-Gas migration monitoring system in place
-1.25% in any onsite structure;
-5% by volume in air at the facility boundary;
-Trace gases must be controlled to prevent acute exposure
40-60% Carbon Dioxide
Organic compounds: trichloroethylene, benzene, vinyl chloride
Amount generated depends upon:
Age of waste (5-7 years vs. 30-40 years)
Waste characterization: organic load
Moisture content of fill/introduced into fill
Temperature in fill and of landfill location (e.g. Alaska versus Southern California)
Impermeable (clay): migrate outward
Permeable: migrate upward
Natural and Manmade Pathways: pipelines and conduits
-Asphyxiant: Gases can displace oxygen (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide)
-Toxins and Carcinogens: benzene, vinyl chloride
Documented Cases: 1,500′ – 2,500′ (rare)
1994: While playing soccer in a park built over an old landfill in Charlotte, North Carolina, a woman was seriously burned by a methane explosion. (Charlotte Observer 1994)
1987: Off-site gas migration is suspected to have caused a house to explode in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (EPA 1991)
1983: An explosion destroyed a residence across the street from a landfill in Cincinnati, Ohio. (EPA 1991)
1975: Sheridan, Colorado: landfill gas accumulated in a storm drain pipe that ran through a landfill. An explosion occurred when several children playing in the pipe lit a candle. (USACE 1984)
1967: landfill ceased last waste shipment
~ 1975: City leased the site to the non-profit “Elings Park Foundation” for $1 per year
Elings Park Foundation established Elings Park on 92 acres (landfill occupies 26 acres)
Recreational Fields (soccer, lacrosse, baseball)
Administrative office and several restrooms
-Combusts at 1,5000 Fahrenheit
-Produces carbon dioxide and water vapor
-Threat to groundwater
-Title 27 shortfall: 27 CCR §21190 requires facility owners to control LFG in onsite structures located within 1,000 feet of the disposal area
Regulation does not extend beyond the permitted boundary
-Encroaching Development: Ensure long-term availability of disposal sites by avoiding potential conflicts between disposal sites and adjacent land uses (e.g. Lewis Road Settlement Agreement, 2001)
-Remainder parcel of subdivision
-Closed in 1966 (pre Subtitle D)
-Encroaching development throughout 1980’s and 1990’s left little buffer
-Incomplete waste characterization and LFG monitoring data
Total Generation: 73 million tons
Recycled: 36 million tons (42 million processed)
Landfilled: 37 million tons
Segregate and bundle similar material types for market or for further processing
-Recyclables baled and sent to market
-Dirty: Separate recyclable or organics materials from the trash stream for:
Traditional marketing; or,
As feedstock for another process: Anaerobic Digestion; Gasification; Refuse-Derived Fuel, etc.
Size: small, medium, large
Density: light, medium and heavy
Magnets: attracts ferrous metal
Eddy Current: deflects non-ferrous in electrical current
Trommel Screens: separate by size
Air Separators: light from heavy
Titech: material type, color, paper,
Mixed: catalogs, mail, magazines
High Grade de-Inked: letterhead, copier paper
Plastics: resin identification code (1-7)
PET: soda bottles
HDPE: milk jugs
LDPE: film plastic
PP: margarine tubs, bottles
Polystyrene: lids, cups, CD jewel cases
Aluminum: 99% (Southeastern US)
Steel: 90% Pacific Rim; 10% California
Glass: 93% USA; 7% Mexico
HDPE: 46% Ca; 36% China; 18% USA
PET: 77% China; 14% Ca; 10% Southeastern USA
Cardboard and Paper: 64% USA; 36% China
Foreign Imports: from California
Mixed Paper – largest category: 51%
Top Countries: China, Taiwan, Korea
Paper: China, Korea
Plastics (PET, HDPE, LDPE): China, Hong Kong
Glass: India, Japan, Honduras
Tires: Vietnam, Korea, Hong Kong
Metals: Taiwan, Korea, China
Single stream vs. Multi-Stream
Customer behavior and knowledge
-Economic Demand: 2008 Global Downturn: bales stockpiled at shipping ports as values plummeted.
