Exercise and Weight Control Final

Nutrition
The study of the relationship of foods to optimal health and performance
Nutrients
Substances in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism and help with growth and repair of body tissues
Substrates
Foods that are used as energy sources (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins)
Typical U.S. diet is too high in
Calories, sugar, saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium
Typical U.S. diet is not high enough in
Fruits and vegetables
Essential nutrients
Required by the human body for survival
Name the essential nutrients
Carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, water
Macronutrients
Needed in large amounts (carbohydrates, fats, protein)
Micronutrients
Needed in small quantities (vitamins, minerals, water)
Calorie
The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C; used to measure the energy value of food
High nutrient density foods
Low in calories and high in nutrients
Low nutrient density foods
High in calories and low in nutrients
Carbohydrates
Major source of calories the body uses to create energy

4 calories per gram

Sources include breads, cereal, fruits, vegetables, milk and other dairy products

Simple carbohydrates
Sugars with little nutritive value (candy, soda, cakes)

Monosaccharides and disaccharides

Complex carbohydrates
Formed when simple carbohydrate molecules link together

Starches (seeds, corn, nuts, potatoes, grains)

Dextrin (baked wheat or corn)

Glycogen

Fiber
Is a complex carbohydrate

High-fiber diet gives feeling of fullness without added calories

Sources include plant leaves skins, roots, and seeds

Fats
Most concentrated source of energy

9 calories per gram

used as insulation, shock absorber, supply fatty acids and carry fat soluble vitamins

Simple fats
Monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides
Trans fat =
Very bad
Saturated fat =
Bad
Unsaturated fat =
Good
Protein
Used to build and repair tissues

Part of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies

Only used as energy source when carbohydrates and fats are unavailable

4 calories per gram

Sources include meats, meat alternatives, milk, and nuts

The 20 different amino acids are the buffing blocks of proteins

Vitamins
Organic substances essential for metabolism, growth, and development

Fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) or water-soluble (B complex and C)

Antioxidants
Compounds that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances it might damage

As a result of metabolism, oxygen ends up in an unstable form which can damage cell membranes and DNA…
Antioxidants prevent this damage

Vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium

Minerals
Inorganic elements needed in the body

Crucial in bones, nails, teeth, maintaining water and acid-base balance

Water
Most important nutrient

Involved in every body process

_____ are used to establish adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes in the diet
Nutrient standards
4 types of reference values
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUIL)
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Amount of a nutrient that meets the dietary needs in half the people
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Daily amount of nutrients considered adequate to meet nutrient needs of nearly all health people in the U.S.
Adequate Intake
Recommended amount of a nutrient when one can’t calculate the EAR and RDA
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Highest level of nutrient intake that papers to be safe for most healthy people without an increased risk of adverse effects
Daily values
Reference values for nutrients and food components used in food labels

Based on a 2,000 calorie diet

Dietary guidelines
45-65% of total diet from carbohydrates

20-35% of total diet from fat

10-35% of total diet from protein

Diet must also include all essential vitamins and minerals

Vegetarianism
Rely on foods from the bread, cereal, rice, pasta, fruit, ad vegetables groups, they avoid food from animal sources, (milk, yogurt, cheese, and meat)
Vegan
Eats no animal product at all
Ovovegetarian
Allow eggs in the diet
Lactovegetarian
Allow foods from the milk group
Ovolactovegetarians
Allow egg and milk products
Semi vegetarians
Do not eat red meat but include fish and poultry, milk and eggs
Nutrient supplementation
All nutrient requirements for the body can be met by eating as few as 1,500 calories per day; you just have to choose the right foods

Most supplements don’t seem to provide additional benefits to healthy people and you should not take megadoses of vitamins or minerals

Those who may benefit from supplementation…
Those with nutrient deficiencies, vegans, older adults, those with disease-related disorders
Multivitamins
No solid evidence that they decrease risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer

It is better for you to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet than to eat poorly and take one

Vitamin D
Necessary for the absorption of calcium
Folate
Helps prevent birth defects when taken during pregnancy
Benefits of foods
Getting necessary vitamins and minerals from food is always better than eating a poor diet and relying on supplements to meet nutritional needs
Eating disorders
Medical illnesses that involve disturbance in eating behaviors

Most common types are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating

Most often developed as coping mechanism to avoid dealing with other family or social problems

Anorexia nervosa
Fear weight gain more than death from starvation and have distorted body image
Bulimia nervosa
Engage in binge-purge cycles
Binge-eating
Characterized by uncontrollable episodes of eating excessive amount of food within a relatively short time
2005 dietary guidelines for Americans
Consume a variety of foods within the basic food groups

