MIS integrates all aspects of computer systems as well as the processes used in an organization in order to improve productivity.
The ‘1’ in the leftmost (most significant digit) column is equal to 16 in base ten, while the ‘A’ in the least significant digit is equal to 10. Adding these together gives a total of 26 in base 10.
I. To store data and programs permanently
II. For running programs
III. To save data that cannot fit in the main memory
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. I and III only
d. I, II, and III
Hard disks are mainly used to store data and programs, but they can also be used as virtual memory when the computer fills up the main memory.
A bit can either be ‘on’ or ‘off’, which translates to the values 1 and 0.
a. core memory
b. secondary memory
c. internal memory
d. volatile memory
Secondary memory is storage—such as a hard disk—that must be accessed through I/O channels. Secondary storage is usually non-volatile and has far greater capacity than memory directly accessible by the CPU.
a. Sales data
b. Data collection agencies
d. Balance sheets
Informal data channels used by management information systems are sources of data that are not integrated directly into the system, but can deliver data that can be used by the system. A newspaper would be considered such an informal channel.
Information must be accurate so that it can be used to find further truths. Information can be incomplete and single-sourced, and yet still deliver important data to the system.
c. in competition
Systems theory describes the interdependence of the parts of a system. A system is only worthy of the name if the parts are, indeed, interdependent.
a. primitive composition
b. progressive decomposition
c. partial decomposition
d. progressive reasoning
Progressive decomposition is the term for recursively splitting a system into subsystems in order to analyze the overall working of the system.
a. a matter of size. A system is larger than a subsystem.
b. a matter of definition. A system can always be the subsystem of another system.
c. that a system must include a human component.
d. a matter of inclusion. A system must consist of multiple subsystems.
Whether a collection of components is to be considered as a system or a subsystem depends on the problem currently being worked on. Any system can be treated as a stand-alone unit or as a subsystem to another, larger, system.
a. Increasing the number of subsystems
b. Reducing the complexity of interconnections
c. Introducing new and better software
d. Adding coordinating interfaces
In order for each subsystem to work at peak efficiency, the interfaces between the subsystems must be as simple as possible. This ensures that each subsystem can concentrate on its given task, rather than spending its time decoding and encoding data, while reducing the complexity of the final, overall, system.
a. The development of a new accounting system
b. An accounting system
c. The systems development life cycle
d. An order processing system
An abstract system is a system of concepts and ideas. The systems development life cycle is a template used to create a development plan for a physical system—in this case, a software system.
a. Processing time
b. Transaction type
c. Interactions with existing systems
d. Relevant regulations
Constraints on a system are pre-existing boundary conditions that affect the system under consideration. They may be self-imposed, such as the processing time, given by the current systems that the system is to work with, or outside restrictions, such as government regulations. The transaction type that a system is to execute is not a constraint on the system, rather, it is an objective of the system.
a. I, only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. I, II, and III
In order for a feedback loop in a system to be successful, the system must have standards with which the states of the system can be compared and objectives that can be compared with the outputs of the system.
a. open-loop system
b. closed-loop system
c. primary system
d. informational system
Closed-loop systems are systems where the input and the output are coupled in some way. This is done by feedback; having changes in the output triggers changes within the system and its inputs.
a. Black box
b. Data-flow diagram
c. System context diagram
d. Structural diagram
The system context diagram shows a system in its context, with all its inputs and outputs. It represents the most abstract view, and it therefore gives a holistic view that allows a better understanding of how the system is to be developed and used.
a. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
b. Combined action is more important than the sum of the actions of sub-components
c. All actions happen at the same time
d. The whole is not defined by the behavior of the sub-components
In using synergy, there is no need for all actions to take place simultaneously. The other three definitions have all been used for the term synergy.