Ended November 2013
Purpose: Established 1.5% contamination limit on recyclable bales
US never segregated plastics 3-7 well:
Result: 55 scrap transactions and 7,600 tons of material rejected in 3 months
Return Shipping Cost
Landfill Disposal back in US
is the decomposition of plant remains and other once-living materials to make an earthy, dark, crumbly substance that is excellent for adding to houseplants or enriching garden soil.
-Composting Controls GHG Emissions
Organic materials generate methane in landfill (greenhouse gas, 21x CO2 equivalent)
-Renewable Energy Production
-Produce Marketable Commodities – $
-Increases infiltration and permeability of heavy soils, thus reducing erosion and runoff.
-Improves water holding capacity, thus reducing water loss and leaching in sandy soils.
-Supplies a variety of macro and micronutrients.
-May control or suppress certain soil-borne plant pathogens.
-Supplies significant quantities of organic matter.
-Improves cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soils and growing media, thus improving their ability to hold nutrients for plant use.
-Supplies beneficial microorganisms to soils and growing media.
-Improves and stabilizes soil pH. Can bind and degrade specific pollutants.
-The organisms feed on the organic material and through respiration generate the energy that they use for movement, growth, reproduction or stored energy.
-The organism excrete inorganic material that enriches the soil.
-When the organisms die, their bodies add to the organic matter in the compost pile.
Physical Conditions: Moisture, pH, Nutrients (Carbon:Nitrogen), concentration of Oxygen (lots or little)
Temperature is indicative of microbial activity: Mesophilic, Thermophilic
Stabilize organic matter
Aerobic oxidation produces CO2
Anaerobic produces reduced compounds organic acids, alcohols
Organic to inorganic forms (protein to NH4)
Nitrification – pH and temperature sensitive
1. Mesophilic Phase 1 (10-40 0 C)
Lasts only a few days
Explosive growth of bacteria and fungi
Rapid breakdown of soluble sugar and starches
2. Thermophilic Phase (>40 0 C)
Can last from several days to several months depending on size of system
Mixed population of heat loving organisms
High heat helps breakdown of proteins, fats, “tough” plant material like cellulose
High temperature (>55 0C) kill weeds and pathogen harmful to humans
Higher temperature (>600C) kill organism needed for decomposition
3.Mesophilic Phase 2 (10-40 0 C) “Curing Phase”
Can last several months
Bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes( mix between bacteria and fungus, give “earthy” smell) predominate. Invertebrates active.
Supply of organic material has decreased. Remaining organic material is slowly broken down.
Additional chemical reactions take place to make remaining organic material more stable
Needed to oxidize carbon for energy
Without oxygen will produce rotten egg smell
Acids form as organisms digest organic material and lowers pH
Lower pH encourages fungi and the break down of “tough” matter
If pH too low (<4.5) limits microorganisms' activity
Actinomycetes:degrade complex organics such as cellulose, lignin, chitin, and proteins -earthy” smell, long “spider webs” filaments
Fungi:Break down tough debris, too dry, too acidic or too low in nitrogen for bacteria to eat
2. Load Checking
3. Pre-Processing (e.g. grinding)
4. Blending: Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio
5. Compost Phase: Aerobic or Anaerobic
7. Contaminant Removal (Secondary Screening)
8. Bacterial and Metals Testing
1. Presence of Oxygen
Aerated Static Pile
Aerated Covered Windrow
Forced Air Windrow Composting
Feels moist to touch, but when squeezed only produces few drops
-Low capital costs
-High Operating costs
-Aeration by turning with front-end loader or specialized machine
-stable compost in 3-12months
-can be outdoors
-Keep out moisture and control odors
-Use mechanical aeration to control compost conditions
-medium operating costs
-some control of temperature and aeration resulting in faster composting (6-12 weeks)
-Some systems can switch direction to keep base core at high enough temperature
-Also helps control odor
-Monitored for temperature and oxygen to ensure proper conditions
-Material is composted in the bags for 60 days and then cured in open windrows for 30 days
-Composts 5,200 tons of food scraps from San Francisco and Oakland and 2,000 tons of yard trimmings from Dixon and Vacaville every month.
