Hazardous Waste

Toxic Chemicals In The Environment
There are more than 116,000 registered, with EPA, chemicals in daily use
And about 22 chemicals/week x 52 weeks /year = 1144 chemicals /year manufactured each year.
Organic chemical substances, including pesticide, make up a large portion of these compounds.
Risk Assessment and Risk Management/Communication
see diagram on slide 4 from lecture

(This is the whole purpose of the environmental health class; need to know what dose response curves look like; exposure assessment – health effects; monitoring is a key issue)

Who is Responsible for hazardous Waste
Department of Transportation (DOT)
DOT Regulates Interstate Transportation
EPA Sets standards for manifest, shipping tickets
Coast Guard Shipments of Oil on water bodies
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) – 1976
RCRA is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which was approved by the congress in 1976.

The Act is designed to reduce the hazards of this waste by tracking it from the point of generation to the final disposal.
RCRA defines hazardous waste, sets rules for handling treatment and disposal.

1984 Amendment to RCRA
1. Reduction of the amount buried in landfills
2. Improve design and operations of landfills
3. Small generators : 100 kg(220 lbs) per month or more are subjected to regulations used to be for 1000 kg or more.
4. Create a new program for detecting and monitoring leakage from underground storage tanks such as gas station
Abandoned HW Dumpsites
EPA estimates that the owners of about 50,000 abandoned hazardous waste dumpsites are unknown.(leakage and leachate .

The public demanded that something has to be done about cleaning these sites

CERCLA: The “Superfund” Act
Therefore, in 1980 the congress enacted the “Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act” CERCLA known as the Superfund Act to stop polluting and making owners liable and responsible for the clean up of their discharges.
CERCLA Amendment
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)
SARA also required EPA to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to ensure that it accurately assessed the relative degree of risk to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that may be placed on the National Priority List (NPL).
What Is A Hazardous Chemical Waste
RCRA defines hazardous waste as any discarded material that may pose a substantial threat or potential danger to human health or the environment when improperly handled.

Federal and State regulations define hazardous waste as a substance that poses a hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed.

Improper management of hazardous waste can pose a Risk to human health and the Environment in many ways:

Direct contact: skin, inhalation, ingestion acute or chronic exposure
Explosions and fire hazards:
Food contamination: food chain
Air Pollution , Soil Contamination
Surface and ground water contamination

Environmental Factors and Birth Defects
Exposure to hazardous waste could result in Birth Defects leading to infant mortality.
Glycol Ethers
Glycol ethers may be used alone or in combination with other ingredients in
paints, varnishes, dyes, stains, and inks
semiconductor chip coatings
degreasers and dry-cleaning fluids
brake fluids and jet fuel de-icing additives
Associated Birth Defects with Certain Toxic Chemicals.
Hair dye cardiac
Benzene Neural tube defect
Lead CNS
Toluene Microcephaly
Triazine low weight
PCB’s CNS
Agricultural work oral clefts
hazardous chemical waste continued
A chemical waste is considered hazardous if it is either listed on one of the lists of hazardous wastes found in the Federal or State regulations, or exhibits one or more of the four characteristics listed below:

* Ignitable
* Corrosive
* Reactive
* Toxic

Ignitable
Flashpoint <140 degrees F Capable of causing fire at standard temperature and pressure through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes Is an ignitable compressed gas / Examples : Methane/Butane gases
Corrosive
Liquid with pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5
Solid that has pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5 when mixed with equal weight of water
Examples : Hydrochloric acid, Sulfuric acid and Lime
Reactive
Reacts violently with water
Forms potentially explosive mixtures with water
Forms toxic gases, vapors, or fumes when mixed with water
Is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste which, when exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapors, or fumes
Toxic
Has an acute aquatic 96-hour LC50 less than 500 mg/l
Has an acute oral LD50 less than 2,500 mg/kg
Has an acute dermal LD50 less than 4,300 mg/kg
Has an acute inhalation LC50 less than 10,000 ppm as a gas or vapor
TCLP : Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
Examples : Arsenic, Mercury, Lead
National Priority List(NPL)
More than $20 Billion had been allocated for clean-up activities. The EPA and local state agencies developed a NPL of about 1300 sites require immediate clean-up. They contain Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Benzene, Vinyl Chloride, Cadmium, PCB’s . etc.
The following table shows the number NPL of Federal and General sites for each status and milestone as of OCTOBER 25, 2011:
Status Non Federal Federal Total

Proposed sites 57 5 62
Final sites 1140 158 1298
Deleted Sites 339 15 394
Partial Deletion 40 17 57
(see slide 24)

Clean-up
After spending $25 Billion, only 80 sites had been “delisted ” and cleaning is in progress at 360 sites.
Examples of Hazardous Chemicals
Aldrin, Dieldrin, Parathion
Arsenic, Lead oxides
Aluminum phosphide
Calcium cyanide
Benzene
The Love Canal
William T. Love came to 1890s Niagara Falls, New York, with hugely ambitious plans.
The landowner envisioned the creation of a city would be home to industry, and housing for more than a million people.

