And about 22 chemicals/week x 52 weeks /year = 1144 chemicals /year manufactured each year.
Organic chemical substances, including pesticide, make up a large portion of these compounds.
(This is the whole purpose of the environmental health class; need to know what dose response curves look like; exposure assessment – health effects; monitoring is a key issue)
DOT Regulates Interstate Transportation
EPA Sets standards for manifest, shipping tickets
Coast Guard Shipments of Oil on water bodies
The Act is designed to reduce the hazards of this waste by tracking it from the point of generation to the final disposal.
RCRA defines hazardous waste, sets rules for handling treatment and disposal.
2. Improve design and operations of landfills
3. Small generators : 100 kg(220 lbs) per month or more are subjected to regulations used to be for 1000 kg or more.
4. Create a new program for detecting and monitoring leakage from underground storage tanks such as gas station
The public demanded that something has to be done about cleaning these sites
SARA also required EPA to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to ensure that it accurately assessed the relative degree of risk to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that may be placed on the National Priority List (NPL).
Federal and State regulations define hazardous waste as a substance that poses a hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed.
Improper management of hazardous waste can pose a Risk to human health and the Environment in many ways:
Direct contact: skin, inhalation, ingestion acute or chronic exposure
Explosions and fire hazards:
Food contamination: food chain
Air Pollution , Soil Contamination
Surface and ground water contamination
Glycol ethers may be used alone or in combination with other ingredients in
paints, varnishes, dyes, stains, and inks
semiconductor chip coatings
degreasers and dry-cleaning fluids
brake fluids and jet fuel de-icing additives
Benzene Neural tube defect
Triazine low weight
Agricultural work oral clefts
Solid that has pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5 when mixed with equal weight of water
Examples : Hydrochloric acid, Sulfuric acid and Lime
Forms potentially explosive mixtures with water
Forms toxic gases, vapors, or fumes when mixed with water
Is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste which, when exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapors, or fumes
Has an acute oral LD50 less than 2,500 mg/kg
Has an acute dermal LD50 less than 4,300 mg/kg
Has an acute inhalation LC50 less than 10,000 ppm as a gas or vapor
TCLP : Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Examples : Arsenic, Mercury, Lead
Proposed sites 57 5 62
Final sites 1140 158 1298
Deleted Sites 339 15 394
Partial Deletion 40 17 57
(see slide 24)
Arsenic, Lead oxides
The landowner envisioned the creation of a city would be home to industry, and housing for more than a million people.
Thousands of acres would become “the most extensive and beautiful [park] in the world”.
Within a year, however, Love’s plans failed, and would quickly have been forgotten if it weren’t for one problem.
This continued for more than twenty years, after which a Chemical and Plastics Corporation purchased the land for their own chemical disposal.
By 1953, the company had buried nearly 22,000 tons of waste, and the pit was virtually full.
At that time, the dangers of chemical wastes were almost entirely unknown.
The Love Canal was lined with clay and covered with dirt to supposedly seal it, and company’s Chemical experts declared it safe.
There was a carefully-worded disclaimer the company included with the sale, disclaiming any responsibility for side-effects from chemical exposure
The Niagara Falls Board of Education, which was in urgent need of more classroom space, began constructing a new elementary school.
Although most of the residents of Niagara Falls knew what the land had been previously used for, they were not cautioned about living on it.
Unsurprisingly, the direct effects of the pit’s contents were soon felt.
Strange odors and substances were reported by residents, especially those with basements.
Pieces of phosphorus made their way to the surface; children in the schoolyard were burned by toxic waste.
Local officials were alerted, but took no action.
In 1976, water from heavy rains and a record-breaking blizzard caused a significant amount of chemical waste to migrate to the surface, where it contaminated the entire neighborhood.
In the following years the area was stricken with higher than normal rates of stillborn births and miscarriages, and many babies were born with birth defects.
Informal studies by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, observed more than 400 types of chemicals in the air, water, and soil, with some of them – such as benzene – already known to be carcinogenic
Finally, in the spring of 1978, state health commissioner declared the area around the Love Canal hazardous.
The school closed, the land was sectioned off, and more than 200 families in the immediate area were evacuated.
By August of that year, President Jimmy Carter called upon the Federal Disaster Assistance Agency for its help
Evacuation from the Love Canal neighborhood
.Lawsuits were quick to arrive, and the Company found itself being sued for more than $11 billion.
