Genetics

Question Answer
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
Carries the genetic code that determines the characteristics of a living thing DNA
A short section of DNA Gene
A complex unit made of repeating units called amino acids Protein
Where are chromosomes found? In the nucleus of a cell
The four nitrogen bases that hold DNA together are… Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
What are the basing pairing rules? Adenine and ThymineGuanine and Cytosine
Process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei Mitosis
Number of chromosomes in a regular cell Diploid number (46)
A special kind of nuclear division that occurs in the production of gametes. Instead of making 2 daughter cells, it divides once more and makes 4 daughter cells Meiosis
Number of chromosomes in a sex cell? Haploid number (23)
An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive Allele
Gene combinations are ___________ from our parents Inherited
Our appearance, (The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.) Phenotype
Our gene combinations Genotype
A harmful change in the genetic information in the DNA leading to production of inactive or faulty proteins. Can be due to radiation, inherited or exposure to chemicals. Mutation
Two genes are as dominant as eachother. Cannot overtake, but merge. Incomplete
A phenotype for co-dominant alleles in the heterozygous condition will show the characteristics of both alleles Co-dominance
A grid used to figure out different outcomes of gene combinations Punnett square
A set of genes of an organism contained in every single body cell Genome
plays an important role in the production of proteins RNA
What is Thymine replaced with when using RNA Uracil (U)
having two identical alleles for a particular gene (dominant or recessive) Homozygous (pure breeding)
having two different alleles for a trait Heterozygous (hybrid)
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism. Recessive
Someone who is heterozygous and carries the recessive allele for a trait Carrier

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