity, and equality need to be aware of and implement best practice in cultural competency.
true
The ultimate goal of cultural proficiency is to have the healthcare workforce in the United States reflect the makeup of the communities served.
true
Which of the following signifies a difference in access, utilization, or quality of care?
health disparity
As the US becomes more diverse, healthcare systems will see patients present symptoms differently from textbooks and have varying beliefs about health, treatment, and illness.
true
A hospital can demonstrate inclusivity by community engagement through:
community input
education efforts
advisory panels
health fairs
Which of the following is NOT true as it relates to healthcare management?
human resource policies play a limited role in addressing diversity
The National Standards on Culturally and Lingguistically Appropriate Services provides for which of the following?
recruiting diverse staff
collecting patient data
language services
self-assessments
A recent study demonstrated that racially and ethnically diverse employers represented a growing percentage of top healthcare management positions
false
Which of the following is an exchange of information, ideas, and resources between individuals, community members, and mainstream organizations?
community engagement
Which of the following is considered one strategy to address health disparities and to drive toward equity in health and health care?
cultural competence
Which of the following is the first step for healthcare leaders to address disparities and work toward cultural sensitivity in a healthcare organization?
examine and resolve personal biases
Which of the following is a best practice and essential component(s) of a culturally proficient healthcare organization?
assessment
education and training for all staff
a diverse healthcare workforce
ability to adapt to community served
According to the Center for Cross-Cultural Health, which of the following is/are steps to community engagement?
education
interface
partnership
input
Why are healthcare managers needed?
-They provide leadership and direction to organizations that deliver personal health services, and to divisions, departments, units, or services within those organizations
-Organizations require leadership, as well as the supervision and coordination of employees
Define “management”
The process, comprised of social and technical functions and activities, occurring within organizations for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined objectives through humans and other resources
Explain the difference between Direct and Non-Direct health care settings
Direct health care settings are “those organizations that provide care directly to a patient, resident, or client who seeks services from the organization.” Non-direct care settings are not directly involved in providing care to persons needing health services, but rather support the care of individuals through products and services made available to direct care settings.
List internal domains of health care management
Staffing
Budgeting
Quality services
Patient satisfaction
Physician relations
Financial Performance
Technology acquisition
New service development
List external domains of health care management
Community demographics/need
Licensure
Accreditation
Regulations
Stakeholder demands
Competitors
Medicare and Medicaid
Managed care organizations/insurers
Match the following management functions with its description.
Words: Planning, organizing, staffing, controlling, directing, decision making
A. This function requires the manager to set a direction and determine what needs to be accomplished
B. This function refers to the overall design of the specific division for with the manager is responsible
C. This function refers to acquiring and retaining human resources
D. This function refers to monitoring staff activities and performance
E. The focus of this function is on initiating action in the organization through effective leadership
F. Making effective decisions based on consideration of benefits and the drawbacks of alternatives
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Staffing
D. Controlling
E. Directing
F. Decision making
List and define the 3 competencies expected of health care managers
Conceptual skills – The ability to critically analyze and solve complex problems
Technical skills – Reflect expertise or ability to perform a specific work task
Interpersonal skills – Enable a manager to communicate with and work well with other individuals, regardless of whether they are peers, supervisors, or subordinates
Why does Health Care in particular need both leaders and managers?
It’s a service industry that depends on a large number of highly trained personnel as well as trade workers.
Which domain do Leaders typically focus on? List at least 3 stakeholders in this domain.
Leaders typically focus on the external domain. Stakeholders in the external domain are Vendors, Media, Government, Strategic Partners, Financial Stakeholders, Community Groups & Health Policy, Laws & Regulations
For the following competencies, indicate whether they are a “L” leadership competency or a “M” manager competency
A. Staffing personnel
B. Transforming the organization
C. Being an effective spokesperson
D. Setting direction or mission
E. Controlling resources
F. Counseling employees
G. Determining strategies for the future
H. Motivating stakeholders
I. Supervising the service provided
J. Overseeing adherence to regulations
A. M
B. L
C. L
D. L
E. M
F. M
G. L
H. L
I. M
J. M
Explain what “self-absorbed” means
They don’t care about anyone else’s thoughts or opinions, they just care about themselves.
A self absorbed leader is more likely to develop a followership than a leader who is not self absorbed.
