Fisheries Management and Aquaculture

Features of fisheries
* Renewable natural resource
* Mobile
* Free gift of nature
* Common property (Open access)
* Externalities
Importance of fisheries sector
* source of human nutrition
* source of foreign exchange
* source of employment and livelihood
* recreational opportunities
Environmental threats to fisheries
Run off from land based sources which results: Sedimentation, Fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, which leads to eutrophication, hypernutrification etc.
Activities that lead to destruction habitats are
Coastal development
Reclamation
Industrial effluents and sedimentation
Farming activities
Global warming
Value of coast to fisheries
1) The primary producer of coastal fisheries consists of coastal wetlands, marshes, lagoons, estuaries and coral reefs.
2) These habitats are considered most productive, nursery and feeding grounds for most commercially important species of fish, shellfish and crustaceans
Costal planning tools, Administrative
* Policy and legislation
* coastal zonning
* regulation and enforcement
Costal planning tools, social
* customary practice
* community based management
* capacity building
Costal planning tools, technical
* EIA & EMP
* Risk and hazard management
* Resource analysis: demand/ supply
* Economic analysis
Overfishing
Is the practice of harvesting fish at a rate faster than the population can renew its numbers.
Maximum Sustainable Yeild
– The maximum usable production of a biological resource that can be obtained in a specific time period. The MSY level is the population size that results at maximum sustainable yield.
Fishing effort
it takes into account the number of boats fishing, the number of fishes working, and the number of hours they spend fishing.
Catch per Unit Effort
Another way harvest counts are used to estimate previous animal abundance -this method assumes that the same effort is exerted by all hunters/harvesters per until of time as long as they have the same technology (leads to a rather crude estimate with a large observational error)
CPUE
Total catch divided by the total amount of effort used to harvest the catch
Fisheries management plan
Is a formal or informal arrangement between a fishery management authority and interested parties
What should a management plan contain?
1) A description of the fishery, especially its current status and any established user rights
2) Objectives, goals & how these objectives, goals are to be achieved
3) How the plan is to be reviewed and/or appealed; and the consultation process for review and appeal
The overall goal of fisheries management is
To produce sustainable biological, social, and economic benefits from renewable aquatic resources for the present & future needs.
The institutional framework under which the fishing activity operates by;
a. Social custom and tradition
b. The government (the fisheries authority)
c. The association of fishermen
d. Other means
Why we need an appropriate FMP
• Without an appropriate FMS, no long term profits
• With an appropriate FMS relatively high profit
• FMP need for sustainable yield for future & present generation needs.
International fisheries policy requirements
• One of the most basic requirements recognized in FMPs is the adherence to the, internationally sanctioned
• United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, of 10 December 1982 (LOS Convention),
• The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the precautionary approach to management for fisheries in the high seas and for those plans dealing with straddling stocks,
• The FMPs must clearly specify the international regulatory and institutional context within which the plan is applicable (e.g. UN Fish Stocks Agreement).
National/State fisheries policy requirements
• National fishery policies should be supported by a legal and institutional framework, so that FMPs can be the main instrument of management.
• Fishery policy should define the range of minimum requirements that a fishery management plan should fulfill.
• All FMPs achieve the goals & specific objective of the national fishery policy
Who should design a FMPs?
Institutional arrangements
The development of the FMP is the responsibility of the authority in charge of fishery management, all interested parties, community & organizations
Who should design a FMPs?
Participation of Interested Parties
All interested parties should be offered the opportunity to participate in the development of an FMP (e.g. Comments on discussion)
Expert knowledge
FMP requires extensive information about the fishery and the social, economic and natural environments within which the fishery operates
Discussion Paper
The first step in the development of an FMP is usually to create a working group that develops a discussion paper
Public consultation
The discussion paper is formally released, the public and interested parties should be given a set time to make comments
Draft Management plan
The first draft management plan is then released and new comments are sought, again specifying a time frame of a few months & after 2nd , 3rd round of consultation. Final draft submitted to the ministry of fisheries for approval
Implementation of Management Plans
Step-1
Once the FMP has been approved, it is important to inform the public of its contents
Implementation of Management Plans
Step- 2
A good strategy is to summaries’ the major points of the plan in easy-to-read leaflets or brief documents that can be distributed to interested parties
Mechanisms for review
Major reviews may require public meetings where interested parties can air their views about the proposed amendments to the plan.
Review strategy
Often, plan reviews are motivated by changes in, the socio-economic status of the fishery or the biological status of the fish stock. It is to be expected that, after the initial development of a plan, it will take several years to close the information gaps that may have been identified at the time the plan was developed.
Changing management measures without amending the FMP
In some instances the process of review of a management plan takes too long for it to be an efficient way to make an urgent change of a management measure
Input controls or fishing effort management
Input controls are restrictions put on the intensity of use of gear that fishers use to catch fish. (Fishing effort controls, eg. Number of fishing trips, fishermen, vessels, tonnage class, fishing gears, fishing days, hauls, engine horsepower).
Output controls or cash management
Limits on the amount of fish catch in a period of time (e.g. total allowable catches, or yield usually total allowable landings)
Bycatch can be classified into 4 main groups
Marketable
Legal
Nonlegal
Discarded
Adaptive management
Adaptive management is a systematic process for continually improving management policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of operational programs
Adaptive management
1) helps resource managers maintain flexibilty in their decisions, knowing that uncertainties exist
2) provides managers the latitude to change direction.
3) will improve understanding of ecological systems to achieve management objectives
Co-management
is a participatory and flexible management strategy that provides and maintains a forum or structure for action on participation, rule making, conflict management, power sharing, leadership, dialogue, decisionmaking, negotiation, knowledge generation and sharing, learning, and development among resource users, and government
Seven steps of participation
1. Informing
2. Consultative
3. Cooperative
4. Communicative
5. Advisory
6. Partnership
7. Community Control
Why Ecosystem Based Management
• Accounts for ecological, social, and economic goals
• Incorporates understanding of ecosystem processes
• Considers ecological boundaries, not just political
• Uses adaptive management
• Accounts for uncertainty
• Engages multiple stakeholders in collaborative process
key steps in the management planning process of Ecosystem Based Management
1. Identify and involve stakeholders.
2. Identify ecosystem values.
3. Understand management context.
4. Identify key management institutions.
5. Identify goals, targets and threats.
6. Establish management strategies.
7. Implement management actions.
8. Formulate education and communication programs.
9. Set priorities for monitoring and research.
10. Define review and adaptation processes.
What is a protected area?
“An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection of biological diversity and natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means (IUCN 1996).
Small-scale and artisanal fisheries differ from industrial and recreational fisheries
i. Activities take place near shore during trips of one day orless
ii. Low capital investment per fisher
iii. Low levels of technologyiv.
Relatively small vessel sizev.
Labor-intensive, or non-mechanized vi. Traditional fishing gear
why should we care about small-scale and artisanal fisheries?
Contributes 58% of the global fish catch
• Small-scale fishers account for 96% of the world’s fishers
• Economic growth
• Poverty reduction
• Food and livelihood security
• Biodiversity conservation