Food Plot Management (Test 3)

Tillage should always be?
Minimized
What has happened to the number of tillage trips across a field (in the past 50 years)?
It has decreased
Why might one use tillage?
1. Eliminate
2. Incorporate fertilizer and lime
3. Weed Control
4. Seed bed population
Tillage implement that completely inverts the soil.
Moldboard Plow
Tillage implements that roll along the soil, cut in:
Disk harrows
Spring toothed harrows
What does excessive disking do to the soil?
1. Destroys soil structure
2. Creates Erosion
3. Severe soil compaction (Approximate 3 inches in depth)
What was the first used for cultivators?
Weed Control in between rows
Large deep cultivators are used to also do what? What are these often called?
Reduce deep compaction, Sub-Soilers
To firm the seedbed we use a?
Cultipacker
Two seeding options are? Most common?
1. Broadcast (Most common)
2. Drill
How deep should one take a soil sample? What is a good typical depth?
3-6 inches
What are the four needed steps in order to get a good soil test?
1. Sample
2. Lab Analysis
3. Interpretation/Calibration
4. Recommendation
The term used to describe the process between the soil test and the fertilizer recommendation is called:
Calibration
To raise the pH of soil we typically apply:
Lime
In what part of Alabama do we rarely (almost never!) need to apply lime?
Blackbelt
Know the two examples of lime we commonly apply:
1. Calcitic (CaCO3)
2. Dolomite (MgCaCO3)
What are some other materials with a liming ability?
Wood ashes
Ground eggshells
Paper mill sludge
What is the best way to apply lime?
Ground Ag grand lime
Can you follow the directions on the bottle of liquid lime and effectively change soil pH (for any period of time)?
Yes – Short term
No – Long term
On an Alabama soil test report, the status of what nutrients are provided by a soil test?
P, K, Ca, Mg, and pH
Which most common fertilizer nutrient is NOT determined via soil test?
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Iron
The units most commonly used for reporting the results of a soil test?
lbs/acre
ppm (parts per million)
When we apply lime, what does it do?
Increases soil pH
Is gypsum a liming source?
No it is not
What does gypsum do for us?
Not Much…
1. Supply calcium w/o affecting pH
2. Helps with soil structure
Are the home quick soil tests of any value?
NO
Name the common macronutrients that we really need for food plot fertilization. Which is most important?
N (Most important)
P
K
Good rule of thumb N rate for annual grasses (fall)?
60lbs/acre
What happens to your N rate if you have a legume in the mix?
You can lower some of it
What if you are 100% legume crop?
No nitrogen needed
On what basis is fertilizer N applied?
Crop response
On what basis is P and K applied? In REALITY – what’s an OK rule of thumb?
Soil Test
80lbs of P and K
To be a fertilizer what MUST be on the bag? What information does this give?
Must have a guaranteed analysis.
– Nutrient Content %
– Where the nutrients came from
Why is P and K still reported in the oxide form?
That’s how we’ve always done it
What is the percent N-P2O5-K2O content of UREA and Ammonium Sulfate?
UREA 46-0-0
Ammonium Sulfate 21-0-0
Why is ammonium nitrate hard to find? So – what is 34-0-0 often today?
It is very useful for making bombs (an explosive).
It is often referred to as diluted UREA.
How can you improve nutrition without planting food plots?
1. Plantings
2. Fertilization
3. Timber Harvesting
4. Prescribed fire
Plantings?
Sawtooth Oak
Chestnuts
Honeysuckle
Sawtooth Oak facts
Drop acorns in Sept/Oct.
Acorns in 4-6 yrs
Lots of Acorns
Exotic (from Asia)
Fertilization
1. Fertilize existing plants
2. Identify good food sources (Oaks, Honeysuckle, etc.)
3. Increases availability of high quality food
Timber Harvesting
1. Remove mature timber
2. Mature forests have very little food for deer
3. Allows sunlight to reach the floor
4. Increases growth of forage species
Prescribed fire
1. Sets back succession
2. Increases nutrient and forage availability
3. Promotes preferred plant species
Dablers
Highly attracted to places that have grain and are flooded
Six different types of Dablers
1. Mallards
2. Gadwall
3. Blue-winged teal
4. Green-winged teal
5. American Widgeon
6. Pintail
Migratory Patterns (4 flyways across the US)?
1. Atlantic flyway
2. Mississippi flyway
3. Central flyway
4. Pacific flyway
Forages for Waterfowl
–Small grains
1. Corn
2. Grain sorghum (MILO)
3. Rice
4. Soybeans
5. Millet

–Carbohydrates

Hunting Waterfowl
1. Standing in Water (River, pond, lake, swamp, marsh, etc.)
2. Flooded impoundments (controlled water levels)
3. Dry agricultural fields
Preparing Impoundments
-Hold water in impoundments until ready to plant.
-Drain and dry for 2-4 weeks before planting.
-Plant at the right time for each species.
-Water should be 6-12 inches in depth
-Should be flooded in mid-November
Other Preparations for Impoundments
-Herbicides should only be used if weed growth is excessive
-Native weeds and grasses should be encouraged
-Most waterfowl are arriving in Alabama in December
Grain deterioration (after 90 days of flooding)
– Soybean 98%
– Japanese Millet 43%
– Corn 42%
– Wild Millet 33%
– Milo 29%
– Rice 19%
Legal Implications of Impoundments
1. Crops can be harvested (normal practice)
2. Fields CANNOT be mowed down and left on the ground (considered baiting)
3. Crops can be flooded, but must be left standing
Benefits to food plots
1. Improved nutrition
2. Improved visibility of deer
3. Improved Hunting
Two types of diseases in Deer
1. Density-dependent
2. Density-independent
Density-dependent Disease
– Normally require animal to animal contact
Ex) Tuberculosis and Chronic Wasting Disease
Density-independent Disease
– These diseases spread without deer contact
Ex) EHD Blue Tongue
Food Plots alters
1. Food Availability
2. Deer Movement
3. Deer Concentrations