a. Neural networks
b. Case-based reasoning
c. Evolutionary Computation
d. Expert Systems
Although artificial intelligence held great promise for many years as a basis for making computers think more like humans, most avenues of research have turned into dead ends. Expert systems are a large class of programs that use basics of artificial intelligence to help solve problems.
a. An amplifier
b. A switch
c. A diode
d. A resistor
Although transistors can be used as amplifiers, in digital computation, they are used exclusively as switches. A current applied to one terminal of the transistor allows current to flow between the other two.
a. Pascal and C
b. Ada and C++
c. BASIC and Java
d. FORTRAN and COBOL
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) was invented in 1954 and has been used since extensively for scientific programs. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) was first released in1959 and used, as the name suggests, mainly for business- (and government-) related tasks. Both languages are still in use and have had extensions added that give them features like those found in more modern languages such as Java or C++.
Java was designed to be platform-independent. Java code is compiled to Java bytecode by the Java compiler. This bytecode can be run (interpreted) on any platform running the Java virtual machine (JVM). Any of the other languages would need to be compiled specifically for the machine they are to run on, increasing the overhead in releasing the product.
a. source code
b. pseudo code
c. matrix code
Pseudo code is used as a first step in writing computer code, allowing the programmer to map out steps and methods without getting bogged down in the minutiae of the actual programming language. Pseudo code is especially helpful if the problem is to be solved in multiple different programming languages.
a. will always lead to the correct solution
b. defines steps leading to a solution
c. is the simplest way to attack a problem
d. can only be programmed one way
Algorithms define a series of steps leading to the solution of a problem. There can be many ways of reaching the same solution, and there is no guarantee that the simplest route will be obvious, nor can it be guaranteed that the correct solution will be found.
a. primary storage
b. secondary storage
c. tertiary storage
d. off-line storage
Primary storage is the memory that a computer can access directly, without using an I/O channel. Historically, a variety of technologies has been used for primary storage; at this point, it is almost all integrated circuit RAM.
a. A byte
b. A word
c. Two bytes
d. A nibble
A word is not a fixed value, as it varies from computer to computer. The word size used by a computer is one of its basic values. The size of the word influences a number of other attributes for the processor, including the register size.
II. Integrated Circuit
III. Vacuum tube
a. I and III only
b. II and III only
c. I and II only
d. I, II, and III
Semiconductor devices are any electronic components that use the properties of semiconductors. The first semiconductors were diodes. Transistors were developed later. Integrated circuits consist of large numbers of transistors on a silicon chip.
a. Attributes and methods
b. Inheritance and attributes
c. Abstraction and methods
d. Inheritance and abstraction
A class consists of attributes, which is the data that is contained in the class, and methods, which is code that operates on these attributes. Abstraction and inheritance are mechanisms used in object-oriented programming, but are not part of the class itself.
a. Data bus
b. Hard disk
In an information system, channels transmit data from one part of the system to another. Data buses transmit data either within or between computers.
Time-sharing is used on mainframe computers to allow multiple users to use the central processing unit of the machine for a certain amount of time. This is unnecessary when each user has a computer with their own CPU at their disposal.
A virtual private network (VPN) allows users in different locations to see each other’s computers as if they were co-located, without the traffic being vulnerable while in transit between the locations.
a. Showing the percentages of a whole
b. Showing the number of items
c. Showing the changes in data over time
d. Showing data relationships
Pie charts are best used to show the percentages of a whole that are represented by the data being displayed. The full chart reflects 100%, the pie slices the percentage contained by each subcategory.
Groupware consists of three major parts: A server, a number of clients and the software to run it. The clients and servers are connected by a network, allowing the users to work together.
An intranet is a private network that is secured from unauthorized use by people outside of a company. It can contain any information—including secret documents—that are needed by the employees. The exact implementation is up to the company in question, but it usually includes an HTTP server.
d. Leased lines
A VPN is the simplest way of connecting geographically dispersed LANs into WANs. Messages passing between the LANs are encrypted while passing through the Internet, then decrypted at the other end. Since this is an entirely software solution, there is no need for expensive hardware or leased lines.