The Company denied its involvement through this series, even when faced by the Federal Justice Department in 1979 and New York State in 1989.
Still, a great deal of damage had been done, and eventually more than 1,000 families had to be moved out of the Love Canal area.
Fifteen Love Canal babies born between January 1979 and January 1980, only two were healthy.
Agencies at the state and federal levels spent hundreds of millions of dollars trying to clean up the pollution. Of that, Chemical Company has eventually been persuaded to contribute about $130 million.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, more commonly known as the ‘Superfund’ law
In the early 1990s parts of the area were declared safe again, and now make up a neighborhood known as Black Creek Village.
The area was taken off the Superfund list in September 2004 at the announcement that certain clean-up goals had been reached.
Much of the Canal itself, however, remains sectioned off by a chain-link fence, which to any local passersby must serve as a reminder of the whole catastrophe.
It often caught fire with smoke and flames visible for a good distance away.
In 1966, it was covered by ash and compacted .
Again, in 1976 , it was covered with soil and sand and developed as residential neighborhood , small businesses and Moton Elementary School.
In 1986, complaints of health problems by residents, EPA investigation indicated that it was not worthy of Federal remedy.
Residents continued to complain about high rate of cancer .
They found trash when digging for fence construction and planting a garden.
In 1993, residents petitioned the EPA for retesting and the site was listed as a superfund site, on the NPL.
Soil testing showed chemical contaminants as Arsenic, Lead and Polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons.
Two feet of soil were removed
A plastic sheeting was put down as a barrier
Then topping with two feet of clean new soil.
In 2001 , the site was declared 99% complete.
Many homeowners petitioned to be moved, but there was no funding provided.
Hurricane Katrina flooded the site and concerns are some of the toxic chemicals were released to the surface.
Paint and paint removers and thinners
auto related waste: antifreeze, oils, batteries
yard, laundry and pool chemicals
oven and window cleaners
Household batteries: contain mercury, cadmium or silver these normally end in the sanitary landfill.
Take to a service station or oil change business that accepts it for recycling or to the Household Hazardous Waste Facility.
Discard EMPTY oil bottles in the trash with the lid on.
DO NOT DUMP USED OIL on ground, into street drains or down the sink. One gallon of used oil contaminates one million gallons of water.
Drain used antifreeze into a plastic leak-proof container with a tight-fitting lid and take to a participating service station or the Household Hazardous Waste Facility for recycling.
Discard empty antifreeze container in the trash.
Keep out of reach of children, pets, and other animals. Antifreeze is highly poisonous when ingested.
(see chart on slide 64)
Take to the Household Hazardous Waste Facility for collection.
Use adequate ventilation and exercise caution with these products. Never put brushes in mouth.
In a closed jar, allow sludge to settle to bottom, then pour off and re-use the clear liquid on top.
Soak up sludge with an absorbent such as kitty litter, allow to dry in a well-ventilated area away from children and pets, then discard in the trash.
Take unused portion to Household Hazardous Waste Facility.
*Uninterruptible Power Supplies
*Computers, processors, monitors
*DVD Movies & Video games
*These items should never be placed in garbage or curbside recycling carts or bins
latex, oil-based and polyurethane paints in original containers with readable labels;
mineral spirits, kerosene, lamp oil and turpentine in original containers with readable labels;
all types of batteries;
fluorescent and incandescent lights;
mercury-containing devices such as thermometers and thermostats.
computers, monitors, printer and ink jet cartridges, fax machines, televisions, microwave ovens,
stereo and radio equipment, typewriters and VCR-DVD players also will be collected.
Residents can drop off up to five automobile or light-truck tires per household at the event.
Rinse containers with water and use the water for diluting the pesticide
If you cannot use it, give it to someone who can.
Banned pesticides must not be used
Wood Preservatives: Pentachlorophenols or creosote, these include organic solvents as well as pesticides to control insects. fungi.
Treated wood should never be used as firewood; toxic fumes
Definition, sharps, body fluids, human an animal organs, etc.
