Govt 2305 Exam Two

Conference committees are
A. temporary and are created to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.
B. temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate.
C. permanent and have the power to write and propose legislation.
D. permanent and involve members from both the House and the Senate, but they do not have the power to report legislation.
E. informal committees composed of members from both political parties and both houses of Congress that are designed to promote bipartisanship.
B. temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate.
Which of the following statements about Congress’s role in foreign policy is not accurate?
A. Congress is more likely than the president to adopt a short-term, politicized view of foreign affairs.
B. The Constitution directs Congress to stay out of foreign affairs and concentrate solely on domestic politics.
C. Congress is more likely than the president to put domestic concerns ahead of foreign policy priorities.
D. Congress has sometimes supported the president’s foreign policy and sometimes opposed it.
E. Due to their access to the national security apparatus, presidents are better equipped than Congress to know what needs to be done to conduct a successful foreign policy.
B. The Constitution directs Congress to stay out of foreign affairs and concentrate solely on domestic politics.
As of 2012, how many women serve in the U.S. Senate?
A. twenty-nine
B. two
C. twenty-one
D. seven
E. twenty
E. twenty
The process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called
A. redlining.
B. gerrymandering.
C. redistricting.
D. apportionment.
E. filibustering.
D. apportionment.
Cloture is
A. the process by which the president can end a filibuster.
B. the process by which three-fifths of the Senate can end a filibuster.
C. the ability of a senator to speak for as long as he or she wishes to prevent action from being taken on legislation that he or she opposes.
D. the rule that allows one house of Congress to circumvent the other during the legislative process.
E. a lawsuit filed by a member of the Senate against a member of the House or vice versa.
B. the process by which three-fifths of the Senate can end a filibuster.
Who has the most real power in the Senate?
A. the Speaker of the Senate
B. the Senate president pro tempore
C. the chair of the Rules Committee
D. the majority and minority leaders
E. Unlike the House, all senators are equal in power.
D. the majority and minority leaders
The two presidents to be impeached by the House of Representatives were Bill Clinton and
A. Andrew Johnson.
B. Herbert Hoover.
C. Richard Nixon.
D. Andrew Jackson.
E. Warren Harding.
A. Andrew Johnson.
Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent?
A. It is someone who donates money to a campaign.
B. It is the name for a person who has sued the federal government in court for violating the Constitution.
C. It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.
D. It is another name for a voter.
E. It is the name for a member of Congress running for re-election.
C. It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.
The most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress is
A. lobbyist.
B. sales representative.
C. business executive.
D. lawyer.
E. professor.
D. lawyer.
Congress is a ______ legislature with ______ members.
A. unicameral; 630
B. bicameral; 535
C. unicameral; 342
D. unicameral; 750
E. bicameral; 100
B. bicameral; 535
Who is the Speaker of the House?
A. The president selects the Speaker of the House from the majority party in the House.
B. The representative with the longest tenure in the House is the Speaker of the House.
C. An employee of Congress who formally brings the House into session each day is the Speaker.
D. The vice president is also the Speaker of the House.
E. The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the Speaker.
E. The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the Speaker.
What are the greatest dangers associated with a trustee model of representation?
A. Representatives may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents.
B. Members of the Congress may not bring back enough pork-barrel projects to their districts.
C. The representatives who adopt this model are too influenced by special interest groups.
D. Members of Congress may become too polarized, and bipartisanship will decrease significantly.
E. Members of Congress may give inadequate deference to the executive branch in the area of national security.
A. Representatives may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents.
A filibuster allows members of the Senate to
A. prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor.
B. call into question any action of the executive branch.
C. add amendments to any bill at any time.
D. refer a bill to multiple committees.
E. avoid a conference committee.
A. prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor.
Pork-barrel legislation
A. orders state governments to implement a program without providing funding for doing so.
B. deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.
C. grants a special privilege to a person named in the bill.
D. deals with specific agricultural subsidies.
E. funds efforts to increase the levels of America’s meat exports.
B. deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.
Which statement about the membership of Congress is not true?
A. Senators and members of the House are much more likely than the population on the whole to hold a professional or law degree.
B. Senators and members of the House are more likely than the population on the whole to be Jewish.
C. Senators and members of the House are much less likely to be Hispanic than the population on the whole.
D. Senators and members of the House are less likely than the population on the whole to be Protestants.
E. Senators and members of the House are, on average, much older than the population.
D. Senators and members of the House are less likely than the population on the whole to be Protestants.
Which of the following is the best definition of a congressional caucus?