Servers contain large quantities of data that are to be accessed from many places, something that is important at the enterprise level of an organization. A workgroup generally will simply use part of one member’s computer as a server, since any workgroup member’s computer can be accessed by any other member’s.
a. Dedicated server
b. Dedicated systems administrator
c. Both server and administrator
d. None of the above
There is no need for centralized control of LANs used in workgroups. The various computers connected to the LAN can each be used as a server when necessary, and there is no need for a full-time systems administrator for a system this small.
User procedures are those operations executed by the user. Users are expected to run software on their own.
a. Planning a new information system
b. Installing new hardware
c. Monitoring transactions
d. Writing new software
The operational level of an organization is that which keeps track of the current functioning of the system. This includes monitoring transactions and other elementary activities that the enterprise runs on.
a. Scatter plot
b. Pie chart
d. Box plot
A scatter plot (or scatter graph) is a form of graph that displays data points by displaying one attribute on one axis of the graph and a second attribute on the other axis. In this way, the relationships between the attributes can be seen.
Enterprise systems are complicated enough that a professional systems administrator is required to keep all the servers and other hardware running at peak efficiency. At lower levels, the hardware can generally be run by individuals with assistance from the IT department.
a. Object-oriented database
b. Relational database
c. Network database
d. Indexed database
Object-orientation is a technology that combines data with the methods used to manipulate the data. Although originally conceived to assist in programming, the technology has migrated to databases as well. Object-oriented databases add persistence (which enables program data to survive the termination of the program creating it) to the objects created during the running of object-oriented code.
a. A collection of fields
b. A storage medium
c. A single fact
d. A table
A record in a database is composed of a number of facts (as stored in fields) which are usually related. Each record is combined with other records that have the same format to create a table.
a. object model
b. relational model
c. network model
d. hierarchical model
In the hierarchical data model, each element is the parent of any number of other elements and the child of exactly one other element. This allows for simplified searching by depth-first or breadth-first traverses.
Tables are collections of rows in which each row has the same format as every other row in that table. The columns represent one particular fact about each data item.
The basic building blocks of Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD) are entities, which are connected to other entities via relationships. Both entities and relationships can have attributes. Since only static data is considered, actions are not part of the ERD.
a. cross join
b. inner join
c. left outer join
d. right outer join
A JOIN combines two tables so that data from both can be retrieved. An inner join finds the intersection between two tables by limiting the result list to those that are in both tables. This has become the default join in most database languages.
A tuple refers to a set of name/value pairs. For example, a pair might be (Name = Fred), and a set of pairs might be (Name = Fred, Age = 29, Hair_color = Brown). These sets are implemented as records in a relational database.
a. database log
b. database file
c. system log
d. transaction table
A database log contains a list of records, each of which describes one single action taken by the user or the system. This log is saved in some permanent storage medium and can be used to restore the database after a systems failure.
b. signal/noise ratio
Bandwidth is the term for the amount of information that can be passed through a channel per unit of time. Bandwidth is affected by distortion, and the amount of data compared to the noise in a system is the signal/noise ratio.
d. Null modem
A null modem is an RS232 serial cable where the send pin on one connector is connected to the receive pin on the other connector. This allows two computers to connect directly to one another for simple networking.
a. Unique in the world
b. Unique to the network the computer is in
c. Whatever the user selects
d. Unique to the workgroup
The IP address of a computer must be unique within the network that the computer is operating in. In order for the computer to communicate with the outside world, it must use a gateway in which its signals are given a worldwide unique IP address.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) breaks data to be sent across its network into fixed-length packets before sending. Most other protocols send data packets of variable length, with the length being encoded in the metadata of the packet.
a. They must be run on dedicated computers.
b. They may allow two networks with different IP address spaces to communicate.
c. They may allow two networks with differing protocols to communicate.
d. They usually connect a LAN with a WAN.
Although gateways were originally often dedicated computers, these days their tasks can be done by either small hardware components or run as part of another computer’s tasks.
a. three bytes
b. any number of bytes
c. five bytes
d. two bytes
The token passed around a token-ring network consists of three bytes: starting delimiter, access control, and ending delimiter bytes.
Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) use the twisted-pair copper wire that connects a subscriber’s telephone line to the telephone company’s system for both voice and data communication. A DSL modem separates out the two data streams, passing the voice channel to the local telephones and the data to the local computer system.
Voice over IP (VoIP) is the technology used to make telephone connections across the Internet. Voice data is converted into a digital signal, which is passed via the Internet to the receiving computer, where the signal is reconverted to an analog signal.
A concentrator allows a single path to handle data from multiple channels. The concentrator buffers the incoming channels to make sure that only one is using the single path at a time.
A modem (MOdulator/DEModulator) is a device for converting binary data into analog signals and vice versa so that the data can be transmitted over normal telephone wires. A soundcard converts binary data into sound (analog) and vice versa, but it is not part of a network.
The Domain Name System (DNS) allows any computer connected to the Internet to resolve the IP address of any domain name. This is done by sending a single UDP request to the local DNS server and receiving a UDP reply with the information sought.
a. 10 Megabits/second
b. 10 Gigabits/second
c. 100 Megabits/second
d. 10 Kilobits/second
10BASE-T refers to a type of cable used in Ethernet applications. The 10 refers to the throughput of 10 Megabits/second, while the BASE refers to baseband, meaning that there is only one signal on the wire. The T stands for twisted pair wires over which the signals travel.
I. Extreme Programming
II. Waterfall Model
III. Rapid Application Development
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. I and III only
d. I, II, and III
Extreme programming and rapid application development are both agile software development methodologies. Both seek to minimize risk by working in short time frames, with each iteration resulting in a working software system. Each new iteration is a step closer to the final product. In contrast, the waterfall model seeks to define all specifications for a product before programming begins.
a. Each step must be entirely completed before the next step can be taken
b. Users spend too much time learning and using unfinished systems
c. There are no specification documents against which tests can be run
d. The method specifies how the teams are to do the programming
The waterfall model of SDLC consists of a series of steps, each of which must be completed before the next step is begun. This means that if problems crop up during the implementation of a system, there is no way to return to a previous step to avoid this problem. There have been numerous adjustments to the waterfall model to get around this issue.
a. Unit testing
b. Stress testing
c. Regression testing
d. Integration testing
Regression testing is the process of re-testing modified software to ensure that the changes made to the software to add functionality or fix problems have not introduced any new errors. As software is developed, a suite of regression tests are prepared as well, which can be run automatically on any new version of the software.
a. Determine specifications for hardware
b. Write design guidelines for the software
c. Determine information needs of the end user
d. Determine database needs
Determining what the end user will need from a system is part of the analysis phase of systems development. All outputs should be determined before starting on the design phase.
a. Wasted resources
b. Uncaught errors
c. High overhead
d. Computer viruses
Allowing the end-users to write and install their own programs has many advantages, but also opens the door to numerous problems. Among these are wasted resources (if two end-users write software to do the same task), uncaught errors (which would be caught in the testing done in traditional systems design), and computer viruses (since each computer can install programs, every one could import a virus). High overhead, however, is generally not a problem, as users require less assistance from the central IT department.
a. database architects
c. customer support engineers
Customer support engineers mediate between the users of the product and the software development team, usually by way of the testing department. They are not included in the software development teams, though their input is often important to changes made in the product after it is launched.
a. Little documentation is produced.
b. User comments can be integrated easily.
c. There is great flexibility in producing code.
d. You always have a running program.