-medium operating costs
-cover for windrows reusable
-Quality of feedstock influences quality of finished compost products.
-Chemical and physical characteristics such as C:N ratio, moisture content and porosity are also important since they determine whether a feedstock can be safely composted by a given composting system at a specific site.
-Common Feedstocks: Materials such as garden organics, wood chips, bark, food organics, manure, biosoilds, grease trap waste
-Every raw material load must be inspected on arrival for contaminants such as glass, plastics and metals.
-Depending on putrescibility of material received, material may be stockpiled (e.g. woody garden organics) or processed immediately (e.g. food organics)
C:N Ratio: 25:1 – 30:1 is optimal
Carbon: shredded newspaper, straw, wood chips, sawdust, leaves, paper towels, *Sansum table paper
Nitrogen: manure, foodscraps, grass clippings, coffee grounds, fish emulsion
Too little N:
there will be few microorganisms, and decomposition will be slow.
Too much N:
some will turn to ammonia that will volatilize, creating an odor.
-Carbon-Nitrogen Mix (C/N Ratio)
Carbon provides energy source and building material for 50% of composting organisms’ cells
Nitrogen important in formation of proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, enzymes etc. for organisms
30:1 Carbon to Nitrogen optimum mix (decreases in curing phase)
Brown and woody carbon
Green and moist nitrogen
Cow/Chicken Manure: 2/4
Vegetable Waste: 11/13
*Size Reduction increases surface area upon which microbes act.
End Product Marketing Considerations
2. For outdoor turned windrows, key process management steps are:
Maintenance of thermophilic (55-60°C) conditions to ensure rapid decomposition
Turning to aerate mass, improve oxygen levels, alleviate compaction and avoid odor formation
Addition of water to ensure optimum moisture content for microbial decomposition, and to avoid dust and aerosol production
1. A period of curing of between 3 and 6 weeks may be required for a stable and mature product suitable for unrestricted application
2. Immature composts can be toxic to plants (oxygen depletion; ammonia release):
3. Curing should be performed in a separate functional area of the composting facility
Cure compost with 40-50% moisture
to promote competitive microorganisms and
avoid salmonella regrowth
2. Can reduce the need for pesticides by increasing soil biological activity
3. Offsets use of natural resources (e.g., peat moss) for mulch
4. Diverts valuable organic materials from landfills
5. Adds organic matter and nutrients to soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.
6. Encourages slow release of nitrogen and lowers the carbon to nitrogen ratio, making nitrogen more available to plants.
7. Kills pathogens and weed seeds
8. Prevents soil erosion.
1. Screening separates compost particles of different size and/or shapes.
2. Purpose of Screening:
removes a physical contaminants from the finished compost: rocks, metal, glass, plastic etc.;
recovers bulking agent from the compost for re-use; and
Quality Control of Marketable Product: particle size specifications for mulch, soil conditioner, top dressing, potting mix
131 degrees F for 15 days
5 Turnings: maintain aerobic environment (aerobic windrow)
Sampling and Testing:
Biological: Salmonella, E. coli
1. Creation of specific products: After screening, the base compost product can be blended with a range of additives to form a range of value-added products – e.g. engineered soils, colored mulches, potting mixes, customized products etc.
2. Additives may include: fertilizer; wetting agents; sand; gravel; ash; rock dust; natural soil; dolomite; lime; gypsum etc.
3. Compost blends must have predictable and uniform characteristics to meet market demands
-Improved Odor Control
-Greater Process Control
-Anaerobic Digestion allows for production of renewable power
Uses forced aeration and/or mechanical agitation to control conditions and promote rapid composting
Each system design is different, but there are some common elements.
