FRQ Prep

Industrial Agriculture
This type of agriculture is characterized by use machines, monoculture, and heavy synthetic inputs (fertilizer, pesticides)
Sustainable Agriculture
This type of agriculture is characterized by producing food in a way that preserves the long-term productivity of the land by enhancing soil quality, minimizing the use of synthetic fertilizer and other non-renewable resources, and often requiring more human labor.
Organic Agriculture
This type of agriculture is defined by certification standards that require minimal use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizer, no GMOs, and effort to maintain the quality of the soil.
Aquaculture
This type of agriculture involves raising seafood in tanks or pens to reduce the pressure on wild seafood populations.
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
This type of industrial agriculture is used to raise animals for meat in crowded land or buildings, often resulting in high rates of disease and pollution.
Pesticide
A toxin applied to crops in order to kill insects, rodents, and other organisms that would damage the crops.
Integrated Pest Management
A collection of strategies to reduce pest damage in order to reduce or eliminate the need for pesticide use.
Biological controls
This Integrated Pest Management strategy involves using beneficial living organisms, like praying mantids or ladybugs, to kill crop-harming insects.
Chemical controls
This Integrated Pest Management strategy involves using pheromones (chemical attractants) to lure pests into traps.
Pesticide resistance/tolerance
A disadvantage of using pesticides, when the target species evolves to no longer be affected by the pesticide.
Fertilizing
This technique improves soil fertility by adding nutrients (like Nitrogen) directly to the soil to improve fertility. These nutrients are often synthetically produced.
Composting
This technique preserves soil quality by adding organic material to the soil to increase nutrient and build topsoil.
Crop rotation
This technique preserves soil quality by changing which type of crop is grown in a field each year.
Intercropping (or Polyculture)
This technique preserves soil quality by planting multiple species of crops in the same field, reducing the chance of erosion.
Cover Crops
This technique preserves soil quality by planting a non-food crop, like clover, between rows of crops or on unused fields, reducing the chance of erosion.
Yield /amount of crops grown
One economic advantage of GM crops is improved profits due to increasing *this
Banned Importation of GM crops
One economic disadvantage of GM crops stems from not being able to sell the crops to countries that have done *this*
The US
This country produces the largest amount of GM crops worldwide.
Loss of biodiversity/harm to beneficial insect species
One environmental harm of pesticide-producing GM crops is the impact on beneficial insects, causing *this*.
Soil Tilling
Use of herbicide-resistant GM crops help the environment by preventing the damage from *this method* used to break up the roots of weeds.
Europe
This continent has largely banned the production or sale of GM crops for human consumption
Bt
The most common pesticide-producing genetic modification allows crops to produce a toxin that kills insects. This toxin originates from a soil bacterium, and is called…
Reduced fossil fuel burning/lower greenhouse gas pollution.
One environmental advantage of eating locally grown food is reduced distance the food must be transported, resulting in *this.*
Transportation/shipping
One economic advantage of eating locally grown food is reduced costs from *this*
Pesticide Treadmill
The cycle of pesticide development, followed by pest resistance, followed by new pesticide development.