Final Study Guide Chapters 8-14

The tendency for people to prefer products from their own culture rather than those of another culture is called ________.
ethnocentrism
Directories and portals, Web site evaluators, forums, fan clubs, and user groups are all forms of
cybermediaries
What is a major distinction between customers who purchase a product because they are brand loyal and those who purchase by inertia?
whether the customers hold a very positive or weak attitude toward the product
Of the following products, which one would typically carry high psychological risk for the average consumer?
an expensive mink coat
What type of cybermediaries are intelligent agents?
They are sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies to learn from past user behavior in order to recommend new purchases.
________ are dimensions used to judge the merits of competing options.
Evaluative criteria
Susan is trying to select the right tour. She is going to Scotland but can’t make up her mind what she wants to do when she gets there. There are so many variables including cost, the weather, and Susan’s desire to see the village her grandmother called home. Susan’s problem emphasizes the importance of the ________ in designing an effective hospitality-marketing program for the tourism industry
experiential perspective
People often make decisions on the basis of mental accounting. One facet of this accounting is making a decision based on the way a problem was posed. This is called ________.
framing
Two dimensions of emotional states determine if a shopper will react positively or negatively to a consumption environment. These two dimensions are best described as being ________.
pleasure and arousal
Mary Jo has been on a roll. She made straight “A’s” in school, was elected to the Student Senate, found a new boyfriend, and discovered that she will be getting a new car in about two weeks. Based on information found in the text, these positive occurrences will have an impact on Mary Jo; therefore, when Mary Jo reads and processes ads in her favorite magazines, she will process the ads with ________.
less elaboration
A store environment that has been made to resemble a living room where customers can relax, hang out with friends, or even learn is referred to as a(n) ________.
being space
Which of the following is the best example of a utilitarian shopping motive?
A consumer shops to efficiently purchase groceries for the week
The Japanese believe that successful total quality management can be achieved by going to the one true source of information called the ________.
gemba
A ________ orientation dimension distinguishes between people who prefer to do one thing at a time and those who have multitasking timestyles.
polychronic
In-store shopping has become extremely important in today’s highly competitive retail environment. It has been estimated that about ________ of supermarket purchases are decided in the aisles as consumers shop.
two-thirds
Many factors have been identified that distinguish organizational and industrial purchase decisions from individual consumer decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of those distinctions?
Impulse buying commonly occurs in organizational purchasing because of sales stimulation from direct salespeople.
A child in the ________ developmental stage will use storage and retrieval strategies but only when prompted to do so.
cued
Michelle Roberts has a tough job at PJK Tile. She has to examine information from vendors and decide which of these vendors (and their proposals) should be presented to her company’s purchasing group. No one at PJK Tile sees more information on vendors than Michelle. Which of the following roles does Michelle fulfill for PJK Tile?
gatekeeper
Pam Henry is a purchasing agent for MicroTel. Each Tuesday she places an order for ten boxes of photocopier paper with her supplier, but each week the size and quality of the paper is different due to shifting consumer demands. In this example, Pam is participating in which of the following buying situations?
modified rebuy
If a couple is responsible for raising two children and must also care in some way for their aging parents, the couple is a member of the ________ generation.
sandwich
Like end consumers, organizational buyers are influenced by both internal and external stimuli. Which of the following is an example of an organizational buyer’s internal stimuli?
the buyer’s willingness to take risks
Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.
norms
The capacity to alter the actions of others is referred to as ________ power.
social
Phillipe is a member of a small Harley-Davidson motorcycle club. They meet once a week to ride and talk about their bikes. This club might exert a ________ influence on Phillipe as he decides which model of bike to buy for his girlfriend.
comparative
The ________ a group is, the more likely members are to engage in social loafing.
bigger
Amanda thought she had been cheated by a local car dealership. She was so upset that she created a Web site to share her story with the world. What is the most likely result of Amanda’s action?
Amanda’s Web site will decrease the credibility of the dealership’s ads and will influence potential buyers to stay away from the dealership.
