EDSP 3700

The current emphasis on adaptive behavior in defining intellectual disabilities is due to the
A. rise of the disability rights movement.
B. influence of the learning disabilities movement.
C. realization that students can be “streetwise” despite low IQ test scores.
D. activism of parents of children with intellectual disabilities.
C. realization that students can be “streetwise” despite having low IQ scores.
The most common hereditary cause of intellectual disabilities is
Fragile X syndrome.
The ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another task is known as
working memory.
Explicit, systematic instruction involves the teacher working with the student in the following ways EXCEPT
teaching advanced behaviors before teaching foundational skills
The purpose of early intervention programs for children at risk for mild intellectual disabilities is
preventing intellectual disabilities or furthering the development of children who have intellectual disabilities
In functional academics, academics are taught in the context of
daily living skills.
The ability to make personal choices, regulate one’s own life, and be a self-advocate is called
self-determination.
Current estimates place the prevalence of students with intellectual disabilities at approximately
1%
Claudia is a third grader with intellectual disabilities. She has thick epicanthal folds in the corner of her eyes, small stature, decreased muscle tone, speckling of the iris of the eye, a small oral cavity, and short, broad hands with a single palmar crease. These characteristics are typical of
a) cultural-familial intellectual disabilities
b) down syndrome
c) fetal alcohol syndrome
d) fragile x syndrome
B. Down syndrome
Up until the recent implementation of the response-to-intervention model, the identification of learning disabilities focused on
IQ-achievement discrepancy.
By definition, every student with learning disabilities has
a) academic problems
b) brain damage
c) hyperactivity
d) deficits in all academic areas
A. academic problems
Toxins have or have not been ruled out as a potential cause of learning disabilities?
have not
Freda, Sam, and Liz are eighth-grade student with learning disabilities. Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of INTRAINDIVIDUAL variation?
Freda scores higher in mathematics but performs poorly in spelling.
Research on the neurological basis of learning disabilities (LD) has been relatively consistent in pointing to the ___ as being involved.
left temporal lobe.
Repeated readings is a technique specifically used to improve
reading fluency.
Diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because
many preschoolers without ADHD exhibit a great deal of activity and impulsivity.
For students with ADHD, assessment of progress is similar to the approaches used for students with ___.
learning disabilities.
In contingency-based self-management, the “contingency” is usually a type of
A) punishment
B) reward
C) aversive
D) contract
B. reward
Students wtih ADHD spend most of their time in which of the following settings?
general education classroom.
Students with ADHD may receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in which category?
a) ADHD
b) learning disabilities
c) emotional or behavioral disorders
d) other health impaired
D. other health impaired
In most cases, it is easy to identify the cause of intellectual disability.
False
If a person achieves a low score on an IQ test, this score means that his or her adaptive skills are below average.
False
Research has shown consistently that students who are positively reinforced for correct responses learn faster (than not being positively reinforced).
True
Long-term memory involves the ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another cognitive task.
False
Response to intervention is the federally preferred method of identifying learning disabilities.
True
Most children with learning disabilities outgrow their disabilities as adults.
False
Although medication (either psychostimulants or nonstimulants) may be effective in reducing the negative aspects of ADHD, a number of cautions remain regarding the use of medication for treating ADHD.
True
ADHD is a separate special education category under IDEIA (or IDEA).
False
Recent research shows that there is evidence of a neurological basis for ADHD.
True
Boys are more often labeled with learning disabilities or ADHD than are girls.
True
Each of the following statements is true about children with E/BD EXCEPT:
a. most students identified are psychotic.
b. aggressive acting-out behavior is most common.
c. juvenile delinquency and conduct disorder cannot be clearly distinguished from emotional disturbance.
d. boys outnumber girls.
a. most students identified are psychotic.
Each of the following is true regarding school practices and development of E/BD EXCEPT
a. Teachers need to be aware of how their academic instruction and behavior management approaches may contribute to student’s misconduct.
b. Children may become better or worse, depending on how they are managed in the classroom.
c. We know which specific school experiences contribute to E/BD.
d. A child’s temperament and social competence interact with behaviors of peers and teachers.
c. We know which specific school experiences contribute to E/BD.
