Fluid & electrolytes

Hyponatremia -drinking too much water-excessive D5W administration-excessive water administration with isotonic or hypotonic tube feedings-SIADH-loss of Na in GI fluids-excessive use of diuretics-hypothyroidism-ecstasy-SSRIs
Hypernatremia – always related to water deficit (but with any fluid volume status)- water deprivation- increased insensible water loss-watery diarrhea-excesive administartion of Na-diabtes insipidus
Hypokalemia -poor intake-diarrhea/laxative abuse-loss of gastric fluid (prolonged vomiting – metabolic alkalosis)-Ren
Hyperkalemia -decreased potassium excretion (renal failure, K conserving diuretics)- high potassium intake-shift of potassium out of cells-over use of K-anti-hypertensives

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