A. a formal committee that has the power to propose and write legislation
B. informal lobbying groups, organized around similar interests such as agriculture or maritime affairs
C. a vote by members of the House in order to determine who the Speaker of the House will be
D. unofficial groups of representatives or senators sharing similar interests or opinions
E. a formal substructure of congressional parties, oriented toward fund-raising
D. unofficial groups of representatives or senators sharing similar interests or opinions
One reason why redistricting is controversial is that
A. computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
B. it is unclear whether districts have to be drawn in such a way that each district includes roughly the same number of people.
C. interest groups and PACs exert a great deal of influence over the specific shape of each district.
D. it is unclear whether state legislatures or the federal government has the authority to redraw districts.
E. incumbents never lose when districts are redrawn.
A. computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.
Which is the best description of the K Street Project?
A. It was an attempt to place former Republican staffers in key lobbying positions to help ensure a large flow of corporate donations to the Republican Party.
B. It was a collective attempt by interest groups who had offices on K Street in Washington, D.C., to have their staffers elected to the House of Representatives.
C. Orchestrated by the Federalist Society, it has the goal of placing conservatives on the federal courts.
D. This describes a bipartisan movement to get the offices of congressional staffers expanded beyond Capitol Hill to K Street.
E. It was an attempt by Democrats to place party loyalists in key positions in the administrative agencies that line K Street in Washington, D.C.
A. It was an attempt to place former Republican staffers in key lobbying positions to help ensure a large flow of corporate donations to the Republican Party.
A bicameral legislature is one that has
A. equal representation for each state.
B. authority to overrule state governments.
C. a prime minister.
D. two chambers or houses.
E. laws forbidding private hearings or conferences.
D. two chambers or houses.
Gerrymandering refers to
A. the investigations of the executive branch that Congress frequently engages in.
B. the practice whereby legislators trade their support or opposition on one bill to get the support of another legislator on a different bill.
C. the resources that elected officials use to reward their supporters.
D. the manipulation of electoral districts to serve the interests of a particular group.
E. the tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down.
D. the manipulation of electoral districts to serve the interests of a particular group.
The House Ways and Means Committee is one of the most important committees in Congress because
A. it has jurisdiction over taxes, trade, and entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
B. it decides the order in which specific bills come up for a vote on the House floor and the specific rules that govern the length of debate.
C. it is placed in charge of voting on impeachment charges.
D. it has the final vote on all foreign policy legislation moving through the House.
E. it determines which representatives are assigned to which committees within the House.
A. it has jurisdiction over taxes, trade, and entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
What did the Supreme Court declare in Miller v. Johnson?
A. Districts could not be drawn to favor the incumbent candidate.
B. Incumbents could not begin fund-raising more than nine months before the general election.
C. The racial composition of a district could not be the predominant factor when redistricting.
D. The use of computer technologies to draw districts that will favor one party over another is unconstitutional.
E. It was not unconstitutional for states to use an unelected, nonpartisan committee to redistrict.
C. The racial composition of a district could not be the predominant factor when redistricting.
In the House of Representatives, the majority leader
A. is subordinate to the Speaker of the House.
B. is the same office as the Speaker of the House.
C. There is no majority leader in the House of Representatives.
D. has the same powers as the Speaker of the House but is a different office.
E. is superior in formal powers to the Speaker of the House.
A. is subordinate to the Speaker of the House.
Which of the following best explains the small number of women in Congress?
A. More men than women vote, and men tend not to vote for women candidates.
B. Incumbency is a very powerful resource, and most incumbents have been men.
C. Women do not have organizations or PACs supporting their candidacy.
D. Women do not want to run for Congress.
E. Women do not make very effective representatives.
B. Incumbency is a very powerful resource, and most incumbents have been men.
The Congressional Research Service and the Government Accountability Office are examples of
A. staff agencies.
B. conference committees.
C. select committees.
D. caucuses.
E. executive-congressional liaison offices.
A. staff agencies.
A vote on which 50 percent or more of the members of one party take one position while at least 50 percent of the members of the other party take the opposing position is called
A. a pocket veto.
B. congressional gridlock.
C. an ideological split.
D. cloture.
E. a party unity vote.
E. a party unity vote.
The filibuster is likely to remain a feature of legislative politics in the United States because
A. it makes majority rule in the Senate much easier.
B. it is universally regarded as an essential part of every legislative assembly.
C. a constitutional amendment is required to eliminate it.
D. the House, the Senate, and the president all must agree to eliminate it.
E. a sixty-seven vote majority is required to eliminate it.
E. a sixty-seven vote majority is required to eliminate it.
How long is the term of office for a U.S. senator?
