health marketing

1. Central to the definition of marketing is the focus on:
C. The consumer
2. The four P’s of marketing are:
B. Product, price, place, and promotion
3. In a market driven health care organization, which service might be offered in the service line of a hospital or health system?
D. Any of these might be considered within the service mix
4. In the non-market-driven planning process, a key step that is missing is:
B. Market research
5. In a non-market-driven planning approach, the key challenge is to:
C. Find a market
6. In a market driven planning approach, the differential advantage is determined by
D. Market research
7. On of the strongest rationales for a market driven approach to planning in health care is that:
A. A market driven approach may minimize the cost of failure in the allocation of financial resource allocation decisions
8. A hospital that develops a structure in which it is organized around referral physicans, corporations, Employee Assistance Personnel would have structured itself in:
B. A market oriented organization
9. The advantage of a market oriented organization is to tailor the organization in light of the fact that each group of customers is:
C. Each group of customers seek solutions to specific problems rather than specific programs or products
10. Which of the following is not a pre-requisite for marketing success:
B. Pressure to succeed
11. A critical link in creating customer loyalty is:
D. The employee in the organization
12. In the traditional industry structure of health care, the primary focus of marketing efforts was on the:
D. Focusing on physician relations
13. In order to control health care costs, companies are increasingly:
A. adding medical clinics within their own facilities
14. In the Accountable Care Organization, the system is responsible for:
C. All the medical needs
1. In order to develop an effective strategic plan, an organization must first:
C. Define its mission
2. The tone for an organization and the broad set of directions set by:
D. The mission statement
3. Which of the following criteria is not a barrier to entry:
D. All of the above are potential barriers to entry
4. Two multi-specialty groups are direct competitors in the same community. Both groups recruit board certified physicians in their specialties and tout that fact within their advertising and on the web site. Neither group has been above to gain a significant advantage over the other group with this recruiting strategy. Why is this approach failing?
C. Since both groups have the same in terms of being board certified it is not unique.
5. A unique source of a differential advantage for health care organizations is:
B. Trust
6. The principal/ agent relationship states that:
C. One person trusts another to make their decisions in their best interests and not exploit their vulnerabilities
7. Which of the following sources of a differential advantage is most susceptible to being impacted by technology?
B. Cost
8. Invisible value may be best defined as:
C. The value that a producer builds into a product or service that the customer cannot see
9. Trying to increase sales of present services within existing markets that the organization already serves is an example of which type of growth strategy:
B. Market penetration
10. In a market development strategy the organization attempts to:
A. Increase sales of existing products or services in new markets
11. Johns Hopkins a major academic tertiary facility in the United States manes the Al Corniche Hospital in Abu Dhabi. This strategy is an example of :
D. A market development strategy
12. Scott & White Clinic in Texas has developed their own insurance product similar to Aultman Hospital in Canton, Ohio. Both of these organizations have decided to pursue a strategy of:
C. Product development
13. When growth in existing markets are slow or regulatory changes make it risky to remain in existing markets, organizations tend to pursue which of the following growth strategies:
A. Diversification
14. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center developed a joint agreement with Italian officials to develop a research institute. This approach is an example which type of growth strategy.
D. Diversification
15. Strategic alliances in which both corporate entities hold an equity position are:
D. Are defined as joint venture businesses
16. When there is a weak fit between a core business and a particular business line, organizations will typically follow what particular strategy?
B. The organization will attempt to divest the weak line
17. Increasingly many hospitals are facing the decisions to close obstetrical programs due to declining volume in their particular market areas. This was the decision faced by Sentara at one their hospitals in the Hampton, Virginia region. When a decision such as this is made it reflects which of the following type of strategy?
