emergency

Post Katrina Emergency Reform Act
in 2006, reorganized FEMA, provided it new authority to remedy gaps that were apparent in response to Katrina, and included a more robust preparedness mission for FEMA
Chain of command
Office of Secretary oversees the DHS, which oversees FEMA
FEMA’s organizational structure
Directorates:
-recovery
-response
-logistics management
-mitigation
-national continuity programs
-national preparedness
-US Fire administration
3 types of emergency events
1. natural (earthquake, flood, tsunami, influenza)
2. man-made (fire, chemical, terrorism, hazard material, aircraft crash, cyber attack)
3. severe weather (snow storm, ice, tornado, hurricane, rain, drought, heat wave, lightning etc
Golden Rule of EM
72 Hour Rule. Once the disaster strikes, the public wants the situation being resolved within 72 hours. public emergency managers should be able to meet the expectation that things will start to get better in that time frame.
Who does the planning?
Emergency Program Planning Committee, responsible for the preparation of the emergency plan, reviews and amendments. primary function is to provide guidance to the coordinator, who then researches, writes and executes that guidance. This committee does not have an operational role during emerg.
Emergency Program Coordinator
two roles (planning and response). responsible for executing the emergency plans put in place. Does not run the EOC, instead serves as an expert to the Chief Administrative Officer at time of emergency
Concept of Operations
basic assumptions, premises, institutional culture, motivation and executive endorsements that are driving the creation of the EM plan. Establishes planning priorities and defines constraints
The SIX steps of planning process
-identify issue
-evaluation issue-
-develop a plan
-analyze a plan
-implement a plan
-maintain the plan
Comprehensive Emergency Management
4 phases of emergency planning
-mitigation
-preparedness
-response
-recovery
Mitigation phase
ID hazards and assess impacts. Reduce or avoid possible impact
Mitigation objectives
-eliminate the hazard
-reduce risk
-reduce consequences
-spread risk
Preparedness phase
prepare thorough training, exercise the plans. Hazard specific emer. preparedness plans are prepared
Response phase
executing the preparedness plans
Recovery phase
most prolonged. critical aspect is ensuring continued provision of services normally provided by local governments.
Incident Command System
developed to integrate multiple agencies/jurisdictions. It’s a combination of facilities, equipment, personell, procedures and communications, operating within a common organizational structure
who declares state of local emergency?
the governor
Risk
a possibility that harm may occur from an identified hazard. it is frequency multiplied by consequence
Risk analysis
process of analyzing the frequency and consequences of the identified hazard
Risk control and its techniques
uses methods of reducing frequency and impact of identified hazards. five common techniques are:
-exposure avoidance
-loss prevention (reducing frequency)
-loss reduction (reducing impact)
-segregation of exposures
-contractual transfer of risk
Risk management
ongoing process of decision making, given that risks have been identified, its impact understood and all measurable actions taken to minimize its effects. continuing to do business as-is, versus taking potentially costly steps to mitigate the hazard
Objectives of risk management
-to ensure personnel safety
-reduce losses of supplies and facilities
-reduce negligence by staff
-minimize public risk
5 steps of risk management are
1. ID exposures
2. examine risk management techniques
3. select a technique
4. implement it
5. monitor it
Risk management techniques
two types: 1 risk control and 2 risk financing (accepting the exposure and paying for actual losses–insurance). Risk control is more responsible option for local gov.
3 objectives of mitigation
1. eliminate hazards (ex. re-routing transportation of dangerous goods)
2. reduce the risk (following standards for reducing the risk of aircraft crash)
3. reduce the consequences (mitigate the impact and prepare a response)
4. spread the risk-insurance industry, or play an active role in planning process
Vulnerability Analysis
4 types of impacts
social (human life loss), environmental, political (reputation of officials) and economic (structural damages)
EM Cycle
Initially, the Disaster Management Cycle consisted of four phases: Mitigation – Preparedness – Response – Recovery.
As a consequence of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as Prevention has now joined the cycle.
Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment
A hazard and vulnerability analysis is essential in order to determine and plan for resource needs and shortfalls in a community, region or state.