A. four years
B. eight years
C. six years
D. ten years
E. two years
C. six years
Approximately what percentage of proposed bills die in committee?
A. 75 percent
B. 60 percent
C. 95 percent
D. 40 percent
E. 50 percent
C. 95 percent
The four joint committees in Congress are
A. justice, agriculture, education, and technology.
B. foreign affairs, welfare, currency, and trade.
C. economic, taxation, library, and printing.
D. budget, veterans’ affairs, labor, and health.
E. globalization, human rights, employment, and citizenship.
C. economic, taxation, library, and printing.
Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed congressional legislation?
A. the White House staff
B. the Department of Homeland Security
C. the Environmental Protection Agency
D. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
E. the Internal Revenue Service
E. the Internal Revenue Service
Which of the following statements about presidential pardons is false?
A. Andrew Johnson declared amnesty to all Confederate soldiers.
B. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for crimes he may have committed.
C. Jimmy Carter declared amnesty for all draft evaders during the Vietnam War.
D. The presidential power to grant pardons involves power over all individuals who may be a threat to the security of the United States.
E. George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
E. George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence.
When are the president’s partisan ties most important?
A. in dealing with Congress on legislative matters
B. in making executive appointments
C. in negotiating treaties and executive agreements
D. in raising campaign funds
E. in winning support from public opinion
A. in dealing with Congress on legislative matters
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?
A. to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
B. to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives
C. to run the day-to-day operations of the Executive Office of the President
D. to represent the president overseas
E. to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy
A. to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate
According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?
A. referendums, initiatives, and litigation
B. fund-raising, advertising, and logrolling
C. congressional mandate, judicial appointments, and constitutional amendments
D. party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control
E. gerrymandering, appropriations, and oversight of state governments
D. party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control
The power to declare war is given to ______ under the Constitution.
A. the Senate
B. the Department of Defense
C. the Senate, with the approval of the president
D. the president
E. both houses of Congress
E. both houses of Congress
The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the
A. State Department.
B. National Security Council.
C. War Council.
D. Council on Foreign Relations.
E. Joint Chiefs of Staff.
B. National Security Council.
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?
A. three-fourths of both houses of Congress
B. A president’s veto cannot be overridden unless it concerns the budget, in which case it requires a three-fourths of both houses.
C. a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress
D. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
E. a majority of both houses of Congress
D. two-thirds of both houses of Congress
The office of the presidency was established by ___________ of the Constitution.
A. Article II
B. Article I
C. Article III
D. Article IV
E. Article V
A. Article II
The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except the
A. president.
B. secretary of defense.
C. vice president.
D. Speaker of the House.
E. secretary of state.
D. Speaker of the House.
An executive order is
A. a decree issued by the president that requires the federal courts to hear a particular case regarding the Constitution.
B. a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation.
C. any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public.
D. an emergency decree that is law only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval.
E. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law.
E. a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law.
Why is the president’s State of the Union address important?
A. It is the only time the president is constitutionally allowed to address Congress.
B. It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive’s goals.
C. It determines the exact budget for the upcoming year.
D. It is an opportunity for the president to highlight the positive actions of the previous year.
E. It is often the only time that members of Congress get to question the president directly.
B. It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive’s goals.
The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as
A. legislative initiator.
B. commander in chief.
C. chief diplomat.
D. head of state.
E. head of government.
D. head of state.
______ powers are specifically established by the language of the Constitution.
A. Delegated
B. Expressed
C. Inherent
D. Suspected
E. Implied
B. Expressed
When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that
A. the president requires the federal court’s approval before using troops in domestic disturbances.
B. the use of the president’s emergency powers against domestic disorder necessitates a request by the governor of the affected state.
C. the president can only use troops in domestic situations when the health and safety of children under the age of 18 is threatened.
D. the president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
E. the president needs congressional authorization to use troops in both domestic and international situations.
D. the president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?
A. all state Supreme Court justices
B. cabinet secretaries
C. members of the House of Representatives who resign before their term has expired
D. the Speaker of the House
E. state governors who resign before their term has expired
B. cabinet secretaries
Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?