Since most communication in agile programming is done in face-to-face meetings, coupled with using working software as a metric, very little documentation is produced in comparison to other software development methods.
d. Any number
A logical model should consist of three layers: user layer, business layer and data layer. In the physical model derived from this, these layers might be consolidated into fewer layers.
Acceptance tests are run to determine whether a system fulfills all the requirements as set forth in the specifications. Acceptance tests can be run either at the manufacturer’s site or on-site.
Iterative and incremental development is an agile development methodology where software systems are developed in increments. At each step, a working program is produced, so it can easily be determined how the process is progressing.
a. parallel operation
b. flash conversion
c. pilot conversion
d. conversion design
Flash (also direct) conversion is a method of systems conversion where the old system is turned off before the new system is started. All data must be transferred—and transformed—during the conversion process.
a. Systems analysis
Feasibility studies are an important aspect of the systems analysis of a project. They ensure that the system can be created given the current parameters, before too much money and time are spent on implementing the system.
b. Waterfall model
c. Extreme programming
In top-down systems development, the system is looked on as a whole, which is then subdivided into parts, each of which is again seen as a whole. Each part is again subdivided until the parts are small enough to be created as a whole. While designing the system, subsystems not yet created are treated as black boxes, with the understanding that they will be created and programmed at a later date. The waterfall model is an example of this methodology.
a. an application suite
b. a shrink-wrap application
c. an embedded system
d. an application programming interface
Shrink-wrap applications are off-the-shelf software that can be installed and used with minimal or no customization. Such applications have limited and specialized uses and are particularly valuable when data from the programs is to be widely distributed.
c. Rational Rose
d. Mozilla Firefox
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are programs that help in the analysis and design of software. Rational Rose is an IBM product for software modeling. It uses the unified modeling language and can produce software source code, as well as doing round-trip engineering.
a. Multiple versions of the same program must be supported.
b. Unwanted and poorly understood interactions cause programs to fail.
c. Different file formats make information interchange difficult.
d. There can be difficulty in transmitting data files between computers.
In allowing users to install their own software on their computers, the IS department loses a certain amount of control over the system. They must be prepared to deal with multiple versions of multiple programs, as well as helping users translate between file formats used by incompatible programs. However, this does not affect the actual transmission of data files from one computer to another.
c. exit criteria
Exit criteria are requirements that are to be met in a certain stage of a project. The criteria are different in each development stage and may include documentation, specifications, completed tests, or code.
a. MIS study
b. MIS audit
c. MIS trace
d. MIS PROD
An MIS audit is a way to determine how well the current MIS is working in a company. During an MIS audit, sample transactions are traced through the system to determine how well controls are working. Any weaknesses are reported to management.
a. Delays it further
b. Speeds it up
c. Has no effect
d. Stops it completely
According to Brook’s law, trying to speed up a delayed software delivery by adding new programmers is counterproductive, as the time spent bringing the new programmers up to speed wastes more time than it saves in the end.
a. acceptance test
d. pilot program
A pilot program allows a company to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a system without introducing it to everyone who will eventually use it. It assumes that the system will scale well when broadly introduced.
a. the hardware already installed
b. the software used and understood by users
c. the information needs of the user
d. the ability of managers to access information about the system
In developing a system, it is of utmost importance to determine what information should be available to which users. Without understanding the information needs of the users, proper decisions about the IS to be developed cannot be made.
A Request For Proposals (RFP) is a solicitation for offers to provide certain goods and services. The offers will often include a complete plan on how to implement the system to be provided.
a. How much the system is used
b. How much the system cost
c. How many clients have been installed
d. How many users are connected
When assessing the value of an MIS, an important metric is how much the system is being used. If users are using the MIS for all possible transactions, rather than just the ones that they are forced to use, the system is proving its worth. Simply counting the installed base is not enough to determine the value of a system.
I. Data management component
II. Model management component
III. User interface management component
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. I, II, and III
A decision support system (DSS) consists of a data management component, usually a database, a component to manage the models used by the DSS, and a way to manage the user interface.