Control calorie intake

Be physically active every day

Choose fats wisely

Keep food safe to eat

Overweight
Excess body weight when compared to a given standard such as height or recommended percent body fat
Obesity
Chronic disease characterized by an excessively high amount of body fat; classified as BMI > 30

According to the World Health Organization, 35% of adults in industrialized nations are obese

Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the past two decades

Obesity is a risk factor for…
Hypertension, congestive heart failure, high cholesterol, stroke, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, arthritis, and cancer
Individuals at recommended body weight are able to participate in activities without…
Functional limitations

They have the freedom to enjoy recreational activities

Tolerable weight
A realistic body weight that is close to the health fitness percent body fat standard

…is not always someone’s “ideal” weight

If your BMI is > 25, you should try to reach and stay in the health fitness category of 18-25

Only about __% of people who begin a weight loss program without exercise are able to ______
10, lose desired weight
Few diets incorporate lifetime changes in ___________ and increases in __________ as keys to successful weight loss and maintenance
Food selection, physical activity
Fad diets may work for a while but success is _______
Short lived
Most fad diets are low in calories and weight loss is in the form of ____ and _____, not fat
Water, protein
Low carbohydrate / high protein diets….
Weight loss occurs because low carbohydrate intake forces liver to produce glucose from protein

Protein is high in water so weight lost rapidly

When the diet is terminated, the body rebuilds the protein tissue (complete with water) so weight is regained

They also don’t allow individuals to consume fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, that provide vital nutrients

Best method for weight education involves _____ and ________
Exercise and caloric restriction
The causes of obesity are complex and combine _____, ______, and _____ factors
Genetic, behavior, lifestyle
Energy-balancing equation
Calories in > calories out = weight gain
Calories in < calories out = weight loss Calories in = calories out = weight maintenance
1 pound of fat =
3,500 calories
Body always tries to keep a certain amount of fat, _____
Setpoint
Basal metabolic rate
Lowest level of caloric intake necessary to sustain life

May drop as a result of extremely negative caloric balance

Body is highly resistant to weight changes unless __________ are incorporated
Lifestyle changes
People that only use dieting as a means of weight loss tend to
Regain lost weight
Under no circumstances should a person be on a diet that requires less than ____ calories for women and ____ calories for men
1,200; 1,500
When trying to lose weight by dieting alone, __________ decreases
Lean body mass
Repeated low calorie dieting results in an increased _________ even at the same body weight because lean mass is lost each time a _______ is followed
Body fat percentage, low calorie diet
Most of your weight-loss efforts should be spent
Retraining eating habits

Increasing intake of complex carbohydrates and high fiber foods

Decreasing consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats

A “diet” should be viewed as a ____________ in eating behaviors to ensure weight management and better health
Permanent change
Sleep deprivation promotes
Weight gain
Individuals who get less than __ hours of sleep per night have a higher average BMI compared with those who average __ hours of sleep per night
6, 8
Lack of sleep may disrupt hormonal balance of _____ and ____
Ghrelin (stimulates appetite), leptin (sends signals of fullness to the brain)
A good night’s rest is an important component of ___________ program
Weight management
Exercise _____ the rate of weight loss and is ___ in maintaining weight loss
Enhances, vital
Most people need ___ minutes of physical activity every day to prevent weight gain
60-90
Only individuals who remain active for _____ per day are able to keep weight off
Over 60 minutes
National Weight Control Registry
Individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds and kept it off for at least 6 years typically accumulate 90 minutes of physical activity per day
A combination of ____ and _________ programs work best in weight loss
Aerobic, strength-training
Body weight may increase upon beginning an exercise program but _____ and _________ decrease
Body size, percent body fat
Myth of spot-reducing
Cellulite is enlarged fat cells from accumulated body fat

When you lose fat, you lose it over your entire body, not just one area

A __________________ may be necessary before doing vigorous exercise
Medical exam or stress test ECG
A greater proportion of calories burned during ____-intensity exercise comes from fat than the proportion during _____-intensity exercise
Light, vigorous
Bottom line when you are trying to lose weight _________
Burn more calories
You burn twice as many calories during _____-intensity exercise
Vigorous
Light-intensity activity is effective, it provides substantial __________
Health benefits
Estimated Energy Requirement
Average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult; based on age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity
_____ of food intake is important
Timing
__% of total daily calories for breakfast, __% for lunch and __25% or less at dinner
25, 50, 25
Look for entrees with about ___ calories and no more than _ grams of fat
300, 6