A. True
B. False
B. False
List the dimensions of emotional intelligence and their corresponding application to leadership
Self-Awareness – (Definition) deep understanding of one’s emotions and drives — (Application) Knowing if your values are congruent with the organization’s
Self-Regulation – (Definition) Adaptability to changes and control over impulses — (Application) Considering ethics of giving bribes to doctors
Motivation – (Definition) Ability to enjoy challenges and being passionate toward work — (Application) Being optimistic even when census is low
Empathy – (Definition) Social awareness skill, putting yourself in another’s shoes — (Application) Setting a patient-centered vision for the organization
Social Skills – (Definition) Supportive communication skills, abilities to influence and inspire — (Application) Having an excellent rapport with the board
What are the 5 common behaviors of effective leaders most often observed in “Spiritual Leadership”?
Challenge the process, inspired a shared vision, enable others to act, model the way, & encourage the heart, thus taking leadership to a new level
Match the leadership style with its definition and application.
Styles: Coercive, Participative, Pacesetting, Coaching
A. Focus on personal development
B. Most followers
C. Demanding and power based
D. Highly competent
E. Soliciting input and allowing decision making
F. Top level
G. Setting high performance standards
H. Problematic employees
A. Coaching (Definition)
B. Participative (Application)
C. Coercive (Definition)
D. Pacesetting (Application)
E. Participative (Definition)
F. Coaching (Application)
G. Pacesetting (Definition)
H. Coercive (Application)
What are the four domains of leadership? List 2 competencies for each domain.
A. Functional and Technical
Knowledge of business/business acumen, strategic vision, decision making and decision quality, managerial ethics and values, problem solving, change management/dealing with ambiguity, systems thinking, governance
B. Self-Development and Self-Understanding
Self-awareness and self-confidence, self-regulation and personal responsibility, honesty and integrity, lifelong learning, motivation/drive to achieve, empathy and compassion, flexibility, perseverance, work/life balance
C. Interpersonal
Communicating, motivating, empowerment of subordinates, management of group process, conflict management and resolution, negotiation, formal presentations, social interaction
D. Organizational
Organizational design, team building, priority setting, political savvy, managing and measuring performance, developing others, human resources, community and external resources, managing culture/diversity
Which of the following is an incorrect statement about the future of the healthcare field?
A. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care for Americans Act will provide full health care reform
B. Some of the key elements identified for success will be perspective, adaptability, and finding inner passion as a personal driving force.
C. These will be challenging times for healthcare leaders
D. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care for Americans Act will dramatically alter the way health insurance is administered
A. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care for Americans Act will provide full health care reform
Define the 5 levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory of motivation
Physiological Needs – food, water, sexual drive, other subsistence-related needs
Safety Needs – Shelter, safe home environment, employment, healthy and safe work environment, access to health care, money, other basic necessities
Belonging Needs – Desire for social contact and interaction, friendship, affection, various types of support
Esteem Needs – Status, recognition, positive regard
Self-Actualization Needs – Desire for achievement, personal growth and development, and autonomy
Describe the 3 needs of Alderfer’s Motivation Theory
Existence – related to Maslow’s 1st two needs, thus combining the physiological and safety needs into one level
Relatedness – Addressed the belonging needs
Growth – Pertained to the last two needs, thereby combining esteem and self-actualization
Describe McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Need for achievement – Emphasizes the desire for success, for mastering tasks and attaining goals
Need for affiliation – focuses on the desire for relationships and associations with others
Need for power – Relates to the desires for responsibility for, control of, and authority over others
List several good motivational strategies and several “bad” motivational strategies
How does getting rest and relaxation, maintaining fitness and eating right figure into employee motivational strategies?
Complete the phrase: Engaged health care workers demonstrate __________ on patient care, greater ___________ and _____ behavior for others
List the characteristics of a “Traditionalist” worker
Respectful of authority, value duty and sacrifice, value accountability and practical experience, strong work ethic with emphasis on timeliness and productivity, strong interpersonal skills, value academic credentials, accept limited resources, loyal to employer and expect loyalty in return
List the characteristics of a “Baby Boomer” worker
Individuality, driven by goals for success, measure work ethic in hours worked and financial rewards, believe in teamwork, emphasize relationship building, expect loyalty from coworkers, career equals identity, a democratic approach
List the characteristics of a “Generation X” worker
Self-reliant, highly educated, questioning, risk-averse, most loyal employees, want open communication, respect production over tenure, value control of their time, invest loyalty in a person, not in an organization
Define organizational behavior
Broad area of management that studies how people act in organizations.