Transaction processing systems are middleware that ensure that transactions are performed fully or roll the state of the system back to the pre-transaction state. This is called atomicity.
a. Office automation systems
b. Enterprise information systems
c. Transaction processing systems
d. Data mining systems
Neural networks, which can be used to search for patterns, are useful in data mining, which consists mainly of searching large amounts of data for patterns. Enterprise information systems may include data mining as an input, but not as their main focus.
a. is always capable of learning
b. seeks to find answers for a specific set of problems
c. learns through feedback
d. allows for incorrect input data
Expert systems have a very limited focus for the problems they can solve. In general, the more tightly constrained the problem area, the better the expert system is. They require, however, proper input from the operator, and usually it is necessary for the user to sanity-check the output. Expert systems do not learn automatically, but change only through reprogramming.
a. customer support system
b. bug tracking system
c. transaction processing system
d. response system
Bug tracking systems are systems that ensure that bugs found in software systems are properly handled. Bugs can be entered, distributed, marked as fixed, and re-tested. These systems ensure that problems uncovered will not be forgotten or misplaced.
Group Decisions Support Systems (GDSS) allow groups of users to work on problems together, even if they can’t be brought together in one place. The system allows the users to gather ideas and information from all participants and synthesize solutions or partial solutions to the problems set.
Customer relationship management (CRM) refers to both the tools and systems used for managing interaction with customers. The CRM system may consist of several software tools to oversee customer e-mails, contacts, and queries.
I. Microsoft Excel
II. Autodesk AutoCAD
III. Corel WordPerfect
a. II only
b. I and III only
c. I and II only
d. I, II, and III
Knowledge work systems are systems that help users deal with problems that require technical knowledge. All of the above systems are used by knowledge workers in different fields: Excel for accounting, AutoCAD by designers, and WordPerfect by clerical workers.
a. Electronic brainstorming tools
b. Analysis tools
c. Polling tools
d. Rank order vote tools
Electronic meeting systems are systems that allow all members of a meeting to collaborate by simultaneously inputting ideas. The purpose is to generate and evaluate ideas, not to analyze them with analysis tools.
a. Binomial theorem
b. Fermat’s theorem
c. Pythagorean theorem
d. Bayes’ theorem
Bayes’ theorem of the conditional probabilities of two events is heavily used in expert system calculation. Given the probability of one event, it calculates the probability of a second event.
a. the government with a court order
b. third parties without no legitimate access
c. employers of users who are e-mailing
d. Internet service providers
ECPA (1986) only protects e-mails under certain circumstances, and does not protect employees from having e-mail that is on the employers’ equipment being read by the employers.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a software product that can encrypt any form of digital data. It is most commonly used for e-mail, both for encryption of the messages and authentication of the sender.
Firewalls can be either hardware or software, and they selectively allow data to pass between two networks. They are usually used to ensure that all network traffic in a local network is shielded from traffic on the Internet.
Secure SHell (SSH) is a program (and a protocol) for logging into remote computers. It can be used in place of the insecure TELNET and rlogin.
Certified Information Systems Security Professionals (CISSP) is a certification administered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium. CISSP-certified security professionals have demonstrated a wide range of knowledge in the field.
c. key escrow
In key escrow cryptography, the government (or other controlling authority) is given a key for each instance of the method installed. This allows the government to decrypt any message encrypted by this method.
An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a device that ensures that power to a system is not lost if there is a power outage. UPSs can also ensure that other problems in the electricity, such as fluctuating voltages, do not affect the system.
a. Information Technology.
b. Management Science.
c. Management Information Systems.
d. Information Management.
