FSU oce 1001 chapter 13

Process by whuch energy dervied from solar radiation is used by certain organisims to form organic matte
Photosynthesis
Rate at whuch energy is stored by organisiks through foundation of organic matter
Primary productivity
Euphotic zone in open ocewn extends from surface down to approximatley
100 meters
Highly productive areas of costal upwelling found along the _____ margins of continente. Where surface currants are moving _____ the equator.
Western, toward
Wheb compared to costal regions, solar energy extends _____ into the water column and concentration of nutrients are _______ in open ocean
Deeper, lower
Nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in mariene environment include
B & c
The color of light most readily absorbed by water is
Red
Characteristic of most tropical open oceans is responsible for low chlorophyl levels in these waters
Low nutrient concentrations
What peedect of the oceans biomass repies either directly or indirectly on organic matter supplied by photosyntgetic primary productivity
99.9
Which of the followhg nutrients can limit product productivity by phytoplankton
ALL BUT calcium and carbon dioxide
What are reaction products of photosynthesis
Oxygen gas and sugar
What are the reaction products of respiration
Water & carbon dioxide gas
What organisims utlize photosyn
Phytoplankton, autorophs, primary producers
Chemical formula for sugar
C6 H12 O6
How do plants an animals gain enevery needed to carry out cellular functuons
Utilize energy in sugar
Why does costal upwelling lewded to high biological productivity
Brings cold nutrient rich water to the surface where phytoplankton reside
Why does costal upwelling occur on the wrst coast of so many continents
Where wind dodection forces surface water seay fr shore
When will costal upwelling occur in northern hem
When wind blows away from nortg llu parallel to shore
Where is costal upwelling prevalent in south anerica
On the west coast off the shore of peru
How do scientists stidy phytoplankton concentrations in the world ocean
Satellite images that caputre chlorophull concentrations in the surface ocean
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by a neurotoxin produced by
Dinoflagellates
Important mariene autrotripgs that have sillica incorperated into their cells walls are
Diatoms
In dead zones resukting from eurrophication animal life is absent due to lack of
Oxygen
Which is largest river in north america responsible for large dead sone that forms each summer in gulf of mexico
Mississippi river
What does eutrophication do
When there wre excess nutrients in the water
Why do waters become anoxic in a dead zone
Bacteria thay decompose the dead algae use up all the oxygen in the water
Where are dead zones most likely to develop
Where river driving arews with high human population densities dischsrge into the ocean
How migh the development of dead zones be contrilled
ALL but by adding more nutirents
Or the following types of organsimd whicj wre examples of microscopic algae
Dinoflaggletss, cocolitphotee, diatoms
Scientists currently have documented the existence if more than ____ dead zones world wide
500
Which of the following locations are exceptions to the general rule that productivity is steady and low in tropical regions
Equatorial upwelling, coral reefs, costal upwelling
Which of the following about oceanic productivity is true
Incredibly high productivity in summer, nutrient concentrations l, productivity limited by lack of sunshine
Primary producers known as
Autotrophs
Which ecosystem is most productive
Freshwater swamps and marshes
Wha is the standard unit used to measure productivity
Grams of carbon per square meter per year
Why are algae beds coral reefs and tropical rainforests so productive
Have ample access to sunlight
Which ecosystem is least productive
Open ocean
In the middle latitude oceans, primary productivity is limited by
Available sunlight, nutrient supply
Which of the following statements about oceanic productivity is true
In tropical ocean limited by lack of nuttirents, fall bloom limited by lack of sunlight, in spring bloom by lack of nutrients
If primary photosynthetic productivity in a given area of the ocean is 300g how much organic matter aded
3 a g
In low latitude oceans primary productivity is limited by
Nutrient supply only
Which of the following ecosystems has the highest average of net primary productivity
Freshwater swamp and marsh
In polar region oceans primary productivity is limited by
Available sunlight only
Percentage of euphoric zone biomass that reaches deep ocean is approximately
1
Examine the 5 words and determine relationship. Which doesn’t fit
Bigeochemical cycle
Efficiency of tropic transfer in ecosystems is on average around
10
Energy flow in an ecosystem is
Unidirectional
Of the following type of organisms which one occupies the lowest tropic level
Photosynthetic bacteria
Which is tropic level 1
Phytopla
Which are first level consumers
Zooplankton , herbivores
Which are topic level 5
Humans, orca whales
For every 500,000 units of radiant energy that enter an ecosystem from the sun how many are transferred to top producers
1
What is kinetic energy
Energy of movement
The shame of biomass pyramid illustrates thatj
There are many more small organisms in ocean
Which contain chlorophyll
Diatoms, phytoplankton
Which are primary producers
Diatoms, dinoflagellates, cociolithophotes
Which are primary carnivores
Sardines, herring
How many tunas does it take to make one shark
10 times the mass of the shark
Organisms within an ecosystem nourish themselves through either photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Producers
Bacteriovores, carnivores, herbivores and omnivores are types of
Heterotropic
The flow of energy through a biotic community is
Noncuclic and unidirectional
Modification of ____ have reduced dolphin mortality as bycstch
Purse swine nets
Deep water species are becoming endangered at a rapid rate primarily because
Have lower metabolic rates
Term bycstcj or incidental catch refers to
Non target species that are caught along with commercial species
What word doesn’t fit pattern: carnivorous …deposit… filter… suspension…autropic
Autrophic
Is overdosing a problem
Yes over 80%
How much fish do humans harvest from ocean
145 billion poounds
Bycatch
Fish that are caught in addition to the desired catch
Targeted by trawl nets
Flounder cod shrimp
Which become bycatch
Sharks, dolphins/turtles/birds
Overfishing of large predatory sharks has unintentionally resulted in
Excessive marcoslgal growth on coral reefs
Which of the following about fisheries are true
Have removed 90% of large marine predatory species, 80% over fished l, will be depleted by 2048
If you are concerned about purchasing fish from health thriving fisheries which should you avoid
Cod, Atlantic
Recent research has indicate that about ___ percent of seafood sold with a sustainable level is not meeting the criteria of sustain ability
25
Which of the following is not a problem currently facing fisheries management
Restrictions on the number of new fishing vessels