Essentials of Health Behavior–Edberg Definitions

Social Ecological Web
A model that attributes behavior to many different factors and assumes that human behavior does not exist in a vacuum, but is affected by many factors
Individual Factors of web
awareness and knowledge, biophysical characteristics, personal attitudes, developmental stage, and behavior/habit socialization
Social/Cultural/Group Factors of Web
Group lifestyle patterns, cultural attitudes/beliefs, level of social support
Socioeconomic Factors of Web
Poverty, education, access to health care and prevention services, social stressors, access to clean water
Political Factors of Web
policies and funding for health promotion programs, health insurance, regulations that affect health risk
Environmental Factors of Web
presence of an environmental risk, such as air or water pollution, disasters, conditions for spread of infectious disease
Obesity as a Complex Health Issue
Obesity is a complex health issue because many different behavioral and environmental factors influence obesity, including: marketing, overeating, lack of exercise, vehicle transportation, sedentary lifestyle, portion sizes
Risk Factors
Behaviors that include family problems, family conflict and violence, absence of positive role models that set up individuals for reproducing or being affected by negative behaviors
Protective Factors
Positive factors such as a support system, connections to a community, and public health policy that offset risk factors for negative behaviors
Problem Behavior Syndrome
Risk factors and trajectories are similar and/or overlapping (risk factors for substance abuse, delinquency, violence, early sexual activity and other behaviors overlap, and some are common for all)
Socioecological Models
Model that suggests that lower socioeconomic status is a risk factor for many negative behaviors including drug use and violence
Social-cognitive models
Model that focuses on decision making, reasoning, and other cognitive processes surrounding acts of aggression and other negative behaviors
Order and Regularity
Suggests that laws of human behavior are necessary for the development and society, and this progresses the practical application of knowledge to human ends
Predictability
The idea that through learning the details and rules of nature’s order, we can predict what will happen
Empirical Data
Scientific reliance on the collection of observable, tangible data as evidence for statements about reality
Progress and Perfectability
Using the continuous accumulation of knowledge to lead towards a more expansive understanding of our world
Behaviorist Psychology
Little importance is placed on the thinking process, but rather the most important process is considered to be the effect of an environment on reflexive responses; contributes to theory in that basic assumptions about learning behavior through positive and negative reinforcement appear in many theories
Cognitive Psychology
Focuses on the thinking process as the source of behavior; contributes to theories such as the health belief model, theory of planned behavior, and social cognitive theory in that they all assume that internal processes determine behavior
Social Psychology
Concerned with how individuals interact with their social surroundings; contributes to theories involving the influence of social structure and group on behavior
Health Belief Model
Health seeking and health behavior motivated by four factors: 1. Perceived susceptibility, 2. perceived severity, 3. perceived benefits of an action, 4. perceived barriers to taking action
Theory of planned behavior/reasoned action
Focused on relationship between people’s attitudes and their behaviors; behavioral intention follows from a person’s attitude toward a specific behavior (expected outcome–good or bad) and his or her perception of the subjective norms (what people will think and motivation to conform) associated with that behavior;
Transtheoretical Model
The process of behavioral change is described by 6 stages: 1. pre contemplation, 2. Contemplation, 3. Preparation, 4. Action, 5. Maintenance, 6. Termination; change processes contribute to moving from one stage to another (environmental reevaluation, counter conditioning)
Self-Efficacy
the extent in one’s ability to complete tasks and reach goals; give people agency, or role in change
Reciprocal Determinism
behavior is part of a continuous interactive cycle that includes individual sand their social and physical environments; behavior influences and is influenced by both personal and environmental factors
Centrality of Person in Social Network
the degree to which a given individual has interactions with many people in the network or plays an important role in network activities
Reciprocity of relationships
the concept of whether a relationship is one-way or two-way; two-way relationships are more complex and consist of more and different interactions
complexity/intensity of relationships
Concept of whether a network is mostly composed of one way relationships, complex relationships, or relations with several alters creating complex patterns of interactions
Homogeneity of people in network
concept of how diverse or homogenous a social network is
Subgroups
the concentrations of interaction among some members of the group, and the nature of these relationships
communication patterns
the way that information circulates through the network
Product (social marketing)
The behavior or technology offered and its benefits; studied by the most important benefits of a product among a target population
Price (social marketing)
the costs involved in adopting a behavior or using a technology for the target population
Place (social marketing)
the distribution or availability of a behavior or technology to the target population; access and availiabity issues
Promotion (social marketing)
Making the target population aware of the other elements of a product or technology
Community Mobilization
The idea of political and social movements importance to change in the community; involves collective action by groups and community members to increase awareness about a problem, advocate for change, and engage in activities designed to solve the problem; Important issues: Defining the community, assessing and working with the community’s capacity for mobilizing; and understanding the community agenda and selecting the right issue
Organizational and Systems Change
Health promotions, disease prevention, and health care are all accomplished through organizations, and systems; organizations like agencies, hospitals etc. and systems like healthcare and service systems, may be a facilitator or a barrier to resolving an issue
Microsystem
relationships and structures with the most direct, immediate contact (family, school, neighborhood, environment)
Mesosystem
relationships and structures that provide the connections between components of a microsystem; connective tissue between aspects of microsystem
Exosystem
social system level surrounding micro and mess systems; individual does not interact directly with this system, but includes structures and units
Macrosystem
system that provides a base for and is integrated with the nature of the other systems; cultural values, customs, and laws
Chronosystem
factor of time added to the other system levels
Critique of Multilevel Systems Model
The interacting systems and levels creates too much complexity within the model; difficult to tell where the causal chain leading to behavior is; a small change in one level with cause changes through many levels and may produce outcomes that change the nature of all levels
Social Assessment and Situational Analysis
broadest level of assessment to understand something about a health problem and to address it as it fits into the larger community context
Epidemiological Assessment
where the planning process begins; goal is to identify the nature and extent of a health problem, who is affected, and what the trends are
Behavioral and Environmental assessment
identifies risk factors, both behavioral and environmental; risk factors considered internal or external
Educational and Ecological Assessment
Attempts to assess factors that contribute to risk factors; related to theoretical issues (attitudes, decision making processes, sociocultural influences etc)
Administrative and Policy Assessment
More practical assessment in which a program is designed to hit key factors of the community problem
Process Evaluation
Assessment of program implementation; did the program do what it was supposed to do?; Data consists of tracking records of what was done.
Outcome Evaluation
assessment of the short term effects of the program; effects of one to three years; hopefully a show of short term change will contribute to a change in health conditions themselves
Impact evaluation
assessment of the long term effects of the program; several years or more; changes to the health condition itself
Community Intervention