A. Hillary Clinton
B. Eleanor Roosevelt
C. Dolley Madison
D. Betty Ford
E. Laura Bush
A. Hillary Clinton
What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?
A. to increase the strength and influence of political parties
B. to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
C. to make a more independent and powerful chief executive
D. to create an imperial presidency to counter the power of Congress
E. to bind the president to the will of the people
B. to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures
The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.
A. Neutrality Act of 1937
B. War Powers Resolution of 1973
C. National Security Act of 1947
D. Boland Amendment of 1982
E. Arms Control Export Act of 1976
B. War Powers Resolution of 1973
A signing statement is a(n)
A. announcement made by the president and the leader of a foreign country immediately following an executive agreement.
B. announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.
C. announcement made by a presidential candidate when formally accepting his or her party’s nomination.
D. announcement the president is required to make any time he issues an executive order.
E. decree issued by Congress that demands the president sign a congressional enactment into law immediately.
B. announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.
The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of
A. Andrew Jackson.
B. Abraham Lincoln.
C. Franklin Roosevelt.
D. Richard Nixon.
E. Ronald Reagan.
C. Franklin Roosevelt.
The rise of the national convention was important because it
A. took away the presidency’s mass popular base and made the president a much weaker political actor.
B. eliminated the need for a presidential candidate to win the support of his party.
C. placed the power of selecting presidential candidates entirely in the hands of federal judges.
D. placed the power of selecting presidential candidates entirely in the hands of congressional leaders.
E. gave the presidency a mass popular base that would eventually support and demand increased presidential power.
E. gave the presidency a mass popular base that would eventually support and demand increased presidential power.
The president’s expressed powers include all of the following except
A. partisan.
B. diplomatic.
C. executive.
D. military.
E. judicial.
A. partisan.
After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?
A. secretary of state
B. attorney general
C. Speaker of the House
D. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
E. Senate majority leader
C. Speaker of the House
The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was in
A. 1964.
B. 2003.
C. 1941.
D. 2001.
E. 1950.
C. 1941.
In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court
A. reinstated the independent prosecutor fired by Nixon.
B. allowed Nixon to withhold secret tapes from Congress.
C. ruled that Nixon must resign from office in order to avoid criminal charges.
D. impeached Nixon.
E. required Nixon to turn over secret tapes to Congress.
E. required Nixon to turn over secret tapes to Congress.
Which president began the era of greater presidential control over the budgeting process?
A. Ronald Reagan
B. Richard Nixon
C. Franklin Roosevelt
D. Woodrow Wilson
E. Lyndon Johnson
C. Franklin Roosevelt
The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by
A. a treaty with Canada and Mexico.
B. executive privilege.
C. an executive order.
D. a Supreme Court decision.
E. congressional legislation.
C. an executive order.
The Office of Management and Budget is important because
A. its staff constantly analyzes the economy and economic trends in order to give the president the ability to anticipate events rather than reacting to them.
B. the Constitution requires that the president receive its approval for every administrative rule change he proposes and for every tax increase he suggests.
C. it has the power to veto any legislation passed by Congress that negatively impacts the federal budget.
D. its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
E. it is granted the authority under the Constitution to pass the federal budget.
D. its personnel are an integral part of virtually every conceivable presidential responsibility, such as overseeing regulatory proposals, reporting on agency activities, and preparing the national budget.
In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush
A. sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.
B. sought and received a declaration of war from Congress.
C. sought but failed to receive a declaration of war from Congress.
D. took action without approval from Congress.
E. launched military operations only after Congress passed a formal declaration of war that legally required the president to attack Afghanistan.
A. sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.
Which of the following is not a federal department entrusted with providing national security?
A. Police
B. Justice
C. Homeland Security
D. Defense
E. State
A. Police
Which of the following is not part of the Justice Department?
A. Tax division
B. Criminal division
C. the Civil Rights division
D. the Antitrust division
E. the Internal Revenue Service
E. the Internal Revenue Service
The USA PATRIOT Act
A. restricted the government’s ability to use wiretaps and issue search warrants.
B. stated Congress’s approval of the invasion of Afghanistan.
C. allows the attorney general to detain any foreigner suspected of posing a threat to internal security.
D. grants authority over immigration cases to the Defense Department.
E. gave the Justice Department jurisdiction over all prisoners taken in Afghanistan.
C. allows the attorney general to detain any foreigner suspected of posing a threat to internal security.
Individual members of Congress can discover questions of public responsibility when engaged in
A. constituent case work.
B. a markup session.
C. a party caucus.
D. a filibuster.
E. activities related to the work of a conference committee.
A. constituent case work.
Which of the following is an agency created by Congress to assist it in overseeing the federal bureaucracy?