2. Effects of weather are diminished
3. Less manpower is required to operate the system and staff is less exposed to composting material
4. Can often be done onsite, saving collection costs
5. Less land area is required
6. Process air and leachate can be more easily collected and treated
7. Public acceptance of facility may be better
8. Can accommodate various types and amounts of organic waste (e.g., odorous biosolids & food)
-oxygen in…water, heat and CO2 out
Anaerobic -Biological decomposition of organic substances in the absence of oxygen.
-No oxygen…water, heat, CO2, Intermediate Compounds, CH4 out
Intermediate Compounds (VOAs, H2S)
*H2S is what makes it smell like rotten eggs
Reaches optimal temperatures faster
Leads to faster decomposition
Moves material through the vessel quickly
-Degrades and prevents the formation/emission of odorous compounds which are produced under anaerobic conditions (e.g., hydrogen sulfide and short-chain fatty acids).
-Reasons one might do anaerobic composting
It does not require aeration or turning
It can retain more nitrogen and initial organic matter
Greenhouse gases can be trapped and harvested for energy
Important: Even in aerobic composting there will be pockets of anaerobic activity caused by excess moisture, inadequate porosity, rapid degradation and large pile size
Adapted from concrete or feed mixers and cement kilns
-Mix, grind and aerate materials to initiate composting
-Composting starts quickly – partly due to reduced particle size
-Usually have a very short residence time.
Can be said to be more physical than biological
-Can be partitioned for more controlled composting
-high capital costs
-medium operating costs
-Less preparation of starting materials required due to constant mixing and size reduction
-further decomposition required in windrows or aerated static piles
-composting vessels can be housed in a building or outdoors
East Bay MUD Sludge Composting
Dry: Dry Fermentation Composting
-Organics separated from trash by MRF
2. Biological Process & Electricity Production
3. Screening & Curing
4. Soil Amendment
The site should be well-drained to prevent excess water accumulating at the base of piles after rainfall (if not under cover)
More stringent water management regulations forthcoming from State Water Board (e.g. impervious surfaces for all windrow composting – $$
-The leachate produced in in-vessel systems can often be collected easily using options built into the system.
-It can then be used to:
Rewet active compost, returning nutrients to the next compost batch
Rewet the biofilter
Or is sometimes marketed as a separate fertilizer product
-It can also be disposed through:
The local waste water treatment system, either by truck or pipeline.
An engineered wetland designed to purify the leachate at the facility
Or, other engineered natural purification systems (e.g., filter fields).
-Pathogen Reduction (temperature and turning)
-Pathogen and Metals Testing
Understand Prevailing Winds
Maintaining Aerobic Conditions
Maintain proper moisture and aeration to avoid anaerobic compounds (e.g. hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, volatile fatty acids, etc.)
Generally there will be anaerobic pockets but as air comes in contact with aerobic organisms, odorants will be degraded.
Make sure incoming materials are stored properly and composted quickly to maintain aerobic conditions
Maintain near neutral pH or add extra carbon to avoid ammonia volatilization at higher pH’s
This can occur in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions
Schedule odor causing activities (e.g., moving raw materials) in early morning and when wind direction is favorable.
-When odors do occur they should be treated.
Want to design system so as little air as possible needs to be treated
-Depends on quality and quantity of air to be treated, results of air dispersion modeling and proximity to occupied dwellings.
-Odor Treatment Options:
Non-thermal plasma oxidation
High-carbon wood ash incorporation
Works similar to a compost pile
-Cooled and humidified compost process air is typically injected through a grid of perforated pipes into a bed of filtration media.
-They have been shown to be effective at treating essentially all odorous compounds from composting (e.g., ammonia and volatile organic compounds)
-However, it is important to recognize that
biofilters can be a source of odor
themselves, if not properly maintained
California: landfilling 37 million tons of material annually is unsustainable
-Meet diversion mandates
-Generate renewable energy
-Reduce Air Quality Impacts:
Generate less greenhouse gases (as compared to landfilling)
Create marketable products: (e.g. green fuels)
Leaves, grass, trimmings
Remember: % of US Waste Stream is Organic/Compostable
Many waste water treatment plants use AD
Extensive development and use of this technology in Europe
Policies; GHG reduction, Total Organic Carbon restrictions in Landfill stream.
Capital costs are high, but requires less manpower to operate
Microbial digestion of organic waste in the absence of Oxygen
Produces “biogas” (not syngas)
Biogas (~ 50-65% methane, balance CO2, + small amounts of impurities) can be used to generate electricity
Total installed capacity of 2.8 million tons waste per year
Spain treating 7% of biodegradable components of MSW (13 facilities, average 70,000 tons per year).
New Water Management Standards
Leafy Green Recalls (E.coli)
-Anaerobic Digestion will Rule (including co-digestion at WWTP)
Renewable Energy and GHG Reduction
-Current tipping $82.00/ton
-Tipping fees will continue to increase until closure
-Every ton of waste buried carries long-term liability
The City will “own” every ton buried for many years
Case Study: Las Positas Landfill
Processing of source separated comingled recyclables generates revenue
No future or unknown liabilities
Composting of food scraps limits methane production at the landfill
-Greatest opportunity for recovery
-Single largest portion of waste stream
-Produces valuable agricultural commodity
Waste Characterization 2009
31% food and soiled paper
Biodegradable Organics (Anaerobic Digestion); AND,
All Other Organics
Therefore, Energy Recovery technologies have the greatest potential to process the whole MSW organic stream
Substantial portion of California’s MSW Energy value
2nd highest energy content
Substantial Volume of Waste (even though light weight)
Plastics fraction growing rapidly and recycling rates are relatively low
Only thermochemical can process
Chlorine containing materials (PVC)
Wet Organic Material: Foodwaste, grass, leaves
Thermochemical: Dry Organic Material: Wood, Paper, Tires, plastics
Large-Scale thermochemical processes used since the 1800s for commercial applications (e.g. coal processing)
TyssenKrupp Uhde has ~100 gasifiers most for coal
1970’s Oil Embargo led to more widespread development
No new plants have been brought online in the USA in the past 10 years
More stringent air quality standards (Clean Air Act)
Thermochemical processes more widely applied to MSW in Europe and Japan
-Waste reduction is immediate, no long term residency required
-Destruction in seconds where LF requires 100s of years
-Incineration can be done at generation site
-Air discharges can be controlled
-Ash residue is usually non-putrescible, sterile, inert
-Small disposal area required
-Cost can be offset by heat recovery (heat buildings, etc. )/ sale of energy
Skilled operators are required (particularly for boiler operations)
Some materials are noncombustible
Some material require supplemental fuel
dioxin, mercury, etc.
Air Volume of gas from incineration is 10 x as great as other thermochemical conversion processes, greater cost for gas cleanup/pollution control
Risk imposed rather than voluntary
Incineration will decrease property value (perceived not necessarily true)
Distrust of government/industry ability to regulate
Internal/external combustion engines
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids
Ethylene (recycling of plastics)
Ammonia based fertilizers
Substitute petroleum products
Adhesives and resins
90 facilities in USA; 3 in California
Unprocessed waste is burned (aerobic) with fire
Combustion gasses heat water to produce steam and power a turbine to produce electricity.
90% Volume Reduction
Waste Products: ash and heavy metals
Flame temp: 1500 – 3000ºF
2. Refuse Derived Fuel (combustion)
MSW is pre-processed before incineration:
Feedstock made homogeneous; dried or pelletized to improve combustion
(recyclables and non-combustibles removed)
Feedstock is burned (aerobic) with fire
Combustion gasses heat water to produce steam and power a turbine to produce electricity.
