History 15-16

Standard Oil Company
By 1900, this company controlled all of the refining in the oil industries.
Horizontal Integration
Method used by businessmen to consolidate of all of one entire segment of an industry.
Safe Investment
John D Rockefeller chose to invest in oil refining rather than in one of the other segments of the industry.
Thomas Edison
Invented the photograph, motion picture projector, and the light bulb.
Trust
A legal device by which the board of trustees is empowered to direct a whole group of companies.
Robber Barrons
The unflattering title that describes the industrialist who dominated America at the end of the 19th century.
Republicans
Party that favored high tariffs.
Mugwumps
Republicans who voted for the democrat Cleveland because he stood for reform.
Southern and Eastern Europe
Where most immigrants came from during the “New Immigration”
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
This act did not effectively stop monopolies in the United States.
Managers
Government tended to side with this group during strikes at the end of 19th century.
Populist Party
This free-silver party from the Midwest became prominent in the 1890’s.
William Mckinney
President who won the election of 1896 from his “front porch”
Vertical Integration
Method used by businessmen to control all segments of an industry from raw materials to marketing.
Grover Cleveland
His two terms were separated by a four year interim.
Gilded Age
Immigration, the innovative spirit, and new sources of power were three of the causes of industrial growth during this era.
Tobacco and Textiles
The twin pillars of the “New South’s” economy.
Haymaker Riot
This event discredited the Knights of Labor.
Charles Darwin
The naturalist development the theory of naturalist selection.
New Immigration
American labor leaders opposed this movement since it threatened jobs.
Democrats
Party which generally favored low tariffs.
Fanny Crosby
Most prolific writer of gospel songs in the 19th century.
Materialism
Desire for worldly possessions and belief that they can bring happiness.
Grange
Name for the Patrons of Husbandry.
Inexperience in Politics
Scandals were so common during Grants administration because of his…
Grant
President who was implicated in any of the many scandals during his administration.
Tammany Hall
The corrupt political organization which controlled politics in New York City during the last half of the 19th century.
Thirteenth Amendment
Amendment which abolished slavery.
Cabinet Members
Type of executive officials who were protected by the Tenure Office Act.
Freedman’s Bureaux
Federal agency with the purposes of distributing food and clothes to blacks, building schools, and providing alternate court.
President
Under the Military Reconstruction Act, this office selected the governors in the Southern Districts.
Fifty One
According to the Wade-Davis Bill, this percentage of Southern white males who voted during the election of 1860 had to sign an oath of allegiance before readmitting to the Union.
Reconstruction
Freedom of slaves, the Solid South, and the growth of the national Gov. power were the three results of this era.
Federal Troops
When these were removed the South, it marked the end of reconstruction.
Waving The Bloody Shirt
Republican strategy of blaming Democrats for the Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln
He was assassinated before he could implement his lenient plans for Reconstruction.
Fifteenth Amendment
Amendment which granted the right to vote to all races.
Panic of 1973
Most severe depression in the first one hundred years of American History.
Fourteenth Amendment
Amendment which granted full citizenship for all races, prevented states from depriving any person of his rights.
Radicals
They viewed the Southern states as conquered territory rather than rebellious members of the Union.
Impeachment
The term used for when a political official is indicted to receive a trail, but not removed from office.
Hiram Revels
First black congressman who eventually resigned from the from the Republican party and called for an end to the reconstruction in the south.
Andrew Jackson
President who supported Lincolns plan for reconstruction.
Rutherford Hayes
Under the Compromise of 1877, he became president even though he won fewer popular votes tan tilden.