A. Office of Management and the Budget
B. General Accounting Office
C. Congressional Office on Legislative Affairs
D. Office of White House Affairs
E. Congressional Oversight Office
B. General Accounting Office
Executive privilege refers to
A. the fact that the Senate never votes against presidential appointments to the executive branch.
B. the right of presidents to eliminate government agencies without the approval of Congress.
C. the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
D. the increasing power of the executive branch in determining fiscal policy.
E. the authority of members of the executive branch to formulate specific rules when implementing vague legislation.
C. the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
The “virtual fourth branch of government” refers to
A. interest groups.
B. the bureaucracy.
C. political parties.
D. state governments.
E. government contracting.
E. government contracting.
Making permanent cuts in existing agencies is often difficult because
A. most agencies have a supportive constituency that will fight to reinstate any cuts that are made.
B. the Constitution prevents cuts to federal agencies lasting longer than five years.
C. the vast majority of agencies have been given permanent “budgetary immunity” from the president that protects them from cuts.
D. federal law requires that the government cut every agency equally.
E. every permanent cut to a federal agency must be reviewed by the Supreme Court before it can be put into effect.
A. most agencies have a supportive constituency that will fight to reinstate any cuts that are made.
Ronald Reagan’s inability to dismantle the Department of Education reflects the power of
A. the Federal Register.
B. iron triangles.
C. devolution.
D. the merit system.
E. separation of powers.
B. iron triangles.
In order to change the level of national economic activity and defend the value of the dollar in international trade, the federal government
A. lowers the amount of money that states can legally collect from sales and income taxes.
B. frequently requests voluntary contributions to the Treasury Department from businesses and private individuals.
C. imposes tariffs on all goods imported to the United States.
D. enforces spending cuts on state government agencies.
E. manipulates interest rates.
E. manipulates interest rates.
At its peak in ______, the federal bureaucracy had ______ employees, not including military personnel.
A. 1968; 3 million
B. 1996; 8 million
C. 1936; 6 million
D. 1994; 2 million
E. 1982; 1 million
A. 1968; 3 million
The head of a department is called the
A. secretary.
B. director.
C. service administrator.
D. agency supervisor.
E. chief executive officer.
A. secretary.
The concept of oversight refers to the effort made by
A. the states to make the federal government responsible for its actions.
B. the courts to make the legislative and executive branches responsible for their actions.
C. the president to make Congress accountable for its actions.
D. the people to make federal government responsible for its actions.
E. Congress to make executive agencies accountable for their actions.
E. Congress to make executive agencies accountable for their actions.
Which of the following is not a task of the Treasury Department?
A. setting interest rates
B. printing currency
C. managing the U.S. national debt
D. ensuring deposits individuals make at federally qualifying banks
E. administering fiscal policy
A. setting interest rates
Bureaucracy, literally translated, means
A. control of the anonymous.
B. rule by offices and desks.
C. government by the people.
D. governance by experts.
E. next window please.
B. rule by offices and desks.
Public bureaucracies are powerful because
A. they have the power of both “the purse” and “the sword.”
B. legislatures, chief executives, and the people delegate vast power to them to make sure a particular job is done.
C. every one of their employees is appointed for life.
D. their actions cannot be overturned or challenged by courts.
E. they are not subject to control by the president or Congress.
B. legislatures, chief executives, and the people delegate vast power to them to make sure a particular job is done.
According to the text, what would be the most likely outcome if the federal government were to cease all economic regulation?
A. The marketplace would work more efficiently and quickly.
B. The marketplace would stabilize.
C. The marketplace would favor the more numerous workers rather than the corporate interests.
D. The marketplace would globalize more quickly.
E. The marketplace would fall into chaos.
E. The marketplace would fall into chaos.
Devolution describes a process through which
A. the United States delegates some of its power to the UN.
B. the federal government is downsized by completely cutting wasteful programs.
C. state and local governments are downsized by delegating the implementation of programs to the federal government.
D. Congress gives up some of its power to the executive branch.
E. the federal government is downsized by delegating the implementation of programs to state and local governments.
E. the federal government is downsized by delegating the implementation of programs to state and local governments.
What was the chief bureaucratic flaw identified by the 9/11 Commission?
A. There was a lack of communication between the domestic and foreign security agencies.
B. The government did not act swiftly enough after the attack in order to prevent further casualties.
C. The Federal Aviation Administration was not properly monitoring all inbound airplanes on 9/11.
D. Diplomacy with the Taliban and other sponsors of terrorism had broken down in the mid-1990s.
E. The CIA director lacked adequate access to the president.
A. There was a lack of communication between the domestic and foreign security agencies.
What is an independent agency?
A. an agency that is not part of any Cabinet department
B. an agency that is not part of the government
C. an agency that was not created by a law passed by Congress
D. an agency entirely created by the president, independent of congressional action
E. an agency whose budget comes from outside funding
A. an agency that is not part of any Cabinet department
The first regulatory agencies established by Congress were
A. government corporations.
B. independent regulatory commissions.
C. within the Environmental Protection Agency.
D. in the Department of Commerce.
E. in the Labor Department.
B. independent regulatory commissions.
The most significant example of devolution in recent decades has been in the area of
A. homeland security.
B. health care.
C. crime enforcement.
D. welfare policy.
E. education
D. welfare policy.
Which of the following statements best describes the trend in government secrecy since 2001?
A. There has been no change in the number of classified documents since 2001.
B. The number of classified documents has increased substantially since 2001, but the pages of material that have been declassified has increased sharply as well.
C. The number of classified documents has increased substantially since 2001 while the pages of material that have been declassified has declined sharply.
D. The number of classified documents has decreased substantially since 2001 while the number of pages of material that have been declassified has increased sharply.
E. There is no way for the public to know how many classified documents there are in any given year because the government keeps this information secret.
C. The number of classified documents has increased substantially since 2001 while the pages of material that have been declassified has declined sharply.
The response to the Department of Homeland Security’s color-coded terror-level warning system reveals
A. that people have a difficult time taking government very seriously.
B. the intractable power of the iron triangle.
C. that bureaucratic agencies, like politicians, must pay attention to public opinion.
D. the great influence fear of terrorism has on the American people.
E. that cost-cutting measures often fail to pass Congress.
C. that bureaucratic agencies, like politicians, must pay attention to public opinion.
The ______ is the center of military policy and management.
A. Central Intelligence Agency
B. National Security Agency
C. Joint Chiefs of Staff
D. Department of Defense
E. Department of Homeland Security
C. Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Freedom of Information Act is designed to
A. prevent inefficiency and waste in government management.
B. make more national security documents available to the public.
C. expand the freedom of speech granted to government employees.
D. lead to quicker filing of habeas corpus petitions.
E. allow the government to acquire any information about a person to aid in a government investigation.
B. make more national security documents available to the public.
Congress was attempting to strike a balance between the need for secrecy in national security and the right of individuals to know what their government is doing when it passed the ______ Act.
A. USA PATRIOT
B. Sedition
C. Freedom of Information
D. Secrecy in Government
E. Morill
C. Freedom of Information
Which of the following is the best description of an iron triangle?
A. the breakdown in the separation of powers between Congress, the federal judiciary, and the president
B. the stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a clientele group, and a legislative committee
C. the inability to reform federal rules without help from the House of Representatives, the Senate, and the president
D. the stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a legislative committee, and the president
E. the domination of a few large companies in the regulation of iron mining and smelting
B. the stable relationship between a bureaucratic agency, a clientele group, and a legislative committee
Which of the following statements about congressional oversight of the bureaucracy is most accurate?
A. While the number of oversight hearings has increased over time as the bureaucracy has expanded, the extent of oversight does depend somewhat on which party controls the White House.
B. The number of oversight hearings has remained constant over time despite the fact that bureaucracy has expanded.
C. Oversight has been eliminated as a result of a 2005 Supreme Court decision.
D. The number of oversight hearings has decreased over time as the bureaucracy has expanded.
E. While the number of oversight hearings has increased over time as the bureaucracy has expanded, the extent of oversight does not depend on which party controls the White House.
A. While the number of oversight hearings has increased over time as the bureaucracy has expanded, the extent of oversight does depend somewhat on which party controls the White House.
Which statement about regulatory agencies is correct?
A. Since the 1960s, all new regulatory agencies have been placed outside existing departments and are not responsible to the president.
B. Since the 1990s, approximately ten new regulatory agencies have been created by Congress.
C. The last new regulatory agency was created in 1945.
D. In 1996, the last federal regulatory agency was terminated by Congress.
E. No new regulatory programs have been established since the 1970s.
E. No new regulatory programs have been established since the 1970s.
The New Deal coalition was severely strained and ultimately broken apart by
A. the Vietnam War and the issue of civil rights.
B. the popularity of Dwight Eisenhower.
C. the end of the Great Depression.
D. the end of the Cold War.
E. the “triangulated” positions of Bill Clinton.
A. the Vietnam War and the issue of civil rights.
Who elects the chairperson for the Republican and Democratic national committees?
A. the committee’s chairperson whose duty it is to appoint a successor
B. the party’s membership in Congress
C. the president if the party controls the White House, or the party committee if the party does not control the White House
D. party members
E. delegates to the national convention
C. the president if the party controls the White House, or the party committee if the party does not control the White House
State ballot access laws, such as registration fees and petition requirements, have the effect of
A. reducing the number of people who are willing to vote for third-party candidates.
B. increasing the number of third-party and independent candidates who can run for office.
C. reducing the number of third-party and independent candidates who can run for office.
D. increasing the number of people who are willing to vote for third-party candidates.
E. decreasing the importance of soft money in election campaigns.
C. reducing the number of third-party and independent candidates who can run for office.
How many party systems has the United States had since 1789?
A. two
B. forty-three
C. twenty-four
D. six
E. twelve
D. six
A party’s platform is best understood as a
A. public relations program designed for media consumption.
B. negotiated agreement between the party’s various factions.
C. set of rules for determining who can and who cannot become a member of the party.
D. contract with the American people.
E. clear statement of the principles to which each party candidate will be committed.
B. negotiated agreement between the party’s various factions.
Party activists are ______ to contribute time, energy, and effort to party affairs and ______ to hold more extreme views than the party’s rank-and-file voters.
A. less likely; less likely
B. less likely; more likely
C. more likely; less likely
D. equally likely; equally likely
E. more likely; more likely
E. more likely; more likely
The Constitution
A. gives the authority to nominate candidates for all elective offices to 527 committees.
B. clearly spells out a number of rules regarding how political parties must go about selecting a candidate to run for each elective office at the federal level but not at the state level.
C. outlaws political parties from nominating specific candidates to run for elective office in order to make sure all citizens have an equal opportunity to serve in government.
D. clearly spells out a number of rules regarding how political parties must go about selecting a candidate to run for each elective office at the state level but not at the federal level.
E. is almost completely silent on the rules regarding how political parties must go about selecting a candidate to run for any elective office.
E. is almost completely silent on the rules regarding how political parties must go about selecting a candidate to run for any elective office.
Which famous American, in his farewell address, encouraged his fellow citizens to shun partisan politics?
A. Thomas Jefferson
B. George Mason
C. Alexander Hamilton
D. George Washington
E. Benjamin Franklin
D. George Washington
The Populist Party appeals to which of the following groups?
A. eastern mining interests, southern merchants, and small farmers
B. northern bankers, landowners, and factory workers
C. eastern bankers, southern planters, and wealthy merchants
D. southern bankers, northern mining interests, and factory owners
E. Western mining interests, small farmers, and urban workers
E. Western mining interests, small farmers, and urban workers
A “safe district” is
A. a district that includes a military base.
B. a district that is not likely to be the target of a terrorist attack.
C. a district that has a crime rate that is lower than the national average.
D. a district where a majority of voters identify with their member of Congress’s party.
E. a district where a majority of voters identify as independents.
D. a district where a majority of voters identify with their member of Congress’s party.
______ are nonprofit independent groups that receive and distribute funds to influence the nomination, election, and defeat of a candidate.
A. Political parties
B. Political action committees
C. 527 Committees
D. Political caucuses
E. Party machines
C. 527 Committees
An individual’s psychological attachment to one party or another is called a party
A. ideology.
B. value system.
C. opinion.
D. tradition.
E. identification.
E. identification.
What issue led to the demise of the Whig Party?
A. the death of Andrew Jackson
B. slavery
C. the admission of California into the Union
D. industrialization
E. economic regulations and tariffs
B. slavery
Third parties in the United States typically represent
A. recent immigrants.
B. the political interests of America’s allies who attempt to influence the American decision-making process because U.S. policies can affect their futures.
