Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 4th Edition, Dessler

negligent hiring
Hiring workers with criminal records or other such problems without proper safeguards; failure to effectively screen applicants can lead to inept selection and legal implications (courts can find employers liable when employees with criminal records use their access to customer’s homes or similar opportunities to commit crimes.
reliability
Characteristics that refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical or equivalent tests. A tests reliability involves comparing two measures that access the same thing — a correlation (reliability) coefficient.
validity
Tells you whether the test is measuring what you think it’s supposed to be measuring. Validity refers to the confidence one has in the meaning attached to the scores.
test validity
Accuracy with which a test, interview, and so on measures what it purports to measure or fulfills the function it was designed to fill.
criterion validity
Used in employment testing; involves demonstrating statistically a relationship between 1) scores on a selection procedure, and 2) job performance of a sample of workers — if you do well on the test, that predicts that you will do well on the job. Predictor is the test score and criterion is the job performance.
content validity
Test that is content valid is one in which the test contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question.
construct validity
Test that is construct valid is one that demonstrates that a selection procedure measures a construct and that construct is important for successful job performance. (Construct is something believed to be an underlying human trait or characteristic, i.e., honesty.)
validity generalization
Degree to which evidence of a measure’s validity obtained in one situation can be generalized to another situation without further study.
utility analysis
Degree to which use of a selection measure improves the quality of individuals selected over what would have happened if the measure had not been used. Does it pay to use the test?
data analytics
Using new number-crunching software to dig through (mine) existing employee data to better identify what types of people succeed or fail and therefore whom to hire.
interview
Procedure designed to solicit information from a person’s oral responses to oral inquiries. (A selection interview is designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries.
How to avoid common interviewing mistakes
Snap Judgements by interviewers; posture, handshake and smile are things to help get interviewee off to a good start.
Negative Emphasis: Interviews are mostly looking for negative information, interviewers tend to be more influenced by unfavorable than favorable information; interviewers’ impressions are more likely to change from favorable to unfavorable, rather than, unfavorable to favorable.
Not Knowing the Job: More interviewer knowledge about the job translates to better interviews.
Pressure to Hire: Interviewers who believe they are behind in their recruiting quotas were much more likely to evaluate recruits much more highly than did those who were ahead.
Candidate Order (Contrast) Error: The order in which the interviewer sees applicants affects how they rate them.
Influence of Nonverbal Behavior:
Attractiveness:
Research Insight:
Ingratiation:
Nonverbal Implications:
How to conduct an effective interview
Design the interview; Review the candidate’s background; Establish rapport; Ask questions; Close the interview; Review the interview.
employee orientation (on boarding)
Procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm.
Four things when orienting new employees
1) Make them feel welcome, at home, part of the team; 2) make sure they have the basic information to function effectively, i.e., email access, personnel policies, benefits, expectations in terms of work behavior; 3) help them understand the organization in a broad sense, present, culture, strategies, vision of the future; 4) start socializing the person into the firm’s culture and ways of doing things.
training
Process of teaching new or current employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.
negligent training
Situation where an employer fails to train adequately and the employee subsequently harms a third party.
ADDIE — 5 Step Training Process
1) Analyze the training need; 2) design the overall training program; 3) develop the course (actually assembling, creating the training materials); 4) implement training by actually training the targeted employee group using on-the-job or online training; 5) evaluate the course’s effectiveness.
task Analysis
Detailed study of a job to identify the specific skills required.
performance analysis
Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means (transferring the employee).
job instruction training
Listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.
programmed training
Systematic, step by step, self-learning method for teaching job skills that consists of 3 parts: 1) presenting questions or facts, 2) allowing the person to respond, and 3) giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his/her answers and what to do next.
behavior modeling procedure
Training technique where trainees are first shown good management techniques in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor.
1) Modeling; 2) Role-playing; 3) Social reinforcement; 4) Transfer of training to actual job.
Training Effects/Outcomes to Measure
1) Reaction; 2) Learning; 3) Behavior; 4) Results achieved.
controlled experimentation
Formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training program; preferably with before and after tests, and a control group.
organization development
A special approach to organizational change where employees themselves formulate and implement the change that’s required.
performance appraisal (3 step performance appraisal cycle)
Any procedure that involves 1) setting work standards; 2) assessing the employee’s actual performance relative to the standards; and 3) providing feedback to the employee with the aim to motivate that person to eliminate performance deficiencies or to continue the performance above par.
SMART (performance goals)
Specific (clearly state the desired result), Measurable (answer the question “how much”), Attainable, Relevant (clearly derive from what manager/company want to achieve), Timely (with deadlines and milestones).
Defining Employee Performance Standards
Job description isn’t enough to clarify what employee is expected to accomplish – doesn’t list specific goals. Managers use one or more of 3 bases: 1) goals, 2) job dimensions, 3) competencies.
How To Set Effective Goals
4 Guidelines: 1) Assign specific goals, 2) Assign measurable goals; 3) Assign challenging but doable goals; 4) Encourage participation in setting higher goals to improve performance.
360-degree feedback
Employer collects performance information all around an employee — from his supervisor, subordinates, peers, internal and external customers. Usually for developmental purposed; the employee meets with supervisor to develop a self-improvement plan.
Appraisal methods — Graphic Rating Scales Method
Lists several job dimensions and a range of performance values for each (Below Expectations, Meets Expectations, Exceeds Expectations); supervisor marks the score that best describes the employees performance in each trait or dimension.