Thousands of acres would become “the most extensive and beautiful [park] in the world”.
Within a year, however, Love’s plans failed, and would quickly have been forgotten if it weren’t for one problem.

the Love Canal Tragedy
In 1920 the city of Niagara Falls, a growing industrial town, purchased a kilometer-long pit that immediately started using the pit as a dumping ground for chemical wastes.

This continued for more than twenty years, after which a Chemical and Plastics Corporation purchased the land for their own chemical disposal.

By 1953, the company had buried nearly 22,000 tons of waste, and the pit was virtually full.

At that time, the dangers of chemical wastes were almost entirely unknown.

The Love Canal was lined with clay and covered with dirt to supposedly seal it, and company’s Chemical experts declared it safe.

There was a carefully-worded disclaimer the company included with the sale, disclaiming any responsibility for side-effects from chemical exposure
.
The Niagara Falls Board of Education, which was in urgent need of more classroom space, began constructing a new elementary school.

Although most of the residents of Niagara Falls knew what the land had been previously used for, they were not cautioned about living on it.

Unsurprisingly, the direct effects of the pit’s contents were soon felt.
Strange odors and substances were reported by residents, especially those with basements.
Pieces of phosphorus made their way to the surface; children in the schoolyard were burned by toxic waste.
Local officials were alerted, but took no action.

In 1976, water from heavy rains and a record-breaking blizzard caused a significant amount of chemical waste to migrate to the surface, where it contaminated the entire neighborhood.

In the following years the area was stricken with higher than normal rates of stillborn births and miscarriages, and many babies were born with birth defects.

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Informal studies by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, observed more than 400 types of chemicals in the air, water, and soil, with some of them – such as benzene – already known to be carcinogenic
Finally, in the spring of 1978, state health commissioner declared the area around the Love Canal hazardous.
The school closed, the land was sectioned off, and more than 200 families in the immediate area were evacuated.
.
By August of that year, President Jimmy Carter called upon the Federal Disaster Assistance Agency for its help
Evacuation from the Love Canal neighborhood
.Lawsuits were quick to arrive, and the Company found itself being sued for more than $11 billion.

The Company denied its involvement through this series, even when faced by the Federal Justice Department in 1979 and New York State in 1989.
Still, a great deal of damage had been done, and eventually more than 1,000 families had to be moved out of the Love Canal area.

Fifteen Love Canal babies born between January 1979 and January 1980, only two were healthy.

Agencies at the state and federal levels spent hundreds of millions of dollars trying to clean up the pollution. Of that, Chemical Company has eventually been persuaded to contribute about $130 million.

outcomes of Love Canal
One good thing that came out of the disaster was the creation of CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, more commonly known as the ‘Superfund’ law

In the early 1990s parts of the area were declared safe again, and now make up a neighborhood known as Black Creek Village.

The area was taken off the Superfund list in September 2004 at the announcement that certain clean-up goals had been reached.

Much of the Canal itself, however, remains sectioned off by a chain-link fence, which to any local passersby must serve as a reminder of the whole catastrophe.

Agriculture Street Landfill (New Orleans, LA)
The 95 acres began to be used as an open dump for both residential and industrial in 1909.
It often caught fire with smoke and flames visible for a good distance away.
In 1966, it was covered by ash and compacted .
Again, in 1976 , it was covered with soil and sand and developed as residential neighborhood , small businesses and Moton Elementary School.
In 1986, complaints of health problems by residents, EPA investigation indicated that it was not worthy of Federal remedy.
Residents continued to complain about high rate of cancer .
They found trash when digging for fence construction and planting a garden.

In 1993, residents petitioned the EPA for retesting and the site was listed as a superfund site, on the NPL.
Soil testing showed chemical contaminants as Arsenic, Lead and Polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons.

Agriculture Street Landfill – remediation
Morton Elementary was closed
Two feet of soil were removed
A plastic sheeting was put down as a barrier
Then topping with two feet of clean new soil.