16 facilities in USA (as of 2011)
Waste Products: ash and heavy metals
Solid waste heated to high temperature (oxygen deficit environment) to produce:
“syngas”: electricity and heat
Fischer Tropsch Rxn: converts CO and H2 into liquid hydrocarbons (LNG)
Waste: char and ash
No MSW Gasification in USA:
Common in Japan and South Korea
4. Plasma Arc Gasification
MSW heated to extremely high temperatures (low or no Oxygen)
Resulting gas passes through electrical field where it is ionized into H2 “syngas”
Syngas used to generate electricity.
Waste: inorganic vitrified into glassy residue (road base)
Film on Plasma Arc
Thermally degrades solid waste without additional air or Oxygen.
Similar to gasification but optomized for production of fuel liquids or oils.
Liquids can be used directly or further refined for motor fuels and chemicals
Waste: waste carbon (char)
Temperature Range: 750-1,500o F
bar-b-que charcoal invented by Henry Ford
-Using char-coal to grill a steak (combustion)
Later, char mixed with metallic ores such as iron ore and copper ore and burned would produce pure metals. Led to the Bronze Age, Iron Age and metallurgy.
Coal Pyrolysis was popularized: Coal, heated in the absence of oxygen, drove off impurities and produced “coke.” Processing iron ore with coke resulted in a better grade of iron.
Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, water, etc
-Can be combusted on site in boilers and engines
Phenol species, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, aromatic chemicals
Wood waste – fragrances, adhesives, resins, food flavorings, pharmaceuticals
-Dioxins and Furans can concentrate in pyrolytic oils
From Cl, S, N, Fl in refuse (in plastics, textiles, rubber, yard waste, paper)
-Nox: source removal and high temp combustion
-Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants
-Metal Hazardous Air Pollutants
Feedstocks with high levels of Cl and Cu (PVC)
Formed from Incomplete combustion
Removed by exclusion or with activated carbon
Good Combustion Practices: CO, NOx, SOx
Cold Quenching: dioxins/furans (rapid cooling of gases)
Emission Control Devices
Electrostatic Precipitator: particulates
Baghouse Filter: particulates
Acid Gas Scrubber
Activated Carbon: dioxin, VOCs
Dioxins: 99% Reduction
-Particulates are captured by high-efficiency baghouse filters where 99% of particulates are removed
-Fly Ash falls into hoppers and transported to an ash discharger where they are wetted to prevent dust. They are then mixed with bottom ash.
-Fly ash and bottom ash are then transported in covered containers to landfills.
-Ash can be further processed to remove recyclable heavy metals.
-Proper design of waste conversion processes must address air emissions, liquid and solid residues
-Characterization and pre-sorting of feedstocks can reduce emissions
-Process and pollution control technologies can minimize environmental impacts, but must be carefully designed and operated
-Overall environmental impacts of well-designed alternative waste conversion technologies are equal to or less than current practice of landfilling
One ton of carbon dioxide equivalent is prevented for each ton of mixed MSW combusted rather than landfilled.
-City of Boulder, CO: electricity produced from MSW instead of combusting coal would result in fewer emissions of Sox, Nox and particulates
2. Huge start-up capital costs vs. typical landfill costs ($100 ton breakpoint)
3. Public Opposition
4. Risk: Many facilities have not transitioned from pilot to large-scale applications.
5. Statutory framework for alternative technologies such as gasification in California have not been fully developed
Regulatory framework is not well coordinated among agencies
California: Diversion credit not given for thermal gasification; only pyrolysis
Plasco Energy lost out on premium power sales and project collapsed in Monterey County.
Without a financial premium on power sales, sufficient revenue could not be generated to make economics work.
6. Siting and permitting processes are complex and time consuming
7. Limited information on emissions data including and greenhouse gases
8. Alternative technologies are not perceived as economically cost effective (landfilling is still less expensive)
9. Limited public awareness of the benefits of alt. technologies
10. Good News in US: Flow Control decisions by Supreme Court (Carbone, Oneida Herkimer)
2. Dependable and long-term solutions for municipal solid waste disposal remains a paramount concern for local governments.
3. Higher energy revenues, metals recovery, renewable incentives, and decades of operational efficiency have made waste-to-energy more cost-competitive.
4. High price of transportation fuel coupled with increased distance to new landfills makes landfilling more expensive.
Composting and anaerobic digestion facilities are emerging
Many advanced Waste-to-Energy facilities employ front end recycling, have advanced pollution prevention technology, physically attractive buildings and are well integrated into their communities
“Feed in Tariffs” – requires utilities to pay market-rate for alternative sources of renewable power (Germany)
Re-fillable bottles (“refilleries”)
Bring Your Own…
-Second Hand clothing, books
E-Readers (might be trading paper for e-waste)
LED bulbs vs. incandescents
Company Packages Product and Ships to Market
Consumer Purchases Product
Consumer Discards Packaging: Becomes responsibility of local Government and by extension, the waste service provider
Consumer uses Product until end of life
Consumer Discards Product: Waste Product becomes responsibility of local government and by extension, the waste service provider
Cost to collect and dispose of a product and its packaging are external to the price of its production.
In other words, the cost of dealing with our stuff falls to others rather than to the entity that produced it.
Further Problem with Toxics: Under “Cradle to Grave” provisions of RCRA, local government is liable for material indefinitely.
Liability and risk is shifts COMPLETELY from manufacturer and consumer to local government
Problem: Local governments, which had no input into the design or packaging decisions and did not make a dime from the sale, are saddled with the responsibility for every product that is sold and discarded in their geographical boundaries.
Lack of input on design is especially critical with hazardous wastes
Difficult and very costly to dispose
Ban the material from landfill disposal (to protect the environment)
Establish specialized collection (household hazardous waste collection facilities
1)Dealing with material; and, 2)Banning its disposal do nothing to send a message to the manufacturer to:
Stop producing over-packaged products;
Stop producing toxic products; and/or,
To curb the problem of Planned Obsolescence
Briskly adopted by postwar companies to coax Americans to sell their 1955 Cadillacs for the 1956 Cadillacs (tail fins)
Continued trend with each new model year (’57, ’58, ’59)
In other words, those who design and profit from a product should be required to take it back.
All parties involved in producing (design, production, sales and distribution) and consuming products must share the responsibility for minimizing the environmental impacts associated with the product throughout its life cycle.
Comprise a significant portion of the waste stream (containers and packaging); or,
That are Toxic
Examples of Common EPR Legislation:
Packaging: waste comp
Printed Materials: waste comp
Mercury-containing lamps: toxicity
Household hazardous wastes: toxicity
Automobile Products: toxicity
Company Packages Product and Ships to Market
Consumer Purchases Product
Consumer Discards Packaging
Manufacturer collects product and packaging directly or through third party.
End-of-Life costs are INTERNALIZED into cost of product and borne by manufacturer and consumer.
Containers and Packaging: 30%
EPA: approximately 75% of our waste stream is product waste and associated packaging
Requires distributors and retailers to collect a minimum refundable deposit, usually 5-10 cents on certain beverage containers
Creates a privately-funded collection infrastructure for beverage containers
Makes producers and consumers responsible for their packaging waste
Retailer collects deposit from consumer at point of purchase
Deposit is refunded to consumer when container is returned
Deposit is refunded to retailer when containers are returned to distributor
Surface and groundwater contaminated
1930-1950’s, Love Canal in Niagara Falls, NY
Common pastime kids set small fires on the water
1968, Cuyahoga River in Ohio, river fire destroyed 7 bridges
Until 1976, all chemical wastes were regulated at the end of pipe, after they have been dumped. RCRA sought to regulated at the point of generation…..
1930-1950’s Hooker Chemical Company used ditch to dump over 80 different chemical wastes, 20,000 tons
1953 Land sold to city for $1
City developed a residential community with homes, schools, playground, built on top of chemical wastes
Then….winter 1976-77 heavy rains, snow
Vegetation dies, dogs develop sores, claims of miscarriages, birth defects, blood/liver abnormalities
1976: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
1979: Love Canal focused national attention on hazardous waste, but prior to this over 600 “Love Canals” prompting Congress to pass RCRA *
1982: EPA developed regulations to satisfy RCRA
* many on current U.S. National Priorities List in line for clean up under Superfund
-Regulations: Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR,Parts 260-279)
Conserve energy and natural resources
Reduce the amount of waste generated
Ensure that wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner
Prevent future problems caused by irresponsible waste management and,
Clean up releases of hazardous waste in a timely, flexible, and protective manner
EPA ID Number
Manifest from point of generation to point of disposal
Agencies issue facility permits for storage, treatment, disposal
Federal and California specific numbers
Track cradle-to-grave (origin to final disposal)
Site-Specific; one number at a single address
All Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDF)must have an identification number
• U.S. DOT Shipping Paper: Satisfies U.S. DOT shipping requirements
• Emergencies: Provides emergency responders and CHP critical shipment information on waste, quantities, and contact numbers
• Tracking/Revenue: Enables tracking and billing for waste generation, transportation, and disposal
• Enforcement/Compliance: Provides third party confirmation manifest is accurate and received
• Liability: Identifies Potential Responsible parties
A generator who incorrectly determines that a hazardous waste is nonhazardous and mismanages the waste pursuant to the provisions of the law is in violation of the requirements and is subject to enforcement action.
The information a waste generator may use to classify their waste falls into two categories:
1. Analytical testing data:
Manufacturer Info: Material Safety Data Sheets
2. Generator knowledge of materials and processes used
Is the material a hazardous waste?
Is the waste excluded or exempted?
Is the waste Listed?
Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?
Probably going to get rid of
Name and address of generator
Accumulation start date
Manifests or receipts not available for review
No business plan or contingency plan
No training records
Regulations identify universal wastes and provide simple rules for handling, recycling and disposing of them
it set a diversion goal of 75% by the year 2020
-targeted 2 generators of waste
1. Large Businesses ( 4 cubic yards of trash must have some level of recycling)
2. Apartments, CONDOS, units ( some level of recycling)
– CA disposed 38 millions ton of trash
-diversion rate = 10%
-each person was giving out more than a ton a year
-drastically reduce landfill disposal by increasing recycling
25% by 1995
50% by 2000
-daily cover (6 inches of cover)
Its what makes it a sanitary landfill
at least 15 years of disposal capacity
2. Source reduction and recycling element
-makes all jurisdiction analyze waste stream
-waste composition study
-looking in at our trash
3. Non-disposal facility element
everything else but landfills: transfer station, composting facilities
4. Household Hazardous Waste Element
-toxicity of trash
250million tons (before recycling)
87 million tons
yard trim- 22.2%
Weight generated= 70.02-176.53-250.42
W. recovered= 45.90-66.20-86.90
Recovery 45% of gen= 65.6%-37.5%-34.7%
Total gen. =249.6-389.5
total recovered= 82.9-93.8
energy recov.= 31.6-25.9
discards to landfill= 135.1-269.8
Composition is the same
EPA-characterizes the MSW stream for the whole nation and not on a state by state basis.
-bases its results on the aggregate of several source, including estimates of material/products generated and their lifespans, the media & industry
-estimates the tonnage landfilled as the difference between its estimate of MSW generated minus its estimate of what is sent to composting, recycling, or WTE plants.
Act (RCRA) 1976
Act, was enacted in 1976 to address the huge
volumes of municipal and industrial solid waste
The goals set by RCRA are:
To protect human health and the environment
from the potential hazards of waste disposal
To conserve energy and natural resources
To reduce the amount of waste generated
To ensure that wastes are managed in an
environmentally sound manner.
Subtitle C (the hazardous
waste management program) and Subtitle D (the
solid waste program).