EMT Chapter 35

Quiz 35
1. The anterior fontanelle should be closed between the ages of ________ and ________.
a. 3 months; 6 months
b. 24 months; 36 months
c. 6 months; 10 months
d. 12 months; 18 months
1. d. 12 months; 18 months
2. Capillary refill should be assessed in which of the following age groups?
a. Younger than 6 years
b. Younger than 1 year
c. 2 years old and younger
d. Younger than 12 years
2. a. Younger than 6 years
3. Which of the following is the MOST common cause of death in children?
a. Environmental emergencies
b. Poisonings
c. Trauma
d. Infectious disease
3. c. Trauma
4. Which of the following is NOT a common cause of shock in infants and children?
a. Heart failure
b. Blood loss
c. Infection
d. Dehydration
4. a. Heart failure
5. Which of the following should be considered by the EMT as a result of the proportionally larger size of
a small child’s head?
a. Adaptations in positioning for cervical spine immobilization
b. Different injury patterns than in adults
c. Differences in positioning to maintain an open airway
d. All of the above
5. d. All of the above
6. Which of the following should increase your suspicion of child abuse?
a. Indications of alcohol and/or drug abuse in the home
b. Improperly healed fractures, resulting in deformity of extremities
c. Bruises on the back and/or buttocks in various stages of healing
d. All of the above
6. d. All of the above
7. Which of the following is NOT a component of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle?
a. Appearance
b. Breathing
c. Circulation
d. Abdomen
7. d. Abdomen
8. Which of the following is a consideration in airway management in the pediatric patient?
a. Keeping the nose clear of secretions
b. The need to hyperextend the head to achieve an open airway
c. Using blind finger sweeps to clear a foreign body from the airway
d. All of the above
8. a. Keeping the nose clear of secretions
9. A 4-year-old child is generally categorized as a(n):
a. preschooler.
b. toddler.
c. school-age child.
d. adolescent.
9. a. preschooler.
10. For the EMT who has cared for a pediatric patient in tragic circumstances, which of the following
would be an appropriate way of dealing with stress accompanying the experience?
a. Get together with others who participated in the care of the child and unwind with some alcoholic
beverages.
b. Talk to a compassionate coworker who has had similar experiences in the past.
c. Vent your rage in a letter to the person responsible for the child’s circumstances.
d. Put the incident out of your mind and don’t talk about it.
10. b. Talk to a compassionate coworker who has had similar experiences in the past.
11. Your patient is a 2-year-old female who has suffered a seizure but does not have a previous history of
seizures. The patient’s father states that the child has been pulling at her ear and has had a fever. They
were getting ready to leave for a doctor’s appointment when the child had a brief seizure. The patient is
drowsy and has hot, flushed skin. Which of the following is recommended in the prehospital
management of this patient?
a. Sponge the child’s back and arms with rubbing alcohol.
b. Place ice packs in the armpits, groin, and around the head.
c. Remove the child’s clothing down to her underpants or diaper.
d. Cover the child with a towel soaked in ice water.
11. c. Remove the child’s clothing down to her underpants or diaper.
12. Which of the following is the MOST common cause of seizures in infants and children?
a. Hypoglycemia
b. Hypoxia
c. Fever
d. Poisoning
12. c. Fever
13. Because infants and small children rely more heavily on the diaphragm for breathing, respiratory
distress can be detected by observing which one of the following signs that is not prominent in adults?
a. Bulging of the intercostal spaces
b. Use of the sternocleidomastoid muscles of the neck
c. Movement of the abdomen with respiratory effort
d. None of the above
13. c. Movement of the abdomen with respiratory effort
14. Which of the following is an early sign of respiratory distress in an 18-month-old patient?
a. Wheezing
b. Heart rate of 60 beats per minute
c. Drowsiness
d. Respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute
14. a. Wheezing
15. Which of the following is NOT a cause of altered mental status in the pediatric patient?
a. Traumatic brain injury
b. Diabetes
c. Dementia
d. Infection
15. c. Dementia
16. Which of the following is an indication of shock in an infant or small child?
a. Capillary refill greater than 2 seconds
b. Absence of tears when crying
c. Not producing wet diapers
d. All of the above
16. d. All of the above
17. You are called for a child that has had a fever for a couple of days. The parents tell you that two of the
other children have been home with a stomach virus and fever. As you attempt to assess the child, he
pulls away from you and grabs onto his mother. Which of the following behaviors would be considered
“normal” for a 4-year-old?
a. He doesn’t make eye contact as you approach.
b. He begins to cry when you try to touch his booboo.
c. He runs up to you when you enter the room.
d. He flares his nostrils when he breathes.
17. b. He begins to cry when you try to touch his booboo.
18. Which of the following is LEAST common in a child struck by a vehicle?
a. Spinal injuries
b. Abdominal injuries
c. Upper-extremity injuries
d. Head injuries
18. c. Upper-extremity injuries
19. Your protocols call for you to use the Pediatric Assessment Triangle when assessing young children.
You know that the second leg of the triangle assesses the “work of breathing” and the bottom leg of the
triangle assesses “circulation to the skin.” What does the first leg of the triangle stand for?
a. Appearance
b. Airway
c. Alteration of mental status
d. Assessment
19. a. Appearance
20. You are standing in line waiting to get a prescription filled for your mother. A woman walks in with a
young boy in her arms. As she places him in a nearby chair, he begins to seize. Which of the following is
true regarding childhood seizures?
a. They usually accompany a high fever.
b. Most are due to head injuries.
c. They usually last from 1 to 2 minutes.
d. They are due to a rapid rise in temperature.
20. d. They are due to a rapid rise in temperature.