C. Retrenchment
18. Mass marketing is when an organization decides to treat the entire market as:
C. A group of patients who want to purchase the same services
19. Boutique medical practices in which patients pay a significant amount of dollars up front to ensure they have personalized concierge service with their doctor is an example of a:
C. Market concentration strategy
20. In health care it has been found that hospitals with higher profitability tend to be those with:
B. Higher market share
1. When price levels rise faster than income:
C. It is referred to as inflation
2. Compared to other western economies, the United States, spends:
A. Over 50% more on health care on a per capita basis
3. Consumer income is composed of:
D. Gross, discretionary, and disposable income
4. The amount of money a consumer has left after paying for food, clothing and shelter is referred to as:
D. Disposable
5. Discretionary income is the money a consumer has left after paying for:
B. Income left after paying for taxes and necessities
6. The U.S population in terms of age is becoming significantly:
A. Older
7. The traditional family unit of a man and a woman being responsible for one or more children has changed significantly in the United States. Today’s family unit may more like be represented by a:
C. Single parent households or couples without children
8. The largest minority group in the United States is now:
A. Hispanic
9. Because of the greater diversity in the United States, health care organizations have responded with the recognition of:
B. Sensitizing staff in cultural competencies
10. Women are increasingly entering the health professions and the percentage of women entering nursing schools is:
C. Has been decreasing as women have turned to medical and dental school
11. It has been hypothesized that one of the major reasons older people’s use of CAM tends to decline with age may be that:
D. The Federal Government does not reimburse for CAM under Medicare except for chiropractic care.
12. A competitive environment in which every provider or company has the same service or product is defined as:
B. Pure competition
13. There is a community where there are many primary care practices and they all have similar office hours and the same service mix. The people in the community are mostly employed by two major employers who offer high deductible health plans. Thus, the people pay a large portion of their health care costs for the first $5000 or $10,000. Small price changes might lead to consumers shifting from one primary care practice to another. This competitive situation would be described as:
C. Monopolistic competition
14. In a major metropolitan area there are two major academic centers that have formed large health systems in the past five years. There is one other additional major hospital in the community. While there are some small local hospitals, these three provider organizations are the major provider entities. This competitive environment would be described as a(n):
B. Oligopoly
15. When examining the trend within the U.S. acute care hospital industry the past twenty five plus years has seen:
D. Hospital inpatient days have steadily declined
16. Aligned providers following clinical protocols and a health care entity responsible for a health population describes a:
A. Accountable Care Organization
17. Medical tourism refers to the growing trend of:
C. Individuals who visit foreign destinations for medical care
18. Contracts or contracts that prevent or inhibit competition are prohibited under the:
A. Sherman Anti-trust Act
19. When the Federal Government issued their report in 2004 entitled “Improving Health Care Competition” a key conclusion was:
D. When there was less health care competition, health care prices tended to be higher
20. When a company’s name is declared generic, the company now.
C. The company loses all proprietary right to the name as it applies to the product class
21. Different prices can be offered to different buyers providing:
B. There is a cost difference to serve each buyer
22. A supplier of syringes to a hospital is talking to a particular hospital material manager. He says, “I can give you a good deal on these syringes but in order to do so you must also buy these needles from me.” This statement has just violated which law:
B. Clayton Act
23. Marketers may most be affected by HIPAA compliance in the area of:
A. Database management
24. Under HIPPAA which communication is allowed without patient approval?
A. Communication regarding services describing the patient’s individual’s treatment
1. The stage where the consumer perceives a difference between the desired state and the desired state is:
B. Problem recognition
2. Which of the following is not a stage in the consumer decision making process?
A. Problem evaluation
3. In what type of industries is the internal search process often sufficient for the consumer to move on to the purchase stage:
D. Products that are frequently purchased
4. Which of the following is not used in the stage of external search?
D. All can be used
5. Angie’s list now provides a rating service for physicians. This type of information can potentially help consumers in which stage of the consumer decision making process?