C. women’s interests.
D. social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties for certain reasons.
E. extremist religious groups.
D. social and economic interests that are disregarded by the two major parties for certain reasons.
Political scientists disagree over whether an electoral realignment occurred in 1968 because
A. only the Republican Party dominated the national government after the election.
B. no one party clearly dominated the national government after the election.
C. only the Democratic Party dominated the national government after the election.
D. only the Republican Party had a large number of party identifiers after the election.
E. only the Democratic Party had a large number of party identifiers after the election.
B. no one party clearly dominated the national government after the election.
Which system develops when the winner of an electoral race obtains more votes than any other candidate?
A. the plurality system
B. proportional representation
C. the spoils system
D. the winner-take-all system
E. the majority system
A. the plurality system
The “Era of Good Feelings” was
A. the period of two-party cooperation between 1896 and 1932.
B. the period of one-party politics from the collapse of the Federalist Party until the 1830s.
C. the period immediately following the end of the Civil War.
D. the period of rapid economic growth in the early twentieth century.
E. the period immediately following the end of World War II.
B. the period of one-party politics from the collapse of the Federalist Party until the 1830s.
During the nineteenth century, party machines depended heavily on ______ in order to reward loyal party supporters.
A. caucuses
B. hard money
C. soft money
D. 527 committees
E. patronage
E. patronage
Which of the following statements about contemporary American politics is most accurate?
A. Political elites are polarized but polarization makes legislative compromise easier.
B. While political elites are highly polarized, most Americans are moderates in terms of public opinion.
C. Both political elites and most members of the public are highly polarized.
D. Both political elites and most members of the public are moderate and there is very little polarization in politics today.
E. There is very little polarization amongst elites in Congress but a great deal of polarization amongst elites at the state and local level.
B. While political elites are highly polarized, most Americans are moderates in terms of public opinion.
Issues such as the environment, health care, retirement benefits, and taxation are on the political agenda in the United States because
A. these are the only issues that are important to all Americans.
B. these are the only issues where Democrats and Republicans consistently agree with each other.
C. contemporary political parties mainly compete for the support of middle-class Americans and these issues are important to the middle class.
D. the Constitution limits the federal government’s powers to legislating on these issues.
E. these are the only problems that have yet to be solved by the free market.
C. contemporary political parties mainly compete for the support of middle-class Americans and these issues are important to the middle class.
Which of the following transpires when one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of Congress?
A. a seditious government
B. internal mobilization
C. external mobilization
D. a divided government
E. an electoral realignment
D. a divided government
The first party system was characterized by conflict between the ______ and the ______.
A. Democrats; Republicans
B. Whigs; Democrats
C. Whigs; Federalists
D. Whigs; Jeffersonian Republicans
E. Federalists; Jeffersonian Republicans
E. Federalists; Jeffersonian Republicans
Which of the following parties originated from internal mobilization?
A. the Republican Party
B. the Tea Party
C. the Reform Party
D. the Jeffersonian Party
E. the Green Party
D. the Jeffersonian Party
One important cause of the United States’ two-party system is
A. multimember electoral districts.
B. proportional representation.
C. internal mobilization.
D. single-member electoral districts.
E. the Constitution’s requirement for bipartisanship in Congress.
D. single-member electoral districts.
During the 1980s, under the leadership of Ronald Reagan, which two groups did the Republican Party add to their coalition?
A. Latinos and the business community
B. Jews and unionized workers
C. religious conservatives and working-class whites
D. gays and lesbians and southern farmers
E. African Americans and upper-class intellectuals
C. religious conservatives and working-class whites
From 1896 to 1932, the ______ Party was the nation’s majority party.
A. Populist
B. Whig
C. Democratic
D. Republican
E. Federalist
D. Republican
Which of the following is not accomplished at a party’s national convention?
A. nomination of Senate and House candidates
B. nomination of the presidential candidate
C. development and ratification of the party’s platform
D. nomination of the vice-presidential candidate
E. determination of the party’s rules and bylaws
A. nomination of Senate and House candidates
Third-party candidates are better off under what system of election?
A. the spoils system
B. the winner-take-all system
C. the majority system
D. proportional representation
E. the plurality system
D. proportional representation
What were the most common favors political bosses distributed to loyal party members during the era of political machines?
A. patents
B. tax cuts
C. jobs
D. money
E. tariffs
C. jobs
Which of the following is the best definition of soft money?
A. money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activities that are not regulated by federal campaign spending laws
B. money collected through illegal donations
C. money that is left over after the election
D. money that is contributed by a candidate to a political party in order to receive the party’s support in an upcoming election
E. nonmonetary donations made to a party for use of privileges such as airplanes and hotel rooms that are not officially considered income
A. money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activities that are not regulated by federal campaign spending laws