Foundations of Marketing Chapter 6

Buying Behavior
the decision buying processes and actions of people involved in buying and using products
Consumer Buying Behavior
the decision processes and purchasing activities of people who purchase products for personal or household use and not for business purpose
Consumer Buying Decision Process
Consists of five stages.
Stage 1: Problem Recognition
Stage 2: Information Search
Stage 3: Evaluation of Alternatives
Stage 4:Purchase
Stage 5: Post-Purchase Evaluation
Problem Recognition
Stage 1 of 5
Occurs when a buyer becomes aware of a difference between a desired state and an actual condition
-can be rapid or slow
-some are unaware of their problems or needs
Information Search
Stage 2 of 5
Seeking to satisfy their needs
Consists of Methods: Internal and External
Internal Search
buyers search their memories for information about products that might solve their problem
External search
when an internal search is not sufficient, consumers seek additional information from outside sources
-personal contacts
-internet is major information source
Evaluation of Alternatives
Stage 3 of 5
Consists of Consideration set and Evaluation Criteria
Consideration Set
(Evoked Set)
A group of brands within a particular product category that the buyer views as alternatives for possible purchase
Evaluation Criteria
Objective and subjective product characteristics that are important to the buyer
Cognitive Dissonance
a buyer’s doubts shortly after a purchase about whether the decision was the right one
-often occurs after expensive, high involvement purchases
Level of Involvement
an individuals’ degree of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person
Routinized Response Behavior
used when buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that require very little search-and-decision effort
Limited Decision Making
utilized when buying products occasionally, or when one needs to obtain information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category
Extended Decision Making
occurs when purchasing unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought items
Impulse Buying
A buying decision made by customers on the spot when they see the merchandise
Situational Influences
results from circumstances, time, and location that affect the consumer buying decision process

Has five categories:
physical, surrounding
social surroundings
time perspective
reason for purchase
buyer’s mood and condition

Psychological Influences
partly influence people’s general behavior

primary influences are…
perception
motives
learning
attitudes
personality and self-concept
lifestyles

operate on buyers internally, but are acted on by outside forces

Perception
selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to product meaning
Informational Inputs
sensations received through site, taste, hearing, smell, and touch
Selective Exposure
Step 1 of 3
an individual selects which inputs, usually relating to strongest needs, will reach awareness

cannot be conscious of all inputs at one time

Selective Distortion
Step 2 of 3
changing or twisting received information

occurs when a person receives info inconsistent with personal feelings or beliefs

Selective Retention
Step 3 of 3
remembering information inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting inputs that do not
Motive
internal energizing force that directs a person’s behavior toward satisfying needs or achieving goals
Patronage Motives
influence where a person purchases products on a regular basis…
Maslow’s Heirarchy of needs
Contains:
self actualization
esteem
social
safety
physiological

must have the bottom need to achieve to highest needs

Learning
changes in an individual’s thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience

sources:
behavioral consequences
information processing
experience…

Attitude
an individual’s enduring evaluation of feelings about and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea

positive or negative
stable in short term
acquire through experience and interactions

Attitude Scale
means of measuring consumer attitudes by gauging the intensity of individuals’ reactions to adjectives, phrases, or sentences about an object
Personality
set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior
Self-Concept
(self-image)
one’s view of one self
Lifestyle
an individuals’ pattern of living expressed through activities, interests, and opinions

-strongly influences the buying decision process:
product needs
brand preferences
types of media
how and where one shops

Social Influences
the forces other people exert on one’s buying behavior
Roles
actions and activities that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform based on expectations of the individuals and surrounding persons
Consumer Socialization
the process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer
Reference Group
a group with which a person strongly identifies; adopts the values, attitudes, and behavior of group members

types:
membership
aspirational
dissociative

Opinion Leader
a member of an informal group who provides information about a specific topic to other group members
Social Class
an open aggregate of people with similar social rank

-people can move in and out of different groups
– tend to have similar attitudes, values, language patterns, and possessions
-affects shopping patterns and types of stores frequented

Culture
accumulation of values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts that a society uses to cope with its environment and passes on to future generations
Subculture
group of individuals whose characteristics, values, and behavior patterns are similar within the group and different from those of the surrounding culture
Consumer Misbehavior
behavior that violates generally accepted norms of a particular society

shoplifting
organized retail crime
consumer fraud
piracy
abusive consumers

Purchase
Stage 4 of 5
the buyer
-chooses the product or brand to be purchased
-selects the seller
-negotiates the terms of the transaction
-makes the actual purchase or terminates the process
Post-Purchase Evaluation
Stage 5 of 5
After purchase, buyer evaluates the product
-“does its actual performance meet expected levels?”
buyer is either satisfied or dissatisfied
Enduring involvement
ongoing and long-term involvement with a product or product category
Situational involvement
temporary and dynamic involvement resulting from a particular set of circumstances
High involvement Products
products that are visible to others and/or are expensive
low involvement products
products that tend to be less expensive and have less associated social risk
Cognitive
(Components of Attitude)
knowledge and information
Affective
(component of attitude)
feelings and emotions
Behavioral
(Component of attitude)
actions regarding the object or idea
VALS Program
survey developed by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence.

Divides people into 8 groups:
innovators
thinkers
achievers
experiencers
believers
strikers
makers
survivors

Family influences
have a direct impact on the buying decision process