Fundamentals Of Management Final Exam

work specialization
dividing work activities into separate job tasks
departmentalization
how jobs are grouped together
functional departmentalization
groups employees based on work performed (engineering, accounting, human resources)
product departmentalization
groups employees based on major product areas in the corporation (men or women’s footwear, apparel)
customer departmentalization
groups employees based on customers’ problems and needs (wholesale, retail, government)
geographic departmentalization
groups employees based on location served
process departmentalization
groups employees based on the basis of work or customer flow (testing, payment)
authority
the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed
chain of command
the line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to lower levels, which clarifies who reports to whom
cross-functional teams
teams made up of individuals from various departments and that cross traditional departmental lines
line authority
authority that entitles a manager to direct the work of an employee
staff authority
positions with some authority that have been created to support, assist, and advice those holding line authority
unity of command
structure in which each employee reports to only one manager
power
an individual’s capacity to influence decisions
span of control
number of employees a manager
Coercive power
power based on fear
reward power
power based on the ability to distribute something that others value
legitimate power
power based on one’s position in the formal hierarchy
expert power
power based on one’s expertise, special skill, or knowledge
referent power
power based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits
centralization
the degree to which decision making takes place at upper levels of the organization
decentralization
the degree to which lower-level managers provide input or actually make decisions
organizational change
any alteration or an organization’s people, structure, or technology
the three types of organizational change
people, structure, technology
structure change
any change in authority relationships, coordination mechanisms, degree of centralization, job design, or similar organization structure variables
technology change
changes in the way work is done or the methods and equipment used
people change
change in employee attitudes, expectations, perceptions, or behaviors
“calm waters” metaphor
a description of organizational change that likens that change to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm
change agents
people who act as change catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process
“white-water rapids” metaphor
a description of organizational change that likens that change to a small raft navigating a raging river
motivation
process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
self-actualization (growth, being “all you can be”), esteem (self-respect, achievement, recognition and attention), social (affection, belongingness), safety (security and protection from harm), physiological (food, drink, shelter, sex, sleep)
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
based on two assumptions about human nature. theory X- a negative view of people that assumes workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely controlled to work effectively.
theory Y- a positive view that assumes employees enjoy work, seek out and accept responsibility, and exercise self-direction.
McClelland’s Three-Needs Theory
need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation
7 traits associated with leadership
drive, desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, extraversion
situational leadership theory
a leadership contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness
leader-participation model
a leadership contingency theory that’s based on a sequential set of rules for determining how much participation a leader uses in decision making according to different types of situations
path-goal theory
a leadership theory that says the leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that goals are compatible with the organization’s or group’s goals
leader-member exchange theory
a leadership theory that says leaders create in-groups and out-groups and those in the in-group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction
3 different types of leaders
transactional leaders, transformational leaders, charismatic leaders
transactional leader
leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (or transactions)
transformational leader
leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes
charismatic leader
enthusiastic, self-confident leaders who personalities and actions influence people to behave in certain ways
8 suggestions for building trust
practice openness, be fair, speak your feelings, tell the truth, be consistent, fulfill your promises, maintain confidences, and demonstrate confidence.
5 stages of group development
forming stage, storming stage, norming stage, performing stage, adjouring stage
forming stage
the 1st stage of group development in which people join the group and then define the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership
storming stage
the 2nd stage of group development, which is characterized by intragroup conflict
norming stage
3rd stage of group development, which is characterized by close relationships and cohesivness
performing stage
the 4th stage of group development, when the group is fully functional and works on the group task
adjourning stage
the last stage of group development for temporary groups, during which groups prepare to disband
4 different types of teams
problem-solving teams, self-managed work team, cross-functional team, virtual team
problem-solving teams
a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems
self-managed work team
a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment
cross-functional team
a work team composed of individuals from various specialities
virtual team
a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal