Fundamentals of Management Chapter 8 Key Terms

organizational change
any alteration of people, structure, or technology in an organization
change agents
people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
“calm waters” metaphor
A description of organizational change that likens that change to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm
“white-water rapids” metaphor
A description of organizational change that likens that change to a small raft navigating a raging river
organization development (OD)
Effort that assist organizational members with a planned change by focusing on their attitudes and values.
survey feedback
a method of assessing employees’ attitudes toward and perceptions of a change
process consultation
using outside consultants to assess organizational processes such as workflow, informal intra-unit relationships, and formal communication channels
team-building
using activities to help work groups set goals, develop positive interpersonal relationships, and clarify the roles and responsibilities of each team member
intergroup development
activities that attempt to make several work groups more cohesive
stress
the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities
karoshi
A Japanese term that refers to a sudden death caused by overworking
stressors
factors that cause stress
role conflicts
work expectations that are hard to satisfy
role overload
having more work to accomplish than time permits
role ambiguity
when role expectations are not clearly understood
Type A personality
people who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive
Type B personality
people who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily
employee assistance programs (EAPs)
Programs offered by organizations to help employees overcome personal and health related problems
wellness programs
programs offered by organizations to help employees prevent health problems
creativity
the ability to produce novel and useful ideas
innovation
the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product, service, or method of operation
idea champions
individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented