Environmental Health Exam 1

Why do children in comparison with adults represent a group that is especially vulnerable to environmental hazards (choose the incorrect answer)
they spend more time indoors
reasons for the potential spread of anvian influenze include
intensive animal husbandry practices
Identify the incorrect statement: the 2009 swine flu outbreak
spread thourght north america to other parts of the globe
environmental health comprises those aspects of human health that are determined by
all of the above
Physical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors
True or false cholera outbreaks occurred in New York CIty during the mid 1800s
true
the estimated global burden of disease linked to environmental health
25-33 percent
when used as a food additive, nitrates and nitrites
they react with other substances to form carcinogens
risk management refers to the question of
none of the above
the concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by
all of the above
route of entry into the body, received dose of the chemical, duration of exposure, individual sensitivity
of the following routes of exposure which one has the most rapid effect
intravenous
cohort study is to risk ratio as
case control odds ratio
those members of the population who are capable of developing a disease of condition are known as
the population at risk
the risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by
the incidence rate for that given period
identify the historical figure who was among the first to expound on the role of environmental factors in causing diseases
hippocrates
which of the following activities characterizes the epidemiologic approach (as opposed to the clinical approach)
study of cancer occurence in populations
environmental health science is concerned with agent, host, and environmental factors in disease (the epidemiologic traingle) what stateent belows is true about the triangle?
all of the above
agent factors can include particles, toxic chemicals, and pesticides. the environment is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist. the host is the person who affords lodgment of an infectious agent
Worm
T. spiralis
Bacterium
C. jejuni
Prion
BSE
What was healthy people 2010 goal number 8
“to promote health for all through a healthy environment”
what were the goals objectives?
outdoor air quality, water quality, toxics and wastes, healthy homes and healthy communities, infrastructure and surveillance, global environmental health
what are some environmental health threats
trash that fouls beaches, hazardous wastes from disposal sites, air pollution, exposures to toxis chemicals, deforestation
the 3 P’s
pollution, population, poverty
pollution
combustion of fossil fuels that disperse green house gases into atmosphere may cause global warming and change in distribution of insect vectors
population
overpopulation in developing nations is leading to the humman population exceeding the carrying capacity of the planet
avain influenza
outbreaks on poltury fars in Asia. Health officials were concerned that the virus might mutate, enabling human to human transsmission and resulting in a pandemic
Swine flue
spread through North America to other poarts of the globe. WHO declared a pandemic, was concern that a large porportion of the population might be suseptble to infection
Poverty
linked to population growth. on of the well-recognized determinants of adverse health outcomes
What chronic diseases does environmental health contribute to
cancer (cervical, prostate, and breast)
Environmental Risk Transition
changes in envirionmental risks that happen as as consequence of economic development in the less developed regions of the world. before transition occurs there is a poor quality of food, air, water
What are some environmental problems after the transition?
acid rain precursors, ozone-depleting chemicals, green house gases
population growth
increasing at expotential rate, threatens to overwhelm available resources, periodic food scarcity and famine in certain areas
causes of population growth
increases in fertility, reductions in mortality, migration
three stages of demographic transitions
1: population mostly young and fertility andm ortality rates are high. population remains small
2: mortality rates drop and fertility rates remain high. rapid increase in population, usually in young age groups
3: fertility rates drop and cause a more even distribution of the population according to age and sex
4 consequences of population increases
urbanization, overtaxing carrying capacity, food insecurity, loss of biodiversity
urbanization
worldwide the proportion of urban residents has increased from 5% in 1800 to 50% in 2000 projected 66% by 2030
factors that lead to urbanization
industrialization, food availability, employement opportunities, lifestyle considerations, escape from political conflict
what is carrying capacity
the population that an area will support without undergoing environmental deterioration
define environment
the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival
define ecosystem
dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communityies and nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit
Hippocrates and Environmental Health
emphasized the role of the environment as an influence on people’s health and health status in On Airs, Waters, and Places
exposure dose
the amount of a substance encountered in the environment
external dose
a dose acquired by contact with contaminated environmental sources
absorbed dose
the amount of a substance that is available to the internal organs of the body
interal does
the portion of a substance that becomes internalized in the body through ingestion, absorption
what is red tide
a bloom of Karenia brevis, a dinoflagellate. produces brevetoxin
point of prevelance
all cases of death from disease/condition at a particular point in time within the population
incidence rate
rate formed by dividing number of new cases by individuals in population at risk over a period of time
case fatality rate
nuber of deaths due to a specific disease divided by number of cases of disease in the same time x 100
who was the first person to describe an environmental cause of cancer
sir percival pott, chimney sweep and prostate cancer
who discovered the source of a cholera outbreak of 1849
John Snow
criteria of causality
a centra concern of evnironmental epidemiology is to be able to assert that a causal association exists between an agent factor and a disease in the host
what are Hills criteria of causality
strength, consitency, specifity, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence
case series study
Pts who share a disease in common is gathered over time
ecological study
a study in which the units of analysis are populations or groups of ppl
cross-sectional study
examines the relationship between diseases as they exist in defined populations at a specific time
case-control study
cases have disease, controls to do not. compare/contrast
odds ratio
measure of association between exposure and outcome, only in case-control studies
cohort study
classifies subjects according to exposure to a factor of interest and then observes them overtime, document new cases
relative risk
ratio of the incidence rate of a disease/outcome in an exposed group to the incidence rate in a non-exposed group, only in cohort studies
what are limitations in detecting disease
long and variable latency periods between exposure and disease diagnosis, etiologic nonspecificty of disease clinical features, small population size coupled with low disease frequency, observer bias
limitations in measuring exposure
dependence on indirect, surrogate estimates of exposure and dose. uncertainty regarding pathways of exposure, probable low-dose levels in most settings, frequent inability to develop useful dose-response data
characteristics of environmental epidemiology
deals with nondisease effects, invovles numerour variables, tends to be community specific
weakness of environmental epidemiology
sample size, important variables “uncontrolled” exposure estimation invalid
strengths of environmental epidemiology
engages the real world, unique perspective on disease/health, basis for action despite ignorance of mechanism
is food poisoning correct
no, it is foodbourne diseases and infections
has foudbourne illness increased in industrialized nations
yes
what contributes to increase in foodbourne illness
changees in agricultural and food processing methods, globalization of food distribution, social and behavioral changes among the human population
how many people does foodbourne illness affect each year
one qaurter of the population, 9,000 deaths, costs 5 billion annually
what is FoodNet
CDC foodbourbe diseases active surveillance network. an active system whereby public health officials maintain frequent direct contact with clinical laboratory directors to identify new cases of foodbourne illnesses
4 major categories of food hazards
biological, physical, chemical, nutritional (excessive of deficient amounts)
Salmonellosis
one of the most frequent types, 2-4 million cases are estimated, 500 deaths annually. occur in animal resviors. fodo we eat but also cats, dogs and turtles can be carriers. transfered from raw meat, animal feces, contaiminated water and soil
E. coli
causes hemorrahgic colitis, 73,000 cases and 61 deaths yearly, major outbreaks in restaurant chains
Trichinosis
eating raw meat that contains a nematode Trinchinella
tapeworms
organiss may induve human illness following the consumption of raw or undercooked infected beef or pork
Viral Hepatitis A
fruits, sandwiches w/ cold cuts, dairy products, veggies, and shellfish. common mode of is infected workers in food processing plants and restaurants
norovirus
transmitted easily within closed environments such as cruise ships. symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration
Prions
bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease
toxins
naturally occuring toxins such as those from seafood and mushrooms maybe associated with foodbourne illness ex: ciguatoxin, scombroid toxin, paralytic shllfish poison, pufferfish toxin
heavy metls
when present in high concentration, can cause vomitting that occurs few minutes to several hours after ingestion
sourcces of heavy metals
candy wrappers from mexica, chicknem may contain high levels of arsenic
approved antimicrobials given to animals
amoxicilli, penicillin, bacitracin, erthromycin
intention (direct) additives
added to foods in order to improve their quality
incidental (indirect) additives
maybe present in foods as a result of unintentional contamination during packaging, storage, and handling
Malicious additives
include substances such as poisons that saboteurs introduce into foods for various reasons
Food and Drug Administration
US agency charged with regulation and enforcement of food safet
US departmetn of agriculture
regulate the safety of meat and poultry products