Management Science is the use of math – as well as other analytic methods – to improve the process of making business decisions. Management Science relies heavily on the precepts of Operations Research. Management Science encompasses a wide variety of subfields, including data mining, modeling and statistics.
a. Main memory
b. Hard disk
c. Internal bus
Main memory is nonpermanent storage that is directly accessible by the computer’s processor. Programs and data currently being executed are stored in main memory. A register is a processor-internal piece of memory used to hold values while executing individual instructions.
c. Internal bus
d. Memory stick
The internal bus is used to transfer data within the computer, while the other three are all used to move data from inside the computer to the outside, or vice versa.
b. Data used daily
Off-line storage media must be mounted onto the computer system through human intervention. It is therefore usable only in situations where the access is infrequent. Programs, frequently used data, and databases must all be accessible at any time. Only backups are accessed only rarely, when a hardware fault has destroyed data or a user has made a mistake. Data of this nature can – and should – be stored separately from the computer system.
a. A byte
b. A bit
c. A nibble
d. A word
A bit can have only two values, so it represents the smallest piece of information known to a computer. Bits are aggregated into nibbles (4), bytes (8), and words (16).
Hypertext contains links to other documents to expand on the data presented. The links themselves are referred to as hyperlinks.
OCR stands for Optical Character Recognition. It is used to translate scanned pages of written text. This text can use any font or even be handwritten. Most other scanning methods require that particular inks or marks be used.
c. black box.
A black-box system or subsystem is one whose interior workings are not known (and, usually, not relevant to the task at hand). When doing system analyses, it is often advantageous to think of each subsystem as a black-box, to mask off the details of the interior process of the subsystem.
a. Whether it is a black-box system
b. The users of the system
c. Inputs and outputs of the system
d. The objectives of the system
The boundary of the system separates what is included in the system from what is excluded. Determining the boundary pinpoints what information must be delivered to the system, as well as what information is exported from the system.
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and III
d. I, II, and III
Effectiveness (does the system achieve its objectives) and efficiency (how much input is needed to produce a given output) are the primary criteria used to determine the value of a system.
I. Validate order data
II. Print invoice
III. Produce item
a. I only
b. I and II
c. I and III
d. I, II, and III
An accounts receivable system would only be interested in the interactions with the customer. The production of the item itself would best be left to the production subsystem.
In systems synthesis, the parts that have been determined through systems analysis are put together to create a working system.
a. The customer order system
b. The order tracking system
c. The warehouse
d. The supplier order system
A buffer is a decoupling mechanism that allows for a looser interaction between two subsystems, in this case the system that handles supplier orders vs. the system that handles customer orders. By having an inventory of parts on hand in the warehouse, the customer order system does not need to inform the supplier order system of each order that has been placed.
a. Defining system boundaries
b. System decomposition
c. Problem definition
d. Defining system constraints
The first step in analyzing a system is to determine what, exactly, the system is to do, what problem it is to solve. All other steps are predicated on having an exact idea of what issue is to be resolved by implementing the system.
a. contingency analysis.
b. systems analysis.
c. documentary analysis.
d. sensitivity analysis.
In contingency analysis, the effects on a system to changes in its environment—while the parameters internal to the system are kept unchanged—are explored. Sensitivity analysis, in contrast, seeks to determine the effects of changes in the internal parameters of a system.
a. A system that will deliver answers instantly
b. A system that will deliver the same answer every time
c. A system that can scale massively
d. A system with sharply defined outputs
Probabilistic systems are noted for their ability to scale massively. Since the answers generated by the system are based on probabilities, it is always possible that some answers may be missed. However, in dealing with vast quantities of data, this is a problem that can be accepted.
a. Buy the computers and scanning equipment.
b. Determine who will use the system and how.
c. Write a program for data entry.
d. Buy order-tracking software.
In designing a system, the first step is to determine who will be using the system and for what. In doing this, the questions of both the users who will be inputting the data and those who will be reading data must be addressed. Only then are further steps warranted.
b. Vacuum tubes
d. Integrated circuits
The first computers were based on vacuum tubes (valves). Transistor-based computers replaced them in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Integrated circuits were introduced in the 1960’s and have been in use ever since, with an ever greater number of transistors being packaged on a chip, allowing for ever-faster, ever-smaller computers.
a. information management.
b. information architecture.
c. database management.
