aggregate data

data extracted (non specific data)from individual health records and combined to form de-identefied information about groups of patients that can be compared and analyzed

agency of healthcare and research and quality (AHRQ)

The branch of the us public health service that supports the general health research and distributes research findings and treatment guidelines with the goal of improving quality appropriateness and effectiveness of healthcare services

bar chart

a graphic technique used to display frequency distributions of nominal or ordinal data that fall into categories

centers of disease control prevention

a federal agency dedicated to protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention of control disease injury and disability

chart

(noun) the health record of a patient the document information about a patient in a health record

comparative data

individual data that is organized numerically and collated to make some comparisons against standards and benchmarks

continuous data

data that represents measurable quantities but are not restricted to certain specified values

correlational studies

a design of research that determines the existence and degrees and relationships among factors

descriptive statistics

frequencies percentages measures of central tendency mean median and mode

descriptive studies

research that is exploratory in nature and and generate new hypotheses from the data collected

discrete variable

are variables that can take on a finite number of values usually whole numbers or numbers that can be continued such as 204,65, and 534

ethnography

a method of observational research that investigates culture in naturalistic settings using qualitative and quantitative approaches

experimental study

study that strives to establish cause and effect it entails exposing participant to different interventions in order to compare the result of these interventions outcome

frequency

the number of times something occurs in a particular population or sample over a specific period of time

frequency polygon

a type of line graph that represents the frequency distribution

graph

a graphic tool used to show numerical data in pictorial representation

grounded theory

in research method that enables a researcher to develop the theory that substantiated or confirmed by the data

healthcare research organizations

conduct promotes and supports research across Healthcare organizations

histrogram

a graphic technique used to display the frequency distribution of continuous data as either numbers or percentages in a series of bars

incidence rate

a computation that compares the number of new cases of specific disease for a given period of time period to the population at risk for the disease during the same time period

independent variable

the factors in experimental research that researchers manipulate directly

individual data

individual data that is housed within the (EHR) data collected from the case study a focus group of individuals or during an interview or survey

inferential statistics

statistics that are used to make references from smaller groups of data to a large one

institutional review board (IRB)

an administrative body that provides review oversight guidance and approval for research projects carried out by employees serving researchers regardless of location of the research

Interval variables

variables that have an equal units with arbitrary zero point

line graph

a graphic technique used to illustrate the relationship between continuous measurements

mean

a measure of central tendency that is determined by calculating the arithmetic average of observations in a frequency distribution

measures of central tendency

the typical or average numbers that are descriptive of the entire collection of data for specific population

measures of variability

examination of the spread of different values around the measures of central tendency these include the range variance and standard deviation

median

a measure of central tendency that serves the midpoint of a frequency distribution when the observation have been arranged from lowest to highest

mixed methodology

research study approach that includes both quantitative and and qualitative data

mode

a measure of central tendency that consists of the most frequent observation in a frequency distribution

nominal variables

variables in which a number is assigned to a specific category such as 1=male 2= female

normal distribution

a theoretical family of continuous frequency distributions characterized by a symmetric bell

ordinal variables

ranked variables in which a number is assigned to rank category in an ordered series but does not indicate the magnitude of difference between data points

pareto chart

a bar graph that includes bars arranged in order of descending size to show decisions on the prioritization of issues problems and solutions

pie chart

a graphic technique in which the proportions of a category are displayed as portions of a circle used to show individual to part of a whole

presentation software

software used to build slides when presenting a a specific topic idea research data or any type of information

Propotion

The relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to magnitude quantity or degree

Prospective study

A study designed to observe outcomes or events that occur after identification of a group of subjects to be studied

Qualitive research

Research design that collects types of data that include a participants perceptions attitudes feelings attitudes about a certain subject methods used to collect qualities data can include observations focus groups case studies informal conversational interviews. And in depth interviews

Qualitative variables

Categorical variables all are discrete and include both nominal and ordinal variables

Quantitative. study

Data collected for research studies. That are collated numerically with descriptive infernal or predictive statistics

Quasi experimental. Study

Similar to the experimental study except that randomization of participants is not included in a quasi experimental study the independent. Variable may not be manipulated by the researcher and there may be no control or comparison group these studies can be performed. Over. Time

Randomization

The assignment. Of subjects to experimental or control groups based on chance

Range

A measure of variability. Between. The smallest and largest observations in a frequency distribution

Ratio variables

The most common quantative variables used in healthcare these variables include numbers that can be compared meaningfully. With one another zero is truly zero on the ratio scale

Research methodologies

Research studies. That can range from exploratory. To descriptive. Studies. That strive to generate new hypotheses. Based on data. Collected for expire mental studies. That provide intervention or treatments that can reduce the spread of an existing. Disease

Retrospective. Study

A type of research conducted by reviewing records from the past or by obtaining information about past events through surveys or interviews

Scatter charts

A graph visually. Displays the linear relationships. Among facts

Standard deviation

A measure of variability. That describes the deviation fron the mean of a frequency distribution in the original units of measurements. The square root of variance

Stem and leaf plots

A visual display that organizes data to show. Its shape and distribution using two columns with tue stem in the left hand and the column and leaves associated with that stem in the rigth hand colum leaf is the ones digits of the bumber and the other digits from the stem

Statistical packages

Software that can be used to facilitate the data collection and analysis process these packages simplify. The statistical. Analysis. Of the data often used in addition to spreadsheet software

Table

…an organized arrangement of data usually in columns. And rows

Variability

Range variance and standard deviation

Variance

…a disagreement between two parts the squares of standard deviation a measure of variability. That give the average squared deviation s from the mea.

World health organization(who)

…the united states. Nations specialized agency created to ensure. The attainment. By all peoples of the highest possible levels of health responsible. For the number international classifications including icd 10 and icf

Quantitative variables

are numerical variables that can be classified as discrete or continuous

Continuous variables

include any numerical value that goes from one whole number to the next whole number such as 30,567.32,62.596,and ,18.65

Bubble chart

is similar to a scatter chart except that it Compares three data variables

Percenticle

a measure used and descriptive statistics that show the value below which is given percentage of scores in a given group of scores fall

Independent. Variable

independent variable is one that is manipulated by the researcher understudy