1. The Kaiser-Permanente Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Tool.
2. Threat and Hazard Identification
and Risk Assessment Guide (THIRA)
THIRA
1. assesses the various threats and hazards facing a community of any size.
2. assesses the vulnerability of the community to those hazards using varying time, season, location, and community factors.
3. & 4. estimate the consequences of those threats and hazards impacting the community and, through the lens of core capabilities, establish capability targets.
5. captures the results of the THIRA process to set an informed foundation for planning and preparedness activities across prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery.
Five steps of THIRA
1. Identify the Threats and Hazards of Concern.
2. Give Threats and Hazards Context. Using the list of threats and hazards, develop context that shows how those threats and hazards may affect the community.
3. Examine the Core Capabilities Using the Threats and Hazards. Using the threat and hazard context, identify impacts to the community through the lens of the core capabilities described in the Goal.
4. Set Capability Targets. Looking across the estimated impacts to the community, in the context of each core capability- set capability targets.
5. Apply the Results. Plan for the ability to deliver the targeted level of capability with either community assets or through mutual aid, identify mitigation opportunities, and drive preparedness activities.
State Hazard Mitigation Plan
The federal government’s National Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 requires that states have a Disaster Mitigation Plan in effect in order to be eligible for FEMA disaster assistance.
EM Agencies (EMA)-responsibilities (OVERALL)
-Monitor severe weather
-Provide “onlocation”support and assistance to local first response agencies (Fire, EMS, Health
Department, and Law Enforcement)
-Develop local emergency response plans,
-Comply with state and federal emergency preparedness and response requirements
-Conduct Hazardous Materials Analysis
-Conduct and coordinate public outreach seminars and workshops as a public service to the
community
-Conduct emergency management briefings, workshops, meetings and training courses
-Coordinate regional/state/federal emergency related training courses
-Conduct and evaluate emergency exercise/ drills
State EMA
A state EMA is the state agency responsible for coordinating federal, state, local, voluntary and private resources during emergencies and disasters. It provides leadership to: develop plans for effective response to all hazards, disasters or threats; train emergency personnel to protect the public; provide information to the citizenry; and assist individuals, families, businesses and communities to mitigate against, prepare for, and respond to and recover from emergencies, both natural and man made.
They maintain and operate the state Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and continually monitor emergencies
EOC- emergency operations center
Whether it is the local or state EOC, the EOC is responsible for the strategic overview, or “big picture,” of the disaster, and does not normally directly control field assets; instead, it makes operational decisions and leaves tactical decisions to lower commands. The common functions of every EOC is to collect, gather and analyze data; make decisions that protect life and property, maintain continuity of the organization, within the scope of applicable laws; and disseminate those decisions to all concerned agencies and individuals.
Local EOC
The Local Emergency Operations Center is the command center for large-scale emergencies occurring at the local jurisdiction level. It will be the hub for public response, working with the local public safety dispatch offices, as well as the center for public information during the event. This will be where requests for state aid are to be made. Role of EOC is to support the incident commander and care for evacuees
State EOC
The state EOC is the central location that collects information on what’s occurring throughout the state during the event, identifies the most severe trouble spots, triages the situation, determines needs, and collects and distributes resources to the appropriate locations.
NOTE: deployment of EOC does not mean state of emergency has been declared
EOC staff should include
– Chief Adminitrative Officer–chair
-Emer. program coordinator
-fire and police cheifs
-health official
-telecommunications officer
-ESS director
-public inform. officer
-recording clerk
-runners, communicators, assistants
-municipal engineers
ICS (incident command system)
Multi-agency coordination model. It is an organizational tool for responding to
disaster/emergencies and/or for managing events. etc. It has recently been mandated for use by all federal agencies, and most states and many businesses and industries have begun using it. One of the key features of ICS (in addition to common terminology, resource typing, standardized forms and procedures) is its scalability.
ICS principles
An ICS structure should include:
-Common terminology.
-A modular organization (from top down leaders)
-Integrated communications.
-Unity of command (each person within an organization reports to only one designated person)
-A unified command structure (all involved agencies contribute to the command process)
-Consolidated IAPs.