Appraisal methods — Alternation Ranking Method
Ranking employees from best to worst on a trait or traits. Best at top, worst at bottom, then ranks all others.
Paired Comparison Method
Every subordinate is paired with and compared to every other subordinate on each trait.
Forced Distribution Method
Manager places predetermined percentages of subordinates in performance categories, as a professor “grades on the bell-curve.” GE first popularized it; now they no longer adhere to the 20/70/10 split (where the bottom 10% are fired.
Critical Incident Method
Keeping an anecdotal record of good and undesirable examples of an employee’s work related behavior (critical incidents) and reviewing it with employee at predetermined times.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
BARS — combines the benefits of critical incidents and quantitative ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance expressed as specific behaviors.
Appraisal Forms in Practice
Often blend several approaches. Figure 8.4, page 230.
Management by Objectives Method
MBO — refers to a multi-step, company-wide, goal-setting and appraisal program. Manager sets specific, measurable, organizationally relevant goals with each employee, then periodically discuss the the employee’s progress toward these goals.
Step 1 — Set the organization’s goals; Step 2 — Set departmental goals; Step 3 — Discuss departmental goals; Step 4 — Define expected results (set individual goals); Step 5 — Conduct performance reviews; Step 6 — Provide feedback – department heads hold periodic reviews with subordinates and make any plans for rectifying or continuing the person’s performance.
Conducting the Appraisal Interview
1) Talk in terms of work data, i.e. absences, tardiness, productivity records, customer comments, accuracy of work, accidents, etc.
2) Don’t get personal. Compare the person’s performance to a standard, not to another employee.
3) Encourage the person to talk. Ask open-ended questions and listen.
4) End with an action plan. Make sure the person knows what he/she is doing right and wrong; make sure the person understands and agrees before they leave on how things will be improved and by when. Develop an action plan with steps and expected results.
How to Handle a Defensive Subordinate
1) Recognize that defensive behavior is normal
2) Never attack a person’s defenses; don’t try to explain someone to themselves; concentrate on the act itself, not the person.
3) Postpone action; sometimes the best thing to do is nothing at all; with time, the person will have a more rational reaction.
4) Recognize your own limitations; offer understanding but don’t try to deal with a person’s psychological problems.
How to Handle a Formal Written Warning
Purposes: 1) shake the employee out of their bad behavior; 2) help you defend your rating, both to your boss and to the courts if needed. Written warnings should identify the standard, specify deficiencies, show the employee had an opportunity to correct his or her performance.
TQM – Total Quality Management
Organization-wide programs that integrate all functions and processes of the business such that all aspects of the business including design, planning, production, distribution, and field services are aimed at maximizing customer satisfaction through continuous improvements.
Performance Management
Continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning their performance with the organization’s goals.
1) Direction sharing — communicating the company’s goals and translating them into doable departmental, team and individual goals.
2) Goal alignment — having a method that enables managers and employees to see the link between the employees’ goals and the department and company goals.
3) Ongoing performance monitoring — using computerized systems that measure and then email progress and exception reports based on the person’s progress toward meeting his/her performance goals.
4) Ongoing feedback — face to face and computerized feedback regarding progress toward goals.
5) Coaching and development support — should be an integral part of feedback process.
6) Recognition and rewards — provide the consequences needed to keep the employee’s goal-directed performance on track.
career
Occupational positions a person has had over many years
career planning
Deliberate process though which someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics, and establishes an action plan to attain specific goals.
psychological contract
An unwritten agreement that exists between employers and employees that identifies each party’s mutual expectations.
reality shock
Results of a period that may occur at the initial career entry when new employee’s high job expectations and enthusiasm confront the reality of a boring, unchallenging, or otherwise unattractive work situation.
coaching
Educating, instructing and training subordinates (short-term job-related skills).
mentoring
Advising, counseling, and guiding; helping employees navigate longer-term career-type hazards.
coaching – 4 step process
1) preparation (understanding the employee and employee’s skills), 2) planning (reaching an agreement on the problem and what to change – steps to take, measures of success, date to complete), 3) active coaching (prepare the learner, present the operation, try out the trainee and follow-up), 4) follow-up (re-observe performance periodically).
transfer
Reassignments to similar positions in other parts of the firm.
turnover
Rate at which employees leave a firm (does not include involuntary separation).
dismissal
Involuntary termination of an employee’s employment at a firm.
terminate at will
The idea, based on law, that the employment relationship can be terminated at will by either the employer or the employee for any reason.
terminate at will exceptions
1) Statutory exceptions: federal and state equal employment and workplace laws that prohibit certain dismissals, i.e., dismissals based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
2) Common law exceptions: created by the courts based on precedents, i.e., employee handbooks that promise termination will only be for “just cause.”
3) Public Policy exceptions: discharges where courts have held to be against well-established public policy, i.e., for refusing to break the law.
grounds for dismissal
1) Unsatisfactory performance
2) Misconduct
3) Lack of qualifications for the job
4) Changed requirement for the job
5) Insubordination
How to Make Dismissals Fair
Allow employee to explain why he/she did what he/she did.
Have a formal multi-step procedure (including a warning) and an appeal process.
Use the right person to perform the dismissal and do it humanely.
Use a severance pay to blunt the dismissal’s sting; employee is less likely to sue.
layoff
Situation in which employees are told there is no work for them but that management intends to recall them when work is again available.
termination interview
The interview in which an employee is informed that they have been dismissed.