If the super rich bought “shredded Levi’s jeans” to wear to formal parties, they would be exhibiting a sophisticated form of conspicuous consumption known as ________.
parody display
We tend to marry people in a similar social class to our own. Sociologists call this ________, or assortative mating.
homogamy
A person who is born into a rich, powerful family (i.e., “She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth”) is said to have ________ status.
ascribed
When people are differentiated in terms of their aesthetic and intellectual preferences, a ________ concept is being applied.
taste culture
Jane is a Baby Boomer. How is Jane most likely to be different from her mother when her mother was 60 years old?
Jane is much more likely to be physically active than her mother was at the same age
In a(n) ________ culture, members of the culture tend to be loosely knit and words carry most of the weight in messages
low-context
Which of the following is true about the phenomenon of nostalgia?
Adults older than 30 are particularly susceptible, but people of all ages can feel nostalgic
Gen Yers are at home in a ________, communicating by texting and IMing.
thumb culture
As a relationship grows and progresses, gift giving tends to become more ________.
altruistic
Pavel was an inventor. He read that there were several million people who could not sleep at night until they looked under the bed. He invented a light that could be put under a bed and went on automatically when someone looked there. Pavel’s product is designed to help people perform a ________.
ritual
Which of the following statements would be viewed as most true about styles?
Styles are often a reflection of more fundamental societal trends
If a consumer’s ideal state is very near or identical to his or her actual state, which of the following best describes the type of problem recognition the consumer would most likely have?
no problem recognized
A consumer is most likely to engage in ________ when she is in a good mood or when she is uninvolved in other activities
variety seeking
Coca-Cola is an example of a(n) ________ product because it has come to characterize an entire category of soft drinks
exemplar
The psychological dimension of time or how it is experienced is an important factor in what mathematical study?
queuing or queuing theory
Jason remembers that the last time he bought a store brand trashcan, it fell apart in about two months. Without even looking at the store brand on this shopping trip, Jason buys a national brand for a little more cash. Which of the following models most accurately reflects Jason’s behavior?
the expectancy disconfirmation model
Every time Sue Samuels comes in from a long selling trip, she makes sure to give reports to all her colleagues on knowledge she has gained and experiences she had while on the road. She has found that her “information tips” are a great way to set the stage for decision-making that she would like to go her way. Based on her actions, what role is Sue playing in her organization?
influencer
If at least one person lives at an address, this person and any other occupants of the address are considered to be a(n) ________.
household
Consumers who participate in social networking are more likely to consider themselves as ________ than are those who do not use online social networks.
media broadcasters
A group composed of people that the consumer actually knows is called a(n) ________ reference group.
membership
A person who receives rewards and status because of his hard work is said to have ________ status.
achieved
The ________ marketing perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of the things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend their disposable income.
lifestyle
We can trace most religion-oriented marketing activity in America to the ________ community.
Born-Again Christian
Carl Thorne has just passed the final test to become a member of a college fraternity. This rite of passage has moved Carl from being an individual to being a member of a bonded group. When Carl receives his fraternity pin in a final ceremony and joins his new brothers, he will have passed through the final stage of a rite of passage. According to the text, what is this stage called?
aggregation
When using the ________ rule of decision-making, a consumer evaluates brands on the most important attribute, but specific cutoffs are imposed
conjunctive
According to the text, shopping is an activity that can be performed for either utilitarian or ________ reasons
hedonic
Kelly and Paul are authoritarian parents. Of the following types of purchase decisions, which are they LEAST likely to use with their children?
consensual
When members of a group come together with a certain attitude, that attitude becomes more extreme after the group discusses it. This effect is called ________.
decision polarization
Vance comes from the lower-upper class, while Jeff comes from the lower-middle class. They are both madly in love with Julia, who is beautiful enough to do part-time modeling. According to the principle of ________, Julia is most likely to be attracted to Vance.
hierogamy
Through the process of ________, immigrants make the unfamiliar familiar by integrating symbols from their former lives into their new homes
warming
Products are winnowed out as they make their way down the path from conception to consumption, a process called ________.
cultural selection
Which of the following describes the visual nature of a social game?
milieu
Innovative merchants have turned to retail theming to provide new ways to stimulate and encourage consumers during their shopping experience. A retailer that uses a simulated outdoor environment (such as a fishing pond with real fish) to attract outdoor enthusiasts to the retail store is using a ________ theme
landscape
In many organizations, more complex organizational decisions tend to be made by a(n) ________ in which different individuals play different roles in the decision-making process
buying center