On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform
a. at mental age level.
b. at grade level.
c. above grade level.
d. below grade level.
d. below grade level
Which of the following statements about depression is true?
a. Antidepressant medications have not been successful in helping young people with depression.
b. Suicide is among the leading causes of death among young people.
c. The nature of depression in children and adolescents is quite different from that of adults.
d. Depression is not a widespread problem among children and adolescents.
b. Suicide is among the leading causes of death among young people.
Increasingly, researchers recognize that problem behavior occurs less frequently in the classroom when
a. the teacher separates students with behavior problems from other students.
b. the teacher allows unstructured free time each day.
c. the teacher consistently punishes each occurrence of problem behavior.
d. the teacher is offering effective instruction.
d. the teacher is offering effective instruction.
Susan and Mike are looking to place their son, Max, in an effective educational program for students with E/BD. They should select a program that includes all of the following elements EXCEPT
a. systematic, data-based interventions.
b. direct, daily assessment of performance.
c. programming for transfer and maintenance.
d. emphasis on intensive, short-term intervention.
d. emphasis on intensive, short-term intervention.
According to the federal government, what percentage of the school-age population is identified for special education services under the category of “emotional disturbance”?
a. about 2%
b. less than 1%
c. 3-5%
d. 6-10%
b. less than 1%
Two critical areas of assessment for students with autism spectrum disorders are
a. progress in academic skills and social/adaptive behavior.
b. progress in language development and functional skills.
c. progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior.
d. progress in academic skills and functional skills.
c.progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior.

It involves the use of pictures to help students initiate and maintain functional communication.

The way people use language in social situations is
a. pragmatics.
b. syntax.
c. communicative intent.
d. semantics.
a.pragmatics.
Repetitive, ritualistic motor movements, such as twirling, flapping hands, and rocking are evident in _________ children with ASD.
some, but not all,
Most scientists argue that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT
a. a widening of the criteria used for diagnosis.
b. a greater awareness of autism in general.
c. ʺdiagnostic substitutionʺ (diagnosing with autism rather than intellectual disability).
d. widespread use of vaccinations for babies.
d. widespread use of vaccinations for babies.
According to dsm-5, asperger syndrome is or is no longer an entity separate from asd?
Is no longer separate
DSM-5 divides the symptoms of ASD into two, general domains:
social communication impairment and repetitive/restricted behaviors.
The prevalence of ASD is about ____ times higher for boys than for girls.
five
Approximately what percentage of children identified for special education receives services primarily for speech or language disorders?
20%
1%
10%
5%
20%
It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily because
there is so much overlap with other categories of disability.
All of the following are examples of speech disorders EXCEPT
semantic disorder.
fluency disorder.
articulation disorder.
voice disorder.
semantic disorder.
Which of the following statements about written language development is true?

Students with language disorders tend to express themselves clearly in writing.
Mastering the alphabetic system is not part of written language instruction.
As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on increasing importance.
Written language and literacy are not usually problems for students with speech and language disorders.

As students progress through the grades, written language takes on increasing importance.
Jeremy is a four-year-old boy who makes infantile noises and uses gestures to request objects. He displays

prelinguistic communication.
articulation problems.
acquired apraxia.
syntactic dysfunction.

prelinguistic communication.
Natalie has a speech disorder that causes her to stutter, which is what type of disorder?
Fluency
“Manifestation determination” means that the circumstances surrounding a particular incident are not weighed in deciding what the consequences will be.
False
Students with EB/D usually have good academic skills but still show higher dropout rates than their nondisabled peers.
False
Transition from school to work is usually not a significant problem for those with E/BD, because they tend to be so independent.
False
Too often, the focus of behavior intervention is on external control of the student’s behavior and little attention is paid to academic and social learning.
True
Most individuals with autism exhibit remarkable ability or talent in particular skills, such as playing music, drawing, or calculating.
False
Equine therapy (horseback riding) shows promise as a way to enhance social interaction of children with ASD.
True
In many ways, outcomes for persons with autism are similar to those with intellectual disabilties.
True
When teaching students with speech and language disorders, the primary role of the general education classroom teacher is to facilitate the social use of language.
True
Many of the academic and social difficulties of adolescents and adults are now thought to be attributed to basic language disorders.
True
Many children quickly outgrow their dysfluencies.
