Healthcare Management Theories and History

Katz’s Three Essential Skills
techincal, human relations, conceptual
Classical School
1800s-1950s
administrative management, scientific management, bureaucratic management
Administrative Management
describes how to structure organization for high performance
Scientific Management
attempts to create jobs that economize time
encourages specialization
Bureaucratic Management Theory
1930-1950
focus on organizational structure
Max Weber’s Three Types of Authority
rational, positional, charismatic
Human Relations Movement
1930-present
focus on workers rather than job
recognizes workers as “social men”
Hawthorne Effect
people change behavior when they know they are being studied
H.A. Simon: Limited Rationality Theory
workers respond unpredictably to managerial attention
Banard: Acceptance Theory
managers only have as much authority as subordinates allow them to have
Theory X
employees are lazy, dislike work, must be controlled
Theory Y
employees are responsible, enjoy work, and will exercise self-direction
Theory Z
employees can self-manage and be productive through group consensus and assurances of employment
Contingency Theory: Law of Situation
best method of doing something depends on the situation
Systems Theory
organization is a collaboration of open systems that constantly interact with and respond to enviromental stimuli
Management as a Discipline Theory
management by objective
Chaos Theory
the world is unorganized and events are unpredictable; thus, managers must recognize that events cannot always be controlled
Organizational Development Theory
works by increasing the “health” of social and technical systems such as work proceses, communication, rewards, and shared goals
Entrepeneurial Theory
1970s-present
individuals or small groups that are “ahead of the curve” should be rewarded and encouraged to work autonomously
Formal Authority Theory or Chain of Command
belief that authority orginates at the top and delegates downward
Authority Acceptance Theory
authority orginates from the bottom and is determined by subordinates’s willingness to compy with it
Early Genetic Theory
certain people are born to be leaders
“great man” qualities are inherited
Trait or Attribute Theory
traits found in individuals are the cause of leadership
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
motivation model that involves levels of needs from basic physiological needs to self-actualization
Alderfer’s ERG Model
motivation model based on existence, relatedness, and growth
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Motivation Hygiene Theory
workplace factors can be divided into two categories: those that do not motivate (hygiene) and those that do (motivators)
McClelland’s Achievement Theory
individuals are motivated by their needs for affiliation, achievement, and power
Vroom’s Expectancy Model
people act in a certain way because they anticipate that the behavior will achieve the out of goal desired
B. F. Skinner’s Reinforcement Model
behavior can be controlled through the use of rewards
The “Red Hot Stove” Approach
immediate
with a warning
consistent
impersonal and impartial