FCS: Food Production, Management and Services Reference Book

Food service unit
organization that provides ready-to-eat food for customers, residents, employees, or patients.
Variences in food service units
menu choices,where food is prepared, how the food is served, who is fed, and type of ownership.
HMR or Home Meal Replacements
“dinner takeouts” ; growing at higher rate than on-premise sales.
Factors influencing staff needs
size of operation, the menu, and form of service.
Career ladder
levels of employment in business and industry beginning at entry-level and progressing to high-level management
Front-of-the-house
area seen by guests and includes service and management jobs.
Back-of-the-house
area not generally seen by customers and includes support, production, and control jobs.
Types of customers
rushed,indecisive,dieting,noisy,angry,complaining,joking,intoxicated, young, older, visual impairment, physical disability, or ill.
A la carte menu
each food item is priced separately.
Table d’hote menu
complete meals at set prices.
Club breakfasts
table d’hote menu at breakfast.
Suggestive selling
making a suggestion to increase the customer’s interest in the menu items, preferably something the customer might not have ordered at first.
Items to suggest with the entree
appetizers, beverages, salads, and vegetables.
Dessert suggestion should be made
after the main course.
Selling up
suggesting something more expensive such as a “large”.
TQS-Total Quality Service
concept used to ensure customer satisfaction.
Forms of service
counter, trayline, and seated.
American Service
“plate service”; guests are greeted and seated and given the menu and food ordered is plated in the kitchen and brought out.
French Service
Two waitpersons work together to “finish” the preparation at the table from a cart;plates served and cleared from the right side of each guest.
Gueridon
cart used to serve at the table in French service.
Rechaud
small stove used to keep food warm in French service.
Russian Service
similar to French service, but is simpler, faster and less expensive. Portions of food are served from host’s left, counterclockwise around the table.
English Service
a private dining room or private home with servant service; “host” serves each course from service tureens or platters, and a waitperson serves the plates to the guests.
Buffet Service
guests serve themselves from a choice of foods on a long table.
French Buffet
waitpersons serve guest individually off the buffet table; requires extra plates and cutlery.
Smorgasbord
Scandinavian foods in great quantity.
Banquet service
predetermined menu to a set number of guests and very little personal attention to guests.
Silencer
padding used beneath the top cloth on a table.
Cover
arrangement of flatware,dinnerware, glassware, and linens at each place setting using approximately 24 x 15 inches of space.
Guests’ first contact at table service restaurants
head waitperson, maitre d’hotel or host/hostess.
Individual’s menu presentation direction
from the left.
Menu presentation direction for a group table
counterclockwise from the right of the host/hostess.
Direction orders are taken for a group table
clockwise from the host/hostess.
4 common methods of placing an order with the kitchen
wait staff calls in the order; written orders on a spindle; designated employee reads order aloud; punch into a computer.
Sidework
all the duties assigned to foodservice personnel in addtion to service duties.
Work station
an assigned work area, usually with a certain number of tables or counter stools.
Service stand
“bus station”; area that contains the supplies needed in the dining room such as dishes, glasses, flatware, napkins, placemats, ice, water, butter, condiments, tip trays, soiled linen containers, and food items.
Side stand
cabinet standing against a wall of the dining room or pantry that has all supplies needed during a meal service.
Booster stand
cabinet located in the center of the room that has all the supplies needed during a meal service.
Serviceware
plateware, glassware and flatware.
Food items at a service stand
garnishes and condiments; accompanimnets, ice, beverages; dinner salads, breads, pastries, cakes, and desserts.
5 foodservice operations that use counter service
snack bars, fountain-grill services, coffee shops, drive-ins, and diners.
Self-service food operations
cafeteria, buffet, takeout, and automated self-service.
Take-out service preparation method
pre-packaging.
Forms of automated self-service
vending machines and automats.
Table served first at a banquet
head table.
Most adaptable form of foodservice
catering.
Where can tray service be found?
hotels, motels, hostpitals, long-term care facilities, some drive-ins, and airplanes.
Centralized tray service
assembly of patient trays at some area close to the production area.
Decentralized tray service
food is delivered in bulk to the hospital floor where patient trays are assembled.