True
1. Doug Landis, an artist who is paralyzed from the neck down, uses a pencil attached to a mouth stick to draw. This illustrates how the focus on persons with disabilities should be
a. on what they can do.
b. on how they are limited.
c. on their miraculous achievements.
d. on what others can do to help them.
a. on what they can do
2. Most exceptional learners
a. have physical limitations.
b. are more different than they are like nondisabled peers.
c. are average in more ways than they are not.
d. have more problems in motivation than in learning.
c. are average in more ways than they are not.
3. When special education works as it should, the outcome for students is
a. the ability to hide their disabilities.
b. the eradication of their disabilities.
c. instruction in a special class.
d. improved achievement and behavior.
d. improved achievement and behavior.
4. The single most important goal of special education is
a. placing all students in the general education classroom for the entire day.
b. finding and capitalizing on exceptional students abilities.
c. preparing highly qualified special education teachers.
d. identifying the types of disabilities
b. finding and capitalizing on exceptional students abilities.
5. Most historians trace the beginning of special education as we know it today to
a. Philippe Pinel.
b. Édouard Séguin.
c. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard.
d. Thomas Gallaudet.
c. thomas gallaudet
6. The first special educators provided many of the ideas that form the foundation for special education practice today. They include all of the following EXCEPT
a. individualized instruction.
b. structured arrangement of the learning environment.
c. placement in the least restrictive environment.
d. emphasis on functional, life skills.
c. placement in the lre
7. The founder of the Special Olympics was
a. Elizabeth Farrell
b. Eunice Kennedy Shriver
c. John F. Kennedy
d. Thomas Gallaudet
b. eunice shriver
8. P.L. 99-457 and IDEA mandate a free, appropriate public education for people ages three to twenty-one. In addition, P.L. 99-457
a. requires employers to provide special programs for people with disabilities.
b. requires schools to provide transitional programs for people with disabilities who are between the ages of 18 and 25.
c. provides incentives for states to develop early intervention programs.
d. requires schools to develop programs for students who are gifted.
c. provides incentives for states to develop early intervention programs.
9. Under IDEA, each state and locality must have a plan to ensure all of the following EXCEPT
a. screening all students for possible disabilities.
b. protecting parents’ rights to informed consent.
c. providing services to equal numbers of males and females.
d. providing training for personnel in meeting the needs of students with disabilities.
c. providing services to equal numbers of males and females.
10. In the case of Hudson v. Rowley, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the school did not have to provide a sign interpreter for Amy Rowley, a child who was deaf, because she had an IEP that allowed her to achieve at or above an average level for her age. The decision interpreted which component of P.L. 94-142?
a. due process
b. least restrictive environment
c. free, appropriate education
d. nondiscriminatory evaluation
c. free, appropriate education
11. Schools must provide an individualized program for each student who requires special education services. This means that
a. each student must receive instruction on a one-to-one basis.
b. an educational program must be written for each student who requires special education services.
c. one individual must be responsible for each student’s education.
d. the portion of the program that is individualized must be delivered by a teacher who is certified in special education.
b. an educational program must be written for each student who requires special education services.
12. Which one of the following best describes an individual family service plan (IFSP)?
a. a supplement to the IEP that specifies services that will be provided to the family of a student with disabilities
b. a supplement to the IEP that identifies the role of family members in supporting the school’s program for a student with disabilities
c. a type of IEP created for preschool children with disabilities
d. an extension of the IEP that is used for secondary students who are making the transition from school to work
c. a type of IEP created for preschool children with disabilities.
13. Each of the following people is typically on an IEP team EXCEPT
a. a parent or guardian.
b. a provider of special education.
c. the child’s general education teacher.
d. a special education lawyer.
d. a special education lawyer.
14. Accommodations for evaluation procedures of students with disabilities might include all of the following EXCEPT
a. altering the time given for responding.
b. changing the setting in which assessment is done.
c. providing verbal prompts to the student during testing.
d. using an alternative format for presentation of tasks or the type of response allowed.
c. providing verbal prompts to the student during testing
15. Ms. Lopez, a second grade teacher, has concerns about Delroy’s progress in math. Before she makes a referral for special education, she should
a. discuss her concerns with Delroy.
b. administer an intelligence test.
c. discuss her concerns with Delroy’s parents.
d. consult with specialists at a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
c. discuss her concerns with Delroy’s parents.
16. In co-teaching,
a. students take turns assuming the role of teacher.
b. general and special educators teach together in the same classroom.
c. general and special educators provide in-service training for each other.
d. teachers and students take turns assuming the role of teacher.
b. general and special educators teach together in the same classroom.
17. Response to intervention (RTI)
a. has implications only for those with learning disabilities.
b. is restricted to academic learning.
c. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
d. is the same as a prereferral team except that it is limited to students with learning disabilities.
c. can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
18. With respect to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, response to intervention (RTI)
a. has proven a failure when used with this population.
b. results in fewer students of color being identified for special education.
c. relies heavily on curriculum-based measurement and less on standardized tests, which may contain cultural bias.
d. results in more students of color being identified for special education
c. relies heavily on curriculum-based measurement and less on standardized tests, which may contain cultural bias.
19. A recommended technique of breaking down prejudice and encouraging positive interactions among students with different characteristics is
a. Afrocentrism.
b. cooperative learning.
c. immersion.
d. direct instruction.
b. cooperative learning.
20. Each of the following are true regarding the use of response cards EXCEPT
a. The teacher should create a streamlined procedure for distribution.
b. The teacher must maintain a brisk but reasonable presentation rate.
c. The teacher should allow the students to become comfortable with the procedure before using it intensively.
d. The teacher should allow the students to share their responses with each other before showing them to her or him.
d. the teacher should allow the students to share their responses with each other before showing them to her or him.
21. An IFSP refers to an
a. informal family service plan.
b. individualized family service plan.
c. initial family service program.
d. interchangeable family service program.
b. individualized family service plan.
22. In the not too distant past, many professionals tended to believe that parents of children with disabilities were
a. virtually faultless with respect to their child’s problems.
b. to blame for many of their child’s problems.
c. unable to work effectively with their child unless they first experience an emotional catharsis or cleansing.
d. unable to cope with their child if he or she was the first-born child.
b. to blame for many of their child’s problems.
23. The reactions of extended family members are important because they can often play a critical role in
a. financial assistance.
b. providing comfort and support.
c. recommending professional help.
d. determining the genetic cause of the disability.
b. providing comfort and support.
24. Wraparound service refers to
a. a system of using educational service in addition to available community services to meet the needs of children and their families
b. one type of service, such as psychological or speech services, taking the lead in coordinating all services.
c. services that become too unwieldy to coordinate.
d. services that alternate in taking the lead in coordinating all services.
a. a system of using educational service in addition to available community services to meet the needs of children and their families.
25. The degree to which families are able to change their modes of interaction when they encounter unusual or stressful situations refers to
a. acceptance.
b. cohesion.
c. adaptability.
d. compassion.
c. adaptability.
26. In Sam’s family, everyone spends his or her free time independently. Family members seldom eat meals together or plan joint activities. Sam’s family has low
a. acceptance.
b. adaptability.
c. cohesion.
d. compassion.
c. cohesion.
27. The primary purpose of a home-note program from one of the child’s teachers is to
a. let the teacher know what is going on.
b. enable parents to provide reinforcement for behavior at school.
c. allow parents to communicate with all professionals who deal with their child.
d. document, for legal purposes, communication that has occurred between home and school.
b. enable parents to provide reinforcement for behavior at school.
28. Under IDEA, one form of advocacy to which parents are entitled is/are
a. weekly meetings.
b. reciprocity.
c. due process.
d. parent training
c. due process.
29. Transitions between stages in the life of a child with disabilities are difficult because
a. the next stage brings on overwhelming challenges
b. parents tend to think the next stage will lead to resolutions to many of their current problems.
c. increasingly more professionals become involved, which leads to problems of communication.
d. each new phase presents uncertainty to the family.
d. each new phase presents uncertainty to the family.
30. Homework for students with disabilities should be used
a. to introduce new skills.
b. to develop age-appropriate attention spans.
c. to review skills already taught.
d. as a consequence for failing to complete work in class.
c. to review skills already taught.
1. In the vast majority of cases, we are unable to identify the exact reason why a child is exceptional.
True
2. A disability is always a handicap.
False
3. The individualized education program (IEP) is not required to be a written statement; however, the parents must agree to the teacher’s plans before the student is enrolled.
False
4. Students with disabilities are not excluded from participation in standardized assessment procedures.
True
5. An individual can be a member of many subcultures.
True
6. All ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education.
False
7. Some disabilities are genetically linked to ethnicity.
True
8. There are numerous anecdotal accounts of parents who report that having a child with a disability has some positive results.