In 2001 , the site was declared 99% complete.
Many homeowners petitioned to be moved, but there was no funding provided.
Hurricane Katrina flooded the site and concerns are some of the toxic chemicals were released to the surface.

household hazardous waste
We have many hazardous material in daily use around the house. About 20 pounds per household per year
These include:
Paint and paint removers and thinners
auto related waste: antifreeze, oils, batteries
yard, laundry and pool chemicals
oven and window cleaners
batteries
Lead acid batteries contain sulfuric acid. They are recyclable .
Household batteries: contain mercury, cadmium or silver these normally end in the sanitary landfill.
Disposal Methods for automotive products – oil/gasoline
Drain used oil into a plastic leak-proof container with a tight-fitting lid.
Take to a service station or oil change business that accepts it for recycling or to the Household Hazardous Waste Facility.
Discard EMPTY oil bottles in the trash with the lid on.
DO NOT DUMP USED OIL on ground, into street drains or down the sink. One gallon of used oil contaminates one million gallons of water.
disposal methods for automotive products – antifreeze
Antifreeze
Drain used antifreeze into a plastic leak-proof container with a tight-fitting lid and take to a participating service station or the Household Hazardous Waste Facility for recycling.

Discard empty antifreeze container in the trash.

Keep out of reach of children, pets, and other animals. Antifreeze is highly poisonous when ingested.
.

(see chart on slide 64)

disposal of paint and other related products
Check into non-toxic alternatives for some of these products.
Take to the Household Hazardous Waste Facility for collection.
Use adequate ventilation and exercise caution with these products. Never put brushes in mouth.
In a closed jar, allow sludge to settle to bottom, then pour off and re-use the clear liquid on top.
Soak up sludge with an absorbent such as kitty litter, allow to dry in a well-ventilated area away from children and pets, then discard in the trash.

Take unused portion to Household Hazardous Waste Facility.

household hazardous waste examples
*BATTERIES (household/auto), TELEVISIONS
*AEROSOLS
*DRAINO, BLEACH
*PESTICIDES
*GROUT
*FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
*GARDEN CHEMICALS
*MERCURY DEVICES
*MURIATIC ACID
*ANTIFREEZE
*Cell Phones/Beepers/Pagers
*Uninterruptible Power Supplies
*Security Systems
*Computers, processors, monitors
*Circuit Boards
*GPS devices
*MP3 players
*DVD Movies & Video games
warning (?) – more hazardous wastes, I suppose
Not accepting: explosives, radioactive materials, medical waste, asbestos, glass, hazardous waste from businesses or schools

*These items should never be placed in garbage or curbside recycling carts or bins

House Hold Hazardous Waste Collection Day /Slidell/St Tammany Parish/ Louisiana
Residents can dispose of environmentally unsafe materials such as.

latex, oil-based and polyurethane paints in original containers with readable labels;

mineral spirits, kerosene, lamp oil and turpentine in original containers with readable labels;

all types of batteries;
cell phones;

fluorescent and incandescent lights;

mercury-containing devices such as thermometers and thermostats.

computers, monitors, printer and ink jet cartridges, fax machines, televisions, microwave ovens,

stereo and radio equipment, typewriters and VCR-DVD players also will be collected.

Residents can drop off up to five automobile or light-truck tires per household at the event.

pesticides
Herbicides, insecticides and rodenticides
Rinse containers with water and use the water for diluting the pesticide
If you cannot use it, give it to someone who can.
Banned pesticides must not be used
Swimming Pool Chemicals and Wood Preservatives
Chlorine compounds: corrosive and irritants.
Wood Preservatives: Pentachlorophenols or creosote, these include organic solvents as well as pesticides to control insects. fungi.
Treated wood should never be used as firewood; toxic fumes
What we should know about medical waste.
Federal Regulations, OSHA. Packaging, labeling, storage, transportation, and treatment.
Definition, sharps, body fluids, human an animal organs, etc.
Louisiana Regulation
General and specific risks to patients and staff
General and specific risks to landfill operators
Methods of Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste
A. Physical Treatment
Carbon adsorption
Evaporation
Filtration
Sedimentation
Membrane processes

(more notes: Charcoal: negatively charged; can absorb certain chemicals; filtration: removing suspended material so filtrate is clean and can discharge it into a receiving water body; chemical oxygen demand; sedimentation: material settles at the bottom)

Chemical Treatment
Neutralization
Oxidation
Reduction
Precipitation

(more notes: Oxidation and reduction typically go together; change valency of the compound to determine toxicity; neutralization: producing water or salts by combining compounds (usually an acid and a base); precipitation: like sedimentation, but resulting from specific gravity; precipitation: mix two compounds together, add chemicals, and the compounds form crystalline, settling at the bottom; the sediment material will be disposed of)

thermal
Plasma process: It does not require extensive characteristics or pretreatment.
Temperature sufficient to volatilize hazardous waste (3000 F, 1648 C)
Conventional Incineration (1600-2200 F )(871-1204 C)