A. External search
6. In assessing post purchase satisfaction, health care organizations should measure two elements:
A. Importance of each service element and expectation with the service element
7. Leverage opportunities for an organization in a satisfaction assessment are those which:
C. Are much better than expected and very important
8. A couple who were new to a community have two young children ages five and ten. Two different friends recommended two different pediatric groups for them to take their children to as their care provides. The couple chose one particular group. After their first visit, they wondered if they made the right choice. This couple is experiencing:
D. Cognitive dissonance
9. High involvement and extended search is referred to as which type of decision making process:
A. Complex
10. Purchases such as the selection of a neurosurgeon that involve significant risk are typically referred to as:
B. High involvement
11. Extended search is often warranted in which types of decision situations?
C. Complex
12. The goals or needs that propel an individual to action are referred to as
C. Motivations
13. Maslow developed his hierarchy to help:
D. Help explain why people behave differently
14. Learning is the result of five factors:
C. Drive, stimulus, cue, response, reinforcement
15. Consumers are exposed to a large number of messages but do not attend to all of them. This is the result of a process called:
C. Selective perception
16. Interpreting information from advertisements in a manner that is consistent with one’s beliefs is a process referred to as:
A. Selective comprehension
17. In the traditional family life cycle, over time, family decision making becomes:
C. Husband dominant or wife dominant in areas of specialization
18. In the traditional family life cycle, as the wife’s income rises her influence in family decision making tends to:
B. Increase with her income outside the home
19. The more necessary a product is:
D. The less important reference group influence is
20. A major complexity of trying to market a product or service to an organization with a buying center is that:
D. Each person in the buying center has a different set of criteria on which they are judging the product or service
1. The first step in the market research process is:
B. Problem recognition
2. A marketing director at a hospital wants to determine what impact a free screening clinic offer on the Web site might have in terms of generating calls into the scheduling center. This is which of the following research objective?
C. Hypothesis testing
3. Information specifically collected to address a specific research question is referred to as:
D. Primary data
4. Empirical data is:
B. Quantitative
5. A major disadvantage of primary data is that it is:
C. Cost of collection of the data can be a problem
6. The major difference between secondary and primary data is that secondary data are:
D. Are data collected for another purpose than that under study
7. Extracting information from large amounts of data is referred to as:
A. Data mining
8. Compared to primary data which of the following is not an advantage of secondary data:
D. These are all advantages of secondary data
9. There are four criteria in using secondary data, which of the following is not one of the criteria?
B. Cost
10. “Are the data objectively collected?” is which of the following criterion to consider in using secondary data?
A. Impartial
11. Using a mystery shopper to try the hospital’s phone system would be an example of which data collection method?
C. Observational
12. A major limitation to experimental research is:
B. There is the issue of transferability to the real world
13. A hospital sets up a billboard for its referral line in one city and in a second city it runs newspaper ads for its referral line in order to determine which media approach generates more telephone calls. This research method would be categorized as a:
14. The major difference between an experiment and a quasi-experimental design is that in the latter:
15. In marketing, a test market is a common form of a:
A. Quasi-experiment
16. One of the quickest ways to gather data from individuals is:
B. Telephone interviews
17. Focus groups have been useful to:
D. Explain survey results and develop hypotheses
18. Focus group data are:
B. Qualitative
19. When an organization collects data from everyone in the population this is defined as a:
D. A census
20. A Hospital Marketing Manager tells the patient coordinator to hand out on discharge the patient satisfaction survey to every twentieth patient who leaves the urgent care facility for the next week. This approach is using what sampling method?
B. Systematic sampling
1. Assuming everyone in the market want the same product is the principle underlying the:
B. Mass marketing approach
2. A major advantage of the mass marketing strategy is:
A. It is the most cost efficient
3. Market segmentation can be accomplished with which element of the marketing mix:
D. Any of the listed elements of the mix
4. Targeting to just one segment of the market is referred to as a:
A. Concentration strategy
5. Boutique medical practices that target wealthy clientele willing to pay for significant time with physicians when they need medical services are an example which type of a segmentation strategy?
C. Niche
6. The ideal market segment should always be:
A. As homogeneous as possible
7. A strong component of brand loyalty has been:
C. Trust
8. Grouping people together by a set of events that shape their values is referred to as:
D. Cohort segmentation
9. The key difference between a generation and a cohort is the events that shape a cohort:
D. Cohorts maintain their attitudes and values even as they age
10. With regard to health care, the Boomers compared to either the Post War cohort of the World War II cohort have been found to:
C. Seek out additional information about their care and treatment