True
9. Parents of a child with a disability who choose not to be involved with decision making at school probably are neglectful at home.
False
10. Parents generally go through a series of emotional reactions in a predictable and sequential fashion.
False
1. Many authorities say that adaptive behavior consists of
a. social intelligence and practical intelligence.
b. behaviors that defy definition.
c. IQ and behavior.
d. skills that result in the individual’s achieving a high-quality job.
a. social intelligence and practical intelligence
2. According to the hypothetical “normal curve,” approximately what percentage of the population is expected to have IQ scores between 0-70?
a. 1%.
b. 1.27%
c. 2.27%.
d. 5.27%.
c. 1.27%
3. Current estimates place the prevalence of students identified with intellectual disabilities at approximately
a. under 1%
b. 2.5%.
c. 3.5%
d. 5%
a. under 1%
4. All states routinely screen for this before babies leave the hospital:
a. Fragile X syndrome.
b. phenylkenonuria.
c. Down syndrome.
d. hydrocephalus.
b. phenylkenonuria.
5. A person’s awareness of what strategies are needed to perform a task, the ability to plan how to use the strategies, and the evaluation of how well the strategies are working is
a. metacognition.
b. working memory.
c. perception.
d. long-term memory.
a. metacognition.
6. Early childhood programs designed to enhance the development of children who are already identified with intellectual disabilities place a great deal of emphasis on
a. transitions.
b. physical therapy.
c. feeding techniques.
d. language and conceptual development.
d. language and conceptual development.
7. Joe tends to believe whatever he is told, even highly questionable statements or claims, despite any evidence. This tendency is known as
a. self-deception.
b. unreasonable trust.
c. gullibility.
d. learned helplessness.
c. gullibility.
8. How is adaptive behavior typically assessed?
a. A psychologist observes the student in the classroom.
b. The student is asked to perform a series of tasks.
c. A parent, teacher, or professional answers questions related to the student’s behavior.
d. A close friend, chosen by the student, fills out a behavior rating form.
c. a close friend, chosen by the student, fills out a behavior rating form.
9. In supported competitive employment, a worker with intellectual disabilities has a competitive employment position and receives
a. incentive money.
b. ongoing assistance from a job coach.
c. sub-minimum wage.
d. pay from a social agency rather than from the employer.
b. ongoing assistance from a job coach.
10. All of the following are true about sheltered workshops EXCEPT
a. There is little, in any, integration with workers who are not disabled.
b. Clients are often paid very low wages.
c. They are run by business people trying to make a profit.
d. They usually offer repetitive work and limited job-training experiences.
c. they are run by business people trying to make a profit.
11. According to law (IDEIA), each state
a. must require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, but may permit the use of response to intervention.
b. must not require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must permit the use of response to intervention.
c. must require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must require the use of response to intervention.
d. must not require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must not require the use of response to intervention.
b. must not require the use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, and must permit the use of response to intervention.
12. All of the following have been identified as concerns about response to intervention EXCEPT
a. Most of what is validated about RTI is focused on reading.
b. Some students do well enough in Tier 2 to return to Tier 1, but then they experience difficulties again, resulting in a return to Tier 2.
c. Most of the research on RTI has focused on grades 3-5, leaving a vacuum of what we know about its implementation in grades 1-2, where it is most important to intervene.
d. Currently, many general education teachers are failing to use evidence-based instruction in Tier 1.
c. Most of the research on RTI has focused on grades 3-5, leaving a vacuum of what we know about its implementation in grades 1-2, where it is most important to intervene.
13. In a typical school of 1000 students, about how many students identified with learning disabilities would you expect to find?
a. 10
b. 50
c. 250
d. 500
b. 50
14. Research using neuroimaging suggests that some cases of learning disability are caused by
a. poor nutrition.
b. allergies to food additives.
c. structural and functional differences in the brain.
d. head wounds.
c. structural and functional differences in the brain.
15. Which typically poses the greatest difficulty for most children with learning disabilities?
a. reading.
b. spellling.
c. handwriting.
d. mathematics.
a. reading.
16. Pragmatics is the study of
a. word order within sentences.
b. the sound structure of words.
c. the meaning of language.
d. language use in social settings.
d. language use in social settings.
17. The ability to understand that specific words can be broken down into individual sounds is referred to as
a. phonological awareness.
b. phonemic awareness.
c. decoding.
d. reading fluency.
b. phonemic awareness.
18. Researchers have found that one of the major reasons that children with learning disabilities perform poorly on memory tasks is that
a. they fail to use strategies.
b. their working memory is much more advanced, so it interferes with short-term memory.
c. they have been exposed to too much direct instruction.
d. they are either auditory or visual learners but not both.
a. they fail to use strategies.
19. Brianna is a junior in high school who has a learning disability and an external locus of control. When she succeeds on a homework assignment in mathematics, she is most likely to attribute her success to
a. effort.
b. luck.
c. mathematics ability.
d. intelligence.
b. luck.
20. Which approach to mathematics instruction is most efficient for students with learning disabilities?
a. constructivist
b. discovery-oriented
c. teacher-directed
d. student-centered
c. teacher-directed.
21. The part of the brain responsible for executive functions, such as the ability to regulate one’s own behavior is the
a. basal ganglia.
b. cerebellum.
c. corpus collosum.
d. frontal lobes.
d. frontal lobes.
22. All of the following are examples of behavioral inhibition EXCEPT
a. the ability to wait one’s turn.
b. refraining from interrupting in conversations.
c. working for immediate gratification or short-term rewards.
d. resisting potential distractions while working
c. working for immediate gratification or short-term rewards.
23. Compared to students with other disabilities, students with ADHD
a. have fewer social skills problems.
b. have more friends of the opposite gender.
c. are often more disliked by their peers.
d. are viewed as less rude.
c. are often more disliked by their peers.
24. In this model of co-teaching, the two teachers split the class into two groups and teach the same content to a smaller group of students.
a. One Teach, One Drift
b. Parallel Teaching
c. Accommodation Teaching
d. Alternative Teaching
b. Parallel teaching.
25. Momentary time sampling is _____________ to capture a representative sample of a target behavior over a specified period of time.
a. an interval recoding procedure
b. a contingency-based intervention used
c. a group contingency-based intervention used
d. a less effective way than simply asking the teacher to estimate the child’s performance
a. an interval recoding procedure.
1. The most common known hereditary cause of intellectual disabilities is Fragile X syndrome.
True
2. Intelligence and adaptive behavior are different terms to describe the same construct or set of skills.
False
3. Self-determination is considered to embody only two components.
False
4. There are many different causes of intellectual disability, and new genetic syndromes continue to be discovered.
True
5. The vast majority of children with learning disabilities develop social-emotional problems.
False
6. Children and youth with learning disabilities comprise about half of all students who receive special education.
True
7. Students with ADHD may have “504 Plans” that document accommodations to be provided in the general classroom setting.
True
8. ADHD has been shown to often coexist with learning disabilities and emotional/behavioral disabilities.
True
9. It is likely that a lot of TV or video games cause ADHD.
False
10. Hyperactivity is a characteristic of all children with ADHD.
False
11. ADHD is primarily the result of minimal brain injury.
False
12. Using psychostimulants, such as Ritalin, can easily turn children into abusers of other substances, such as cocaine and marijuana.
False
13. Many questions still remain about how to best implement RTI.
True
14. Mathematics disabilities are relatively rare among children with learning disabilities.
False
The focus of early intervention for children with hearing impairments is on

A. social skills.
B. language development
C. play
D. concept acquisition

B. language development
According to the U.S. Department of Education, what percentage of students 6-21 years of age are identified as deaf or hard of hearing?
0.1%
Simon has a hearing loss that occurred when he was 7 years old. His loss is best described as
A. conductive
B. sensorineural
C. congenital
D. postlingual
d. postlingual.
In recent years, many people within the deaf community have questioned the trend toward inclusion of children with hearing impairments, because
it forces students to lose their deaf identity.
People who say that deafness should not be considered a disability argue that
A. there is a difference between prelingual and postlingual deafness
B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own
C. there are advantages to being deaf, so it is not a disability
D. although deafness is a handicap, it is not a disability
B. they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own
For educational purposes, individuals who are blind
A) are able to use a magnifying device.
B) can still read print if it is large enough.
C) have absolutely no sight.
D) must use braille or aural methods.
d. must use braille or aural methods.
What percentage of the school-age population does the federal government classify as visually impaired?
0.04%
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is caused by
A) premature birth.
B) excessive oxygen given to infants at birth.
C) fetal alcohol syndrome.
D) degenerative hereditary disease.
b. excessive oxygen given to infants at birth.
Which of the following statements about the conceptual abilities of children with visual impairment is true?
A) The performance of infants with visual problems is the same as that of their peers with sight on conceptual tasks.
B) Adults need to directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own.
C) Touch is just as efficient as sight for arriving at conceptualizations of objects.
D) Infants with vision problems pick up information incidentally in the same way as their peers with sight.
B) Adults need to directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own.
The lower achievement scores of students who are blind or who have low vision is most likely due to
A) their visual problem itself.
B) their listening skills.
C) emphasis on using braille forms of achievement tests.
D) lack of exposure to braille or low expectations.
D) lack of exposure to braille or low expectations.
An inherited syndrome of deaf-blindness characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, resulting in night blindness and tunnel vision is
A. Usher syndrome.
B. Asperger syndrome.
C. CHARGE syndrome
D. Down syndrome.
A. Usher syndrome.
Each of the following statements about severe and multiple disabilities is true EXCEPT
A) A person with TBI can be expected, with time and care, to recover completely and function without disabilities.
B) Many people with severe and multiple disabilities can now live independently or semi-independently.
C) People who cannot speak can still carry on conversations.
D) Many people with severe and multiple disabilities can be employed outside of sheltered workshops.
A) A person with TBI can be expected, with time and care, to recover completely and function without disabilities.
Possible effects of TBI include each of the following EXCEPT
A) problems learning new information.
B) difficulty processing information.
C) sudden improvement in memory.
D) becoming easily tired
C) sudden improvement in memory.
The greatest complicating factor in most students’ return to school following TBI is
A. social skills
B. physical appearance
C. physical strength
D. language or speech disorders
D. language or speech disorders
In addressing the needs of students with deaf-blindness, two priniciples that practitioners and parents should keep in mind are

A. incidental learning and structured routines
B. direct instruction and structured routines
C. direct instruction and variable routines
D. indirect instruction and structured routines

B. direct instruction and structured routines
A condition that may be severe but resolves with treatment is considered to be
Acute
For children with most physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is
A. discrimination and prejudice.
B. erratic school attendance
C. poor study skills
D. inadequate motivation
B. erratic school attendance
All of the following procedures should be followed if a student has a seizure in school EXCEPT
A. Turning child’s face to the side.
B. Inserting an object between the teeth.
C. Loosening clothing.
D. Allowing child to sleep or rest after the movements stop.
B. Inserting an object between the teeth.
Chronic diseases and health conditions of children have ______ dramatically during recent decades.
increased
The primary goal of adapted physical education is
a) to eliminate physical education as a requirement for students with physical disabilities
b) to provide physical education in a separate setting for students with physical disabilities
c) to give students with physical disabilities more time in physical education to catch up to their peers
d) to allow access to activities that support physical, recreational and leisure goals
d) to allow access to activities that support physical, recreational and leisure goals
It may be even more critical that early intervention be provided for families with hearing parents and a deaf infant than for deaf parents with a deaf infant.
True
Progress monitoring measures are appropriate tools to use with students who are deaf or with hearing impairments to judge growth in reading, comprehension, written expression, and mathematics.
True
Students with hearing loss are served in special schools or residential settings more than any other disability category.
True
Itinerant teacher services to a general education classroom is the most popular placement for students with visual impairments.
True
Most authorities believe that lack of vision significantly alters the ability to understand and use language.
False
Most people with visual impairment use braille as their primary method of reading.
False
The first person who was deaf-blind and known to be taught language was Helen Keller.
False
The need for augmentative or alternative communication systems has been decreasing as more people with severe disabilities are being taught to use natural language.
False
Males are more prone to TBI than are females.
True
Children with epilepsy (i.e., seizure disorders) who also have average or above average intelligence are more disposed to developing learning disabilities than are children who do not have epilepsy.
True
The difference between physical therapy and occupational therapy is that physical therapists focus on sensory and gross motor functions, and occupational therapists focus on support for daily living skills.
True
In most students with orthopedic or musculoskeletal disorders, intelligence is unaffected.
True