(more notes: Ionization of argon gas; apply a voltage to produce heat; burn things; it becomes carbon; add silica; it becomes glass (ooooooh); destroy chemical contaminants in the smoke/fumes; need to neutralize it b/c it’s acidic; materials you incinerate are either packed into carbon/plastic bags/boxes; plastic is polyvinylchloride; moisture in the waste that forms with chlorine and hydrogen; it forms hydrochloric acid; if it’s not neutralized before leaving the stacks, it is highly acidic and will corrode ALL OF THE THINGS in a 50 mile radius; expensive)

biological
1- Activated sludge
2- Trickling filters
3- Land application

(more notes: All of these are aerobic processes; Microorganisms will break up the chemicals; they use the carbon from organic material; generates high biochemical oxygen demand; whoo activated sludge: provide oxygen to microorganisms; and sometimes, chemicals in the waste are toxic to the microorganisms and they’ll die in a few hrs; you then take the waste and activate the microorganisms so they’ll adjust to the toxicitiy; fluff material???!?!?!1??1 byproduct of petroleum; in the long run, microorganisms may not be able to survive it; material needs to be treated before it’s disposed of; soil samples were taken; small quantities of waste were added so microorganisms that are too sensitive will die; after 3 months, a culture is made that will work in concentrated waste; land application: buffer area around the plant; liquid waste is sprayed over the land; then it is tilled, so microorganisms will feed on it and break it up; land has to be left alone for 3 yrs so microorganisms can reestablish itself; give the microorganisms food, and this is one such method; non toxic fertilizer used; reduction in oil waste thanks to microorganisms)

disposal storage
1- Deep-well injection
2- Land burial/landfills
3- Engineering storage

(more notes: Salt domes; salt dissolves after waste is put in; this makes brine; oil is injected in; in case oil is needed, it gets pumped out; but some industries think the oil is toxic; logically, the waste should be able to be put in the salt if the oil can be; greenlight to dump liquid waste into salt domes; legal in LA)

injection wells
Hazardous Waste Disposal Wells. These wells inject hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ( RCRA). Hazardous waste disposal wells are stringently regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act and RCRA.

Most Class I hazardous wells are located at industrial facilities.
Only a few Class I wells are at commercial operations that can accept hazardous waste generated offsite. Class I hazardous waste wells operate in 10 states with the majority in Texas and Louisiana. Approximately 22 percent of Class I wells are hazardous waste disposal wells.

Class I injection well
Class I wells inject hazardous and non-hazardous wastes into deep, isolated rock formations that are thousands of feet below the lowermost USDW.

Class I Injection Wells isolate hazardous, industrial and municipal wastes through deep injection.
Class I wells are used mainly by the following industries:
Petroleum Refining
Metal Production
Chemical Production
Pharmaceutical Production
Commercial Disposal
Food Production
Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Fracking hazardous waste
The process used to extract natural gas from underground shale formations, called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking; creates potentially hazardous wastewater byproducts; these byproducts include the fracking fluid that returns to the surface of the natural gas well, along with water that’s released from inside the shale formation

(more notes: The wastewater contains salts, oils, and grease, metals, radioactive chemicals, fracking chemicals; pollutants are dangerous if we don’t take care of them; current methods of treatment: treatment and discharge into surface waters; usually is treated at a privately owned industrial wastewater treatment facility which removes pollutants; or sent to municipal sewage treatment plants, which aren’t designed to handle such waste; actually just dilute the pollutants rather than removing them (which is not good); both methods discharge the treatment waste into surface waters;

Spreading onto roads for ice or dust control; since it’s so salty, some of this waste is used as de-icing or dust control agent; underground injection: fracking wastewater is often injected underground into disposal wells, which might lead to a risk of groundwater contamination and earthquakes

No regulations for fracking; trying to be less dependent on foreign oil/gas, but Congress is dragging its feet on that; but this practice may be environmentally unsafe; natural gas prices are already down thanks to this fracking stuff; they want this industry to expand

Maybe it’s better to put pipes above ground you they are easier to monitor, rather than putting them in the ground)

Recycling Of Hazardous Waste – transformers
PCB and non-PCB contaminated oil is removed from all electrical equipment.
Contaminated metals are cleaned and recycled reducing your liability.
PCB wastes are incinerated or sent to a secure TSCA authorized landfill.
Mineral oil containing less than 50ppm PCBs is cleaned and recycled as a lubricant.
Monitoring And measurement
A) Sampling
B) Analysis
C) Toxicity testing
human exposure
A. Food chain
B. Application(preparation and spraying)
C. Manufacturing
D. Farming ( planting, harvesting)

Absorption of chemicals through spraying of vegetables