Essentials of Marketing Research Chapter 5

Qualitative Research
Research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allows the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurement
Researcher-dependent
Researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience.
Quantitative Marketing Research
Addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and statistical analysis.
Subjective Results
Researcher-dependent results meaning different researchers may reach different interpretations abut the same piece of data such as a focus group comment.
Qualitative Data
Data that are not characterized by numbers but rather are textual, visual, or oral. Focus is on stories, visual portrayals, meaningful characterizations, interpretations, and other expressive descriptions.
Quantitative Data
Represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way.
probing
Interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from respondents.
Concept Testing
A frequently performed type of exploratory research procedures all having the same purpose: to screen new, revised, or repositioned ideas.
phenomenology
a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
hermeneutics
An approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him- or herself.
hermeneutic unit
Refers to a text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within this story or provided by the researcher.
Ethnography
Represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
participant-observation
An ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data from his or her observations.
Grounded Theory
Represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records. The researcher asks the questions to him or herself and repeatedly questions the responses to derive deeper explanations.
Case Studies
The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
Themes
identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.
Focus Group Interview
An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10 people) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents.
piggyback
A procedure in which one respondent stimulates thought among others; as this process continues, increasingly creative insights are possible.
Moderator
A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.
Depth Interview
A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic.
Laddering
A particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels. Produces distinctions at the attribute level, the benefit level, and the value or motivation level. Based on the classical repertory grid approach.
Conversations
An informal qualitative data-gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter.
Free-association techniques
Record a respondent’s first cognitive reactions (top-of-mind) to some stimulus. Allow researchers to map a respondent’s thoughts or memory.
Field notes
The researcher’s descriptions of what he/she actually observes in the field; these notes then become the text from which meaning is extracted.
Thematic apperception test (TAT)
A test that presents subjects with an ambiguous picture in which consumers and products are the center of attention; the investigator asks the subject to tell what is happening in the picture now and what might happen next.
Picture frustration
A version of the TAT using a cartoon drawing in which the respondent suggests a dialogue in which the characters might engage.
Projective Research Techniques
An indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, an inanimate object, or a task situation. Useful in studying sensitive issues.
Discussion Guide
A focus group online that includes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session.
Online Focus Group
A qualitative research effort in which a group of individuals provides unstructured comments by entering their remarks into an electronic Internet display board of some type.
Focus Blog
A type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an Internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participant comments
Netnography
The application of ethnography to comments made in online communities
Replicable
Something is inter-subjectively certifiable meaning the same conclusion would be reached based on another researcher’s interpretation of the research or by independently duplicating the research procedures.