Global Marketing Research

Omnibus Survey
Regularly scheduled surveys that are conducted by research agencies (e.g., ACNielsen) with questions from multiple
clients (The surveys are administered to a very large sample of consumers, usually a panel created by the agency)
Benefits to Omnibus Survey (2):
Cost, Speed
A major disadvantage to Omnibus Survey is only a limited amount of:
Company-relevant info is obtainable
Secondary Data
Pieces of info that are already available
Primary Data
Data collected for purpose of research study
Problems researchers may encounter (5):
Accuracy of data, Age of data, Reliability over time, Comparability of data, Lumping of data
Triangulate
Obtain info from 3 different sources and speculate on reasons behind differences
Functional Equivalence
Degree to which similar activities/products in different countries fulfill similar functions
Conceptual Equivalence
Degree to which given concept has the same meaning in different environments
Primary data can be collected in the following ways (4):
Focus groups, survey research, observational research, test markets
Focus Group
Loosely structured free-flowing discussion among a small group of target customers (facilitated by a professional moderator)
Cross-Country survey research needs to fulfill two criteria:
Translation and Scalar Equivalence
Translation Equivalence
Translation of the instrument from one language into another one
Parallel Translation
Multiple translators interpret questionnaire, differences are reconciled
Scalar Equivalence
Scores from subjects of different countries should have the same meaning and interpretation (scales of 7; some country’s respondents more liberal with high scores)
Sampling plan centers around three issues:
Sampling unit, Sample size, Sampling procedure
Sampling Unit
Who should be surveyed, what is our target population
Sample Size
How many people to be sampled
Sampling Procedure
How should prospective respondents be chosen from the target population
Courtesy Bias
Desire to be polite towards the other person
Social Desirability Bias
Subject attempts to impress the interviewer or reflect a certain social status in his responses
Redundancy
Ask the same question in different ways and in various parts of the questionnaire (the researcher can later check for validity)
Ethnographic Research
Field workers embed themselves in the local communities that they are studying
Online Panel
Group of pre-screened respondents who have voluntarily agreed to participate in various online research studies
Techniques to assess market size and potential (4):
Analogy method, Trade audit, Chain ratio method, Cross-Sectional regression analysis
Analogy Method
Pick country that is at same stage of economic development as the country of interest and for which the market size is known (alternative is Longitudinal Method of Analogy, ex: Mb = Xb*(Ma/Xa))
Trade Audit
(Market Size =) Local production + Imports – Exports
Chain Ratio Method
Rough base number as estimate for market size that is then fine-tuned by applying a string of percentages to come up with the most meaningful estimate for total market potential
Point-of-Sale (POS) Store Scanner Data
Sales movement data obtained from checkout scanner tapes of retail outlets
Consumer Panel Data
Consumer panels that record their purchases (either by showing ID card at checkout or at-home scanning)
Single-Source Data
Continuous data that combine for any given household member TV viewing behavior with purchase transaction
Shift from ________ to ________ marketing
Mass to micro
Emic (school)
Focuses on the peculiarities of each country
Etic (approach)
Emphasizes universal behavioral and attitudinal traits
“Soft” data ex.
Lifestyle (attitudinal) statements