-A manageable span of control.
-Designated incident facilities.
-Comprehensive resource management.
ICS vs. EOC
The Incident Command operation is responsible
for on-scene response activities, and the EOC is responsible for community-wide resource
management.
ICS organization (command staff)
LED by an incident commander
1. public information officer
2. safety officer
3. liaison officer
4. medical officer(?)
ICS organization (general staff)
additionally activated (planning, ops, logistics, finance)
Expanding ICS
The Incident Commander will base the decision
to expand (or contract) the ICS organization on
three major incident priorities:
-Life safety.
-Incident stability.
-Property conservation.
ICS major sections
-command
-operations
-planning
-logistics
-finance/admin
ICS (operations section)
Identifies, assigns, and supervise the resources
needed to accomplish the incident objectives. Implements IAP
ICS (planning section)
Tracks resources and
identifies resource
shortages. They develop the IAP, which defines the response activities and resource utilization for a specified time period.
IAP-incident action plan (planning P-process)
Planning involves:
Evaluating the situation.
Developing incident objectives.
Selecting a strategy.
Deciding which resources should be used to achieve the objectives in the safest, most
efficient and cost effective manner.
ICS (logistics section)
Orders resources. responsible for providing
facilities, services, and materials, including
personnel to operate the requested equipment for
the incident
ICS (finance section)
Procures and pays for
the resources. Reports
costs.
Emergency Management Plan
-Describes the legal basis for emergency management activities.
-Outlines lines of authority and organizational relationships during emergency situations, and describes how actions will be coordinated.
-Includes a concept of operations for responding to and recovering from emergency situations.
-Assigns responsibility to organizations and individuals for carrying out specific emergency actions to protect lives and property.
-Identifies personnel, equipment, facilities, supplies, and other resources available within the jurisdiction or by agreement with other jurisdictions for use during response and recovery operations.
-Outlines procedures to request assistance from the state if local resources are insufficient to deal with an emergency situation.
-Identifies mitigation actions to reduce the threat posed by a known hazard.
Emergency Management Program
enhances a jurisdiction’s ability to manage such emergency events by identifying its
vulnerabilities to hazards and coordinating mitigation and preparedness activities to address those vulnerabilities. This enhance the jurisdiction’s capability and capacity to conduct emergency response and recovery operations.
emergency management program components
-Hazard Vulnerability Analysis (HVA): Identifies and prioritizes the hazards and vulnerabilities that
confront a jurisdiction.
-Incident Management System (IMS): Formalizes the management structure for emergency
operations within the jurisdiction.
-Emergency Operations Plan (EOP): Guides emergency response and recovery activities.
-Exercise Program: Creates a cycle of organizational learning and improvement for all elements of the EMP.
EMERGENCY MGMT Plan vs. Program
The plan does:
-Specify who is involved in response activities and what those people will do.
-Specify the legal basis for the response authority.
-Specify the process to request higher level assistance.
-Specify agreements for other agency assistance.
The plan does not (and therefore the program does):
-Coordinate routine training activities.
-Prioritize planning and mitigation actions before the emergency.
-Formalize the management structure for the command center.
3 aspects of the response stage
1. support the site
2. provide info to the public
3. tend to the people affected by emergency (social services)
Emergency Management Plan characteristics
-conveys how all emerg. will be managed
-first plan completed under preprdn. section, followed by the 4 priority plans
1. emergency social services
2. evacuation
3. telecommunications
4. public information
-and adds hazard specific plans in the order of prior.

ALL of these plans are reff. in the main body but go into the appendix. emergency program planning committee develops all the plans

hazard specific plans
-go into the appendix, in the order of priority
-provide realistic assessment of the threat, scale of impact, specific response steps, special duties of certain people, and list of resources
appendix contents
-all hazard plans
-all main plans
-responsibilities list (EOC members)
-telephone callout list
-declaration of state of local emergency (draft)
-evacuation order (draft)
-mutual aid agreements
-community resource inventory
social services plan
addresses:
-the care of displaced persons at reception centers
-registration and inquiry services for displaced
-providing food to onsite responders and EOC center and public information center staff during prolonged operations
-assisting in provisions of critical incident stress debriefings
social services plan-critical success factors
-enough supplies (food, bedding, clothing)
-reliable and efficient communications
-adequate facilities in appropriate locations
two types of evacuation
-immediate, in the event of rapidly developing emergencies and
-anticipatory-for slowly progressing emergencies
role of telecommunications officer
two stages
-preparedness and response.