Identify 10 challenges of healthcare management
1. Complex work of health care has a high risk of serious or deadly error
2. Requires a highly educated, efficient, and well-coordinated workforce
3. Rising costs and declining reimbursements
4. Increased competition and consumer demands
5. Chronic health conditions demand more outpatient care
6. Concern over patient safety and quality of care demands workers skilled in clinical information management
7. Labor shortages are there and predicted to increase
8. Have to create new services and adopt new technologies
9. Managers have little control over those with very high autonomy, like physicians
10. Make sure they’re continually finding ways to effectively work together
What is the connection between thinking (cognition) and behavior in organizations?
We cannot understand behavior without understanding the thoughts, assumptions, and perceived attributes of a situation that precede behavior and its consequences.
How do perceptions influence behavior in the workplace?
Attention process will be influenced and filtered by their assumptions, values, knowledge, goals, past experiences, and other personal differences. As a result, they will only take in part of the information they’re presented with and subsequently act upon partial information.
What is the role of communication in the work place?
What is the role of problem solving in the workplace?
What are three ways that a manager can use their knowledge of the thinking (cognition) process to improve communication between individuals, within groups, and/or organizations?
Define “team”
A group of people working together to achieve a common goal
Do cross functional teams include clinicians (physicians)? Why or why not?
No, they do not. Cross Functional Teams are teams that really have to work together well, and physicians are kind of off in their own little section.
List 3 examples of how to engage the medical staff in the organization. (Engage – get them to want to participate, care, and/or otherwise interact with)
What are some of the benefits of effective healthcare teams?
-Improved coordination of care
-Efficient use of healthcare services
-Increased job satisfaction among team members
-Higher patient satisfaction
“The benefit of teamwork outweighs the costs.” – What are some of the costs of teamwork? What are the benefits? Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Why?
-The costs of having meetings
-Place to meet and food and coffee
-Trying to arrange a time that’s convenient for most of the participants
-Time spent in the meeting and accompanying opportunity costs
-Interpersonal costs associated with having to work with other people
-Development of mutually respectful behaviors and trust
-Risk taking associated with letting go of one’s turf; potential embarrassment of looking bad in a group
List the stages of teams in order and write a brief description of each stage.
Forming – Getting oriented to the team goals and each other, what the tasks are
Storming – Intragroup conflict, attempts at dominance, passive-aggressive behavior, information withholding, other forms of resistance to team tasks and goals
Performing – Have open dialogue with one another, share information to accomplish the team’s goals
Adjourning – Breaking up the team
What does the author mean by a “wicked problem”? Provide an example.
Wicked problems are difficult to define and not easy to resolve. Sometimes can never truly be solved due to multiple layers of issues.
80-year-old woman had hip replacement surgery and has used her Medicare paid days at the SNF. Walking has improved, but isn’t back to how it was before the surgery. Bedroom’s on the second floor and has to climb a flight of stairs to get to her front door. Only daughter lives in another state with 2 teenage daughters, one with depression, and husband just lost his job.
What is the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory? What purposes can it serve in the healthcare environment?
A personality inventory based on Jung’s theory of psychological types. Assesses four domains and four subsets within those domains on a four-by-four grid. This test can help the healthcare environment by defining what type of people would be best for what position. A manager would want to be someone who is responsible, dependable, highly organized, likes to see things done correctly, tends to judge in terms of standard operating procedures, realistic, matter-of-factor, loyal to institutions”, so the test would help to see what people would have those qualities.
What is the name of the organization that first reported a concern about medical errors in our healthcare system? What was the name of the report?
The Institute of Medicine, To Err is Human
Define Misuse, Overuse, and Underuse
Misuse – Risk service is provided badly reducing benefit to patients
Overuse – Use of service when risk outweighs benefits
Underuse – Failure to provide service whose benefit is greater than risk
List the 9 featured criteria of Malcom Baldrige Quality Award. Categorize the 9 criteria according to the structure-process-outcome framework.
1. Leadership
2. Strategic Planning
3. Focus on patients, other customers, and markets
4. Measurement, analysis, and knowledge management
5. Staff focus
6. Process management
7. Organizational performance results
Describe the steps in the PDCA quality improvement model.
Plan – take the process improvement and create a plan for its implementation
Do – actually implement the process improvement
Check – Check whether the process is involved using the measure identified and measured in the U phase of FOCUS
Act – Determine whether the process improvement was successful
Describe the following quality improvement tools:
A. Cause-effect analysis
B. Process Analysis
C. Process Mapping
A. Beings with the problem under investigation described in a box at the right side of the diagram. The major possible causes of the problem are arrayed as large ribs along the spine. These are broad categories of causes to which smaller ribs are attached that identify specific causes of the problem.
B.