General and specific risks to patients and staff
General and specific risks to landfill operators
(more notes: Charcoal: negatively charged; can absorb certain chemicals; filtration: removing suspended material so filtrate is clean and can discharge it into a receiving water body; chemical oxygen demand; sedimentation: material settles at the bottom)
(more notes: Oxidation and reduction typically go together; change valency of the compound to determine toxicity; neutralization: producing water or salts by combining compounds (usually an acid and a base); precipitation: like sedimentation, but resulting from specific gravity; precipitation: mix two compounds together, add chemicals, and the compounds form crystalline, settling at the bottom; the sediment material will be disposed of)
Temperature sufficient to volatilize hazardous waste (3000 F, 1648 C)
Conventional Incineration (1600-2200 F )(871-1204 C)
(more notes: Ionization of argon gas; apply a voltage to produce heat; burn things; it becomes carbon; add silica; it becomes glass (ooooooh); destroy chemical contaminants in the smoke/fumes; need to neutralize it b/c it’s acidic; materials you incinerate are either packed into carbon/plastic bags/boxes; plastic is polyvinylchloride; moisture in the waste that forms with chlorine and hydrogen; it forms hydrochloric acid; if it’s not neutralized before leaving the stacks, it is highly acidic and will corrode ALL OF THE THINGS in a 50 mile radius; expensive)
2- Trickling filters
3- Land application
(more notes: All of these are aerobic processes; Microorganisms will break up the chemicals; they use the carbon from organic material; generates high biochemical oxygen demand; whoo activated sludge: provide oxygen to microorganisms; and sometimes, chemicals in the waste are toxic to the microorganisms and they’ll die in a few hrs; you then take the waste and activate the microorganisms so they’ll adjust to the toxicitiy; fluff material???!?!?!1??1 byproduct of petroleum; in the long run, microorganisms may not be able to survive it; material needs to be treated before it’s disposed of; soil samples were taken; small quantities of waste were added so microorganisms that are too sensitive will die; after 3 months, a culture is made that will work in concentrated waste; land application: buffer area around the plant; liquid waste is sprayed over the land; then it is tilled, so microorganisms will feed on it and break it up; land has to be left alone for 3 yrs so microorganisms can reestablish itself; give the microorganisms food, and this is one such method; non toxic fertilizer used; reduction in oil waste thanks to microorganisms)
2- Land burial/landfills
3- Engineering storage
(more notes: Salt domes; salt dissolves after waste is put in; this makes brine; oil is injected in; in case oil is needed, it gets pumped out; but some industries think the oil is toxic; logically, the waste should be able to be put in the salt if the oil can be; greenlight to dump liquid waste into salt domes; legal in LA)
Most Class I hazardous wells are located at industrial facilities.
Only a few Class I wells are at commercial operations that can accept hazardous waste generated offsite. Class I hazardous waste wells operate in 10 states with the majority in Texas and Louisiana. Approximately 22 percent of Class I wells are hazardous waste disposal wells.
Class I Injection Wells isolate hazardous, industrial and municipal wastes through deep injection.
Class I wells are used mainly by the following industries:
Municipal Wastewater Treatment
(more notes: The wastewater contains salts, oils, and grease, metals, radioactive chemicals, fracking chemicals; pollutants are dangerous if we don’t take care of them; current methods of treatment: treatment and discharge into surface waters; usually is treated at a privately owned industrial wastewater treatment facility which removes pollutants; or sent to municipal sewage treatment plants, which aren’t designed to handle such waste; actually just dilute the pollutants rather than removing them (which is not good); both methods discharge the treatment waste into surface waters;
Spreading onto roads for ice or dust control; since it’s so salty, some of this waste is used as de-icing or dust control agent; underground injection: fracking wastewater is often injected underground into disposal wells, which might lead to a risk of groundwater contamination and earthquakes
No regulations for fracking; trying to be less dependent on foreign oil/gas, but Congress is dragging its feet on that; but this practice may be environmentally unsafe; natural gas prices are already down thanks to this fracking stuff; they want this industry to expand
Maybe it’s better to put pipes above ground you they are easier to monitor, rather than putting them in the ground)
Contaminated metals are cleaned and recycled reducing your liability.
PCB wastes are incinerated or sent to a secure TSCA authorized landfill.
Mineral oil containing less than 50ppm PCBs is cleaned and recycled as a lubricant.
C) Toxicity testing
B. Application(preparation and spraying)
D. Farming ( planting, harvesting)
Absorption of chemicals through spraying of vegetables