In preparedness, responsible for:
– conducing inventory of systems
-planning updates and compatibility
-capacity planning,
In the response role, responsible for:
-communications in/out of EOC
-establishment of communications
-supply of trained communicator at locations selected under social services plan, ex. reception centers
hazard specific plans-contain
-common factors to all hazards is the command and control -derived from the EM plan, beyond that, plans are unique
-concept of operations-visualizes the response
The Comprehensive Assessment System’s Gap Analysis Program
designed to identify “gaps” between
estimated incident response need and the capability of levels of government and the private sector to address that need.
where are we and where do we need to be?
POETE program helps us measure this gap
POETE
The POETE Program made states and urban areas review their existing strategies to ensure that their
Planning, Organization, Equipment, Training, and Exercise activities (POETE model) support this national preparedness priority.
HSEEP
The Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) is a capabilities and performance based exercise program that provides a standardized policy, methodology, and language for designing, developing, conducting, and evaluating all exercises. HSEEP also facilitates the creation of self sustaining,capabilities based
exercise programs by providing tools and resources such as policy and guidance,
training, technology, and direct exercise support.
HSEEP Doctrine organization
-HSEEP Fundamentals describes the basic principles and methodology of HSEEP.
– Exercise Program Management provides guidance for conducting a Training and Exercise Planning Workshop (TEPW) and developing a Multi-year Training and Exercise Plan (TEP).
-Exercise Design and Development describes the methodology for developing exercise objectives, conducting planning meetings, developing exercise
documentation, and planning for exercise logistics, control, and evaluation.
– Exercise Conduct provides guidance on setup, exercise play, and wrap-up activities.
-Evaluation provides the approach to exercise evaluation planning and conduct through data collection, analysis, and development of an AAR.
– Improvement Planning addresses corrective actions identified in the exercise IP and the process of tracking corrective actions to resolution.
HSEEP fundamental principles
Guided by Elected and Appointed Officials.
Capability-based, Objective Driven (Exercises focus on assessing performance against capability-based objectives.)
Progressive Planning Approach.
Whole Community Integration
Informed by Risk
Common Methodology
Exercise Program Management
Effective exercise program management promotes a multi-year approach to:
-Engaging elected and appointed officials
– Establishing multi-year exercise program priorities
-Developing a multi-year TEP
-Maintaining a rolling summary of exercise outcomes
-Managing exercise program resources
Discussion based exercise include:
seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises (TTXs), and games.These types of exercises can be used to familiarize players with, or develop new, plans, policies, agreements, and procedures. Discussion-based exercises focus on strategic, policy-oriented issues.
Tabletop Exercise
A TTX is intended to generate discussion of various issues regarding a hypothetical, simulated
emergency. TTXs can be used to enhance general awareness, validate plans and procedures,
rehearse concepts, and/or assess the types of systems needed to guide the prevention of,
protection from, mitigation of, response to, and recovery from a defined incident.
Operations based exercises
Operations-based exercises include drills, functional exercises (FEs), and full-scale exercises
(FSEs). These exercises can be used to validate plans, policies, agreements, and procedures;
clarify roles and responsibilities; and identify resource gaps.
drill
A drill is a coordinated, supervised activity usually employed to validate a specific function or
capability in a single agency or organization. Drills are commonly used to provide training on
new equipment, validate procedures, or practice and maintain current skills.
Functional Exercises
FEs are typically focused on exercising plans, policies, procedures, and staff members involved in management, direction, command, and control
functions. In FEs, events are projected through an exercise scenario with event updates that
drive activity typically at the management level. An FE is conducted in a realistic, real-time
environment; however, movement of personnel and equipment is usually simulated
Full Scale Exercises
FSEs are typically the most complex and resource-intensive type of exercise. They involve
multiple agencies, organizations, and jurisdictions and validate many facets of preparedness.
FSEs often include many players operating under cooperative systems such as the Incident
Command System (ICS) or Unified Command.
Determining exercise scope
Key elements in defining exercise scope include exercise type, participation level, exercise duration,
exercise location, and exercise parameters.
effective exercise evaluation
Exercise evaluation maintains the fundamental link between the exercise and improvement
planning. Effective exercise evaluation involves:
-Planning for exercise evaluation;
-Observing the exercise and collecting exercise data during exercise conduct;
-Analyzing collected data to identify strengths and areas for improvement; and
– Reporting exercise outcomes in a draft AAR.
National Incident Management System
Manages ICS
HSPD5 requires “all Federal departments and agencies to adopt the NIMS.” It further requires
“Federal departments and agencies to make adoption of the NIMS by state, tribal and local organizations a condition for Federal preparedness assistance (grants, contracts and other activities) beginning in Financial Year 2005.”
NIMS and ICS
Note that ICS is the core, and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) is the system that wraps
the other elements around it, including training, exercises, courses, certification, resource typing and management, administration, standardization, technology, education and public awareness, protocols, and compliance.
Major components of NIMS
Command and Management-all events occur locally
Scalability
Preparedness
Resource Management
Communication and Information Management
Supporting Technologies
Ongoing Management and Maintenance
National Response Framework
presents the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. describes how communities, tribes, states, the federal government, private sectors,
and nongovernmental partners work together to coordinate national response; describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents; and builds upon the National Incident Management System (NIMS) which provides a consistent template for managing incidents.
Stafford Disaster Relief and
Emergency Assistance Act
is the principal legislation governing the federal response to disasters within the United States. The act spells out—among other things—how disasters are declared, the types of assistance to be provided, and the cost sharing arrangements between federal, state, and local governments.
Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act
amends the Stafford Act and expands FEMA’s role for disaster response and preparedness as well as providing the authority for the Strategy. As authorized by PKEMRA, the Federal Government may provide technical and advisorymassistance to State and local governments for recovery and planning activity. PKEMRA calls for the FEMA
Administrator, in coordination the National Advisory Council, the National Council on Disability, and other federal agencies, to develop, coordinate, and maintain a disaster recovery strategy.
service continuation planning
critical aspect of recovery planning, assumes worst case scenario emergency WILL occur and addresses a maintaining services as close to normal as possible, or restoring services in a timely manner. Primary purpose is to protect the local government in case its operations are impacted
4 essential elements in service delivery
PHTO Model
Physical-(office damaged, files destroyed)
Human-managers or system operators incapacitated
Technology (water.sewer.PC.loss of data.phone.
Operations (funds withdrawal/transfer), payment of bills, revenues to accounts, client needs
maximum tolerable disruption time (MTDT)
helps prioritize services
8 steps of service continuation planning
1. Planning scenarios and assumptions (worst-case)
2. Service Impact Analysis (identify critical service functions)
3. Critical Service Functions. priority setting (MTDT)
4. Compiling the plan (resource/support/procedure)
5. Emer. Program Planning Comittee and Sr. Mgmt endorsement
6. communicate the plan
7. realistic testing
8. maintain the plan
Geotechnnical and non-structural elements hazards
-risks post emergency
-geotechnical involve ground movements, during or after emergency
-non-structural elements-like falling debris, elevator, elevated fixtures etc
3 building evaluation techniques
-rapid eval
-detailed eval
-engineering eval
when is recovery over?
local government must consider it over once damage to its service delivery mechanisms is repaired
Comprehensive EM Plan
A. MITIGATION

B. PREPAREDNESS PLAN
1. Emergency Management Plan
2. Priority Common Plans
a. Public Information Plan
b. Social Services Plan
c. Evacuation Plan
d. Telecommunications Plan
3. Hazard-Specific Preparedness Plans

C.RECOVERY PLAN
1. Service Continuation Plan
2. Facilities Repair and Inspection Plan