History 19.4

Describe the kind of dangers common to steel workers of the late 1800s.
Suffered burns from spills of hot steel
Describe the dangers common to coal miners in the late 1800s.
Died in cave-ins and from the effect if gas and coal dust
Describe the dangers common to textile workers in the 1800s.
Their lungs were damaged by airborne lint.
Where did garment workers toil? Decisive working conditions.
They toiled in crowded urban factories called sweatshops.

Eyesight was ruined by sewing for hours in poor light. Filled with flammable materials, the sweatshops were also terrible firetraps.

By 1900 how many women worked in the industry?
More than one million
How did child-labor laws try to improve working conditions for child factory workers?
These laws stated that children should be at least 12 years old and should not work more than 10 hours a day.
How did women’s salaries differ from men’s salary?
Women generally received about half of what men earned for the same work
How were the Knights of Labor different from most other unions?
Employers fired workers who joined labor originations, so the Knights met secretly and used special handshakes to identify each other. Unlike most unions, the Knights recruited people who had been kept out if grade unions, including women, African Americans, & unskilled laborers. In Philadelphia
What was the AFL, & whom did it represent?
American Federation of Labor.

Skilled workers in various crafts.

What is collective bargaining?
Unions represent workers in bargaining with management.
What union took action after the 1911 fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory (New York)?
International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union
How did unions respond when companies fired workers and lowered wages?
Unions responded with large strikes that sometimes sparked violence
What did companies do to replace strikers during the 1877 railroad strike?
The companies hired strike breakers to replace the striking workers, & federal troops restored order.
What caused the Haymarket Riot of 1886?
Striking workers from the McCormick Harvest Company gathered to protest the killings of four strikers the previous day. When police ordered the crowd to break up, a nun identified person threw a bomb that killed a police officer.
How did steel plant managers respond to the Homestead Strike of 1892?
Hired nonunion workers & 300 guards
How did George Pullman & railroad owners stop the union from “obstructing the railways and holding up the mails”?
They persuaded U. S. Attorney General Richard Olney to obtain an injunction, or court order.
Poor Working a Conditions and Unfair Wages
1. Airborne lint
2. Cave-ins
3. Women’s salaries not equal to men’s
4. Crowded, poorly lit sweatshops
Labor Unions: Knights of Labor
1. Terence V. Powderly
2. Recruited women & African Americans
Labor Unions: AFL
1. Samuel Gompers
2. Pressed for collective bargaining
Labor Unions: ILGWU
1. Pushed for a safer working environment
2. Pressed foe action after Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory fire
Strikes: 1877
1. Federal troops restore order
2. Strikers destroy railroad property
3. Strike breakers are hired.
Strikes: 1886
1. Haymarket Riot
2. A blow to union movement
3. Four strikers & several police officers are killed
4. McCormick Harvester Company
Strikes: 1892
1. At least 10 people killed
2. State militia restores order
3. Homestead, Pennsylvania, steel plant
4. 300 armed guards protect nonunion workers
5. A blow to the union movement
Strikes: 1894
1. Federal troops restore order
2. Pullman employees strike
3. Attorney general grants an injunction
4. Eugene V. Debs goes to jail
5. A blow to the union movement
Describe working conditions for men, women, & children in the early years of the Industrial Revolution.
Women: received half pay of what men did
Men: 10 to 12 hour work days & able to join the union
Children:at least 12 years old to work and no more than 10 hours
The leader of the Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly
AFL leader
Samuel Gompers
Spent 50 years fighting for workers’ rights, known as Mother Jones
Mary Harris Jones
Leader of workers that refused to end the strike
Eugene V. Debs
Who was president at the time?
Grover Cleveland
How were the Knights of Labor different from most other unions?
Employers fired workers who joined labor originations, so the Knights met secretly and used special handshakes to identify each other. Unlike most unions, the Knights recruited people who had been kept out if grade unions, including women, African Americans, & unskilled laborers.
What was the AFL, & whom did it represent?
American Federation of Labor.

Skilled workers in various crafts.

What dealt another blow to the union movement?
Pullman Strike
What is collective bargaining?
Unions represent workers in bargaining with management.
What union took action after the 1911 fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory?
International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union
How did unions respond when companies fired workers and lowered wages?
Unions responded with large strikes that sometimes sparked violence
What did companies do to replace strikers during the 1877 railroad strike?
The companies hired strike breakers to replace the striking workers, & federal troops restored order.
Person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up strike
Strikebreaker
Notes: Immigrants were hired after strikes to save money
Another note: Farms
Crowded urban factories
Sweatshop
Unions represents workers in bargaining with management
Collective bargaining
Richard Onley
U.S. Attorney to obtain injunction