Charges that may be on a check
menu items, cover charges, sales tax, special services, extra chage for refills or gratuity.
Common foodservice accidents
falls, cuts, burns/shocks/explosions, strains and bruises.
Two contributors to accidents
fatigue and stress.
Class A fire
wood, paper and rubbish.
Class B fire
gas, grease, and other liquid.
Class C fire
live electrical equipment.
Weather-related hazards affecting foodservice businesses
thunderstorms, lightening, tornadoes,hurricanes,and blizzards.
Accidents should be reported to whom?
supervisor
Who should call an ambulance for a choking victim?
a bystander. Personnel should give care to the victiim.
Type of injury requiring physician’s care?
puncture.
Sanitation enforcement in foodservice is done through
inspections by state and local health authorities.
Most common source of food contamination
people.
Most common pests in foodservice establishments
cockroaches,flies, ants, and rodents.
Signs of pest infestation should be reported to whom
supervisor.
4 types of microorganisms that affect food
bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and molds.
Infection
disease caused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms.
Foodborne intoxication
illness caused by poisons in the food a person eats which may occur naturally or be contaminated by toxic wastes from certain microorganisms.
Most common microorganism in foodborne illness
bacteria.
Types of bacterial foodborne illnesses
staph, botulism, perfringens poisoning, and salmonellosis.
2 harmful fungi
yeasts and mold.
Sign of yeast spoilage
bubbles and an alcoholic smell or taste.
Illnesses caused by viruses
colds, influenza and infectious hepatitus.
False
viruses increase in number while they are in food.
Ways to slow or stop growth of microorganisms
referigeratoin or sufficient heat.
“Danger zone” for growth of microorganisms
41-140 F (5-60C)
Chemical hazards in foodservice
pesticides, chemicals,, and toxic metals.
Time-and-temperature principle
all hazardous food kept at internal temperature below 41 F or above 140 F during display and service.
Calories
energy value of food.
Functions of water
digestions, food absorption, regulate body temperature, lubrication of body parts, and elimination of body wastes.
Carbohydrate
body’s main source of energy; sugar, starch and cellulose.
Sugars
dissolve in water so water should be save to make soups, sauces, and gravies.
Cholesterol
lipid found in foods high in animal fat.
True
water-soluable vitamins are easily lost from food; fat-soluble vitamins are not.
Most important trace minerals
iron, iodine, flourine, and zinc.
Food Guide Pyramid
first 5 groups meet body’s nutritional needs; 6th (fats, oils and sweets) add variety and flavor but have empty calories.
Factors affecting eating habits
cultural background, personal preferences, seasons traditions, age, health, and activities.
Typical meal pattern for United States
breakfast, light lunch at midday, and heavier dinner in evening, plus snacks.
Scales and balances used in foodservice
spring-type; balance scale, portion scale, and baker’s scale.
Cutting equipment in foodservice
food slicer, food cutter or chopper, food processor and vegetable peeler.
Mixers used in foodservice
floor, bench and table models use a variety of beaters, whips, and attachments.
Cooking equipment in foodservice
range tops, grills, broilers, deep fat fryers, exhaust hoods, steaming equipment, baking and roasting equipment and toasters.
Cold storage equipment in foodservice
walk-in, roll-in, and pass-through refrigerators and freezers.
Cold storage temperatures
raw fruits and vegetables (40-45 F); dairy (38-40 F); meaat, poultry, fish,and cooked dishes (32-36 F) and frozen foods (-10- 0 F).
Holding and serving equipment
warmers, cold food units, and hot and cold carts.
Cleaning and disposal equipment
garbage disposer, pot and pan sink, and the commercial dishwasher.
Placement of work stations is determined by
flow of food and service, usually from left to right.
Thermometer types
confectionaery, meat, deep-frying, and dial-type.
Common knives in foodservice
French knoves, paring knovers, butcher knives, boning knives, slicers, bread knivers and cleavers.
Carborundum stone
used for sharpening knivers.
“To true” a knive
using a shapening steel to smooth out irregularities on the edge of a sharp knife.
Meniscus
curved upper surface of a column of liquid; measuring should use the lower point of the meniscus in a cup.
Tools for handling food
spoons, ladles, scoops, spatulas, tongs, and forks.
Brushes in foodservice
pastry, bench, grease, vegetable, pot, kettle, and oven.
Specialized baking tools
sifter, pastry blender, rolling pin, dough scraper, pastry bags, pastry wheel, and edger.
Molds
used for shaping gelatins and desserts
Containers for shaking and straining
shakers, strainers, sieves, colanders and China caps.
Types of processed foods
refrozen, canned, dehydrated, freeze-dried, dried, salted, pickled, and sweetened.
Quality of food is graded from
most to least desirable.
Regardless of grade, food is
equally wholesome and nutritious.
Written specifications
used in ordering food and supplies for foodservice.
FI-FO
First-in/first out as an order of using food.
Three major storage areas in foodservice
refrigerated storage, freezer storage, and dry storage.
Inventory
itemized list of food and supplies on hand.
Perpetual inventory
written records of food and supplies delivered and issued.
Standardized recipes
formulas which maintain quality and cost control in quantity food production.
Yield
number of servings that can be adjusted by a set factro or amount.
4 steps to increase or reduce the yield of a recipe
To DECREASE RECIPE
1. Determine the proportion required to the number of servings from the original recipe ( 50 to one of 20 = 20/50=.4)
2. Convert EACH unit of measuer to the next smaller unit.(16 oz x 2 lbs=32 oz for 50.)
3. Determine amount of ingredient for new recipe ( 32 x.4=12.8 oz for 20 )
4. Convert the new amount of EACH ingredient back to orignal measure. (12.8 oz/16 oz= .8 lbs)
TO INCREASE RECIPE
70/50=1.4
16 oz x 2 lbs=32 oz
32 oz x 1.4= 44.8 oz
44.8 oz x 16oz- 2.67 lbs.
Motion economy
using hands and arms more efficiently.
Portion control
standard size of servings to control costs and increase customer satisfaction.
Appetizer
small amount of light and tasty food served before a meal to stimulate appetite.
7 classifications of appetizers
hor d’oeuvres, canapes, spreads and dips, cocktails, relishes, salads, and soups.
Name for finger foods
Hor d’oevres.
Canapes
three part open-faced sandwiches consisting of a base, spread and garnish.
Primary ingredients for canapes
eggs, cheeses, fish, meat and poultry.
Relishes
crisp vegetables, pickles or olives.
Types of basic stocks
white, brown, fish, and poultry.
Types of soups
stock or milk base.
Types of cold soups
jellied consomme, gazpacho, vichyssoise, borscht, and fruit.
Standard portion sizes for soup
6-8 oz. for appetizers; 10-12 oz for entree/main course soups.
Definition of sauce
richly flavored stock or liquid used to complement a food.
Foundation sauces
brown, tomato, white, cream, egg, and butter.
Gravies
meat-flavored sauces made from roasted meat drippings.
Sweet sauces
whipped cream, sugar syrups, fruit, hard, egg and custards.
Three basic salads
combination, arranged and molded.
Three basic parts of a salad
base (foundation usually leafy green vegetable); body ( usually the name of salad and main part); dressing (flavor and tartness)
Flavor enhancers
salt, monosodium glutamate, onions, garlic, herbs and spices.
Key to salad production
organization.
Three types of sandwiches
regular ( two pieces of bread); open-faced,(one piece of bread); and club/open decker (3 or more pieces of bread).
3 parts of all sandwiches
bread, spread and filling.
Sandwich fillings
dry ( meat or cheese) or moist ( chicken or tuna salad)
“Aging” meat
storing or holding meat under controlled conditions and time to allow natural tenderizing and flavor development.
Definition of “meat”
beef, veal, pork or lamb only.
Definition of “poultry”
domestic birds raised for food including chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese.
Definition of “fish”
finfish that include freshwater and saltwater; shellfish that include crustaceans and mollusks.
How vegetables are classified
part of plant, color, flavor, and moisture content of edible plants.
How fruits are classified
shape, structure, and other characteristics such as pomes(with cores), drupes (with pits), berries, citrus fruits, melons, and tropical fruits.
Type of fruit that discolors
low-acid.
What reduces moist heat on cellulose fruit?
sugar
How to retain values of fresh vegetables and fruits
cook in as little water as possible for as short a time as possible.
Blanch
cooking vegetables to enhance color or to make strong flavor milder.
Steaming
fast cooking method to retain nutrients and natural color of vergetables.
Scalloping
cooking vegetables or fruits in a sauce or other liquid casserole.
Au gratin
casserole of vegetables or fruits topped with buttered bread crumbs or cheese.
Stir-frying
Chinese method of sauteing vegetables in a small amount of butter, margarine, or oil.
Three parts of a kernel of grain
bran, endosperm and the germ.
Refined grain
bran and germ have been removed; only endosperm.
Types of rice
brown, polished or white, enriched, converted, coated or wild.
Specialty forms of rice
arborio, basmati, jasmine, wehani, and glutinous.
Durum wheat
best type of pastas are made from this.
4 main shapes of pasta
tubes, rods, ribbon-like strips, and special or fancy shapes.
Principles of starch cookery
cook the product in boiling water until starch absorbs water forming steam which erupts the starch granules. Starch paste gelatinizes. Fine granules mixed with small amount of cold water first, or stirred slowly into the boiling water.
Al dente
“to the tooth”; best texture for pasta.
Basic ingredients for all breads
flour, a liquid, a leavening agent, flavorings, and often fat and eggs.
Quick breads or yeast breads
classification of bread by type of leavening agent.
Types of quick breads
biscuits, muffins, cornbread, pancakes, and waffles formed from pour batters, drop batters, or soft doughs.
Gluten
substance in flour that forms the elastic framework of bread as the batter or dough rises.
Leaveners
chemicals, yeast, air or steam that make a bread product rise.
Essential ingredient for yeast products
salt.
Cause of too much gluten
overmixing.
Methods for making yeast breads
straight-dough or sponge-dough (kneaded at one or more points of preparation); and batter method.
Why is sweet dough allowed less time to rise?
Less fermentation required because of high sugar content.
Dessert classifications
cookies, cakes, pastries, pies, fruit desserts, gelatin desserts, milk desserts, and frozen desserts.
Gelatin desserts
whips, chiffons or sponges, creams, and mousses.
Milk desserts
puddings ( thickened with starch ingredient), custards,(thickened with eggs) and baked souffles
How cookies differ from cakes
cookies have more fat and flour and less sugar.
Types of cookie dough
very soft, semi-soft, or stiff which is refrigerated.
Cake classifications
shortened and chiffon (contain fat) and foam (no fat).
Ingredients of all cakes
flour, sugar, eggs, leavener, and flavoring.
Cake flour
has lower gluten content than all-purpose flour.
Shortened cakes
mixed by creaming or blending method (2-stage method).
Foam or chiffon cakes
mixed by beating eggs to incorporate air.
3 elements for quality cake production
correct oven temperature, placement of pans in the oven, and timing.
Foam or chiffon cakes cool by
being upside down in the pan on a rack.
Shortened cakes cool by
cooling slightly in the pan and then removed from pan while still warm.
Basic ingredients for frostings and icings
sugar, liquid, and flavoring.
How to prepare a cake for frosting
trim, level and remove crumbs.
Frosting is made easier
by icing the cake first.
Most often used base for cooked frosting
fondant.
Is cake decorating and art?
Yes.
Key to effective foodservice organizations.
employee involvement.
Cycle or rotated menus
menus planned and prepared for a specific period of time with each day having a different menu.
Food cost control procedures
purchasing, receiving, issuing and inventorying of food and supplies.
Menu pricing considerations
labor, overhead, food costs and customer turnover.
Food cost percentage calculation
cost of food/selling price=food cost percentage
Selling price calculation
cost of food/food cost percentage=selling price
Information on standardized recipes
recipe yield, utensils required, time required, method of serving, ingredients used, amount (weighed and measured) cooking time, and cooking temperature.
P/L statement
profit and loss – summary of foodservice operation’s business transactions during an accounting period.
Budget
operating plan for a business.
Exit interview
meeting with leaving employee to share information related to problems encountered by the employee.
What shapes the food service industry?
The customer.
The constant merchandising tool of foodservice
The menu.
Word-of-mouth communication
a form of advertising that gives personal opinion about a product, service, or business and can affect the business positively or negatively.