Information architecture is concerned with structuring knowledge and data, concentrating on the data entities and their interactions. In determining information architecture, the relationships between data are more important than the actual data contained in the system.
a. I only
b. I and III
c. II and III
d. I, II, and III
Both LISP and BASIC are interpreted languages – the code is translated during execution, one line at a time. FORTRAN programs, as well as most other languages, are entirely compiled before execution.
b. Vacuum tubes
d. Integrated circuits
The first generation of computers is considered to be those run on vacuum tubes. They were replaced by the second generation, based on transistors. Transistor-based computers were smaller, faster, and more reliable than vacuum tube-based computers.
a. There are fewer tracks than there are cylinders.
b. There are more tracks than there are cylinders.
c. There are exactly the same number of tracks as there are cylinders.
d. The values of tracks and cylinders are entirely unrelated.
Cylinders are the sum of all tracks located at the same spot on the individual platters of a hard disk drive. It follows, therefore, that there will always be the same number of cylinders as there are tracks on one platter.
b. fault resistant.
d. fault tolerant.
Fault-tolerant design allows a system to continue to operate, even if parts of the system are broken. The system will operate at lower throughput, or degrade otherwise, but will continue to complete its tasks. Fault-resistant systems, in contrast, are designed not to break, but will not necessarily continue to operate if any subsystem breaks.
a. control bus.
b. external bus.
c. address bus.
d. local bus.
The address bus is the connection between the CPU and the RAM storage. The width of the bus determines the amount of memory that can be accessed. Each unique combination of 1’s and 0’s in the bus corresponds to one memory address.
a. IBM 5150
The UNIVAC was a vacuum tube-based, programmable computer first built in 1951. Previous computers such as ENIAC were not truly programmable. System/360 was a transistor-based computer. IBM 5150 is the proper name for the original (IC-based) IBM PC.
a. they are slower than other devices.
b. they store a vast quantity of data.
c. they require operator assistance.
d. it is difficult to erase data from them.
Autochangers contain a large number of storage media such as CDs or tapes, a robot arm to retrieve them, and a read/write device for the media. Since autochangers-also known as jukeboxes-must physically retrieve the storage medium before mounting it for use, the access times are far slower than those of other storage media.
a. One gigabyte
b. One nanobyte
c. One terabyte
d. One megabyte
Tera- is the prefix for 1,000,000,000,000. A terabyte is exactly 1,099,511,627,776 bytes of data.
A record contains data relating to one individual or other single element. In a relational database, a record would be stored as one row in a table. Records are collected into files.
A heterarchy is a network of elements, none of which have precedence over any other. All members of the heterarchy are working toward the same goal. Each level of a hierarchy consists of a different heterarchy.
Publishing information on a www page ensures that it can be read by anybody with an Internet-connected computer. The format is such that it can be read by anyone, from anywhere. It does not require being addressed personally to the person reading it.
b. Pie chart
d. Box plot
Histograms show the number of data points falling into a specific category, whether range of values or a certain type of data. The relative magnitude of values in each category is shown as a bar, allowing for easy comparison to other values.
a. Having everyone in the organization be connected to the network
b. Giving everyone access to the same data
c. Having everyone use exactly the same type of computer
d. Upgrading everyone’s computer to a more powerful one
Metcalfe’s law states that the value of a network increases with the number of people connected to it. How exactly the value increases with the number of connections is still under discussion. Originally, he stated that the value of a network with N connections is N2 but later arguments have the value being NlogN.
A wide area network (WAN) is a network consisting of multiple LANs connected together. The connections may run over the Internet or leased telecommunications lines or any other way of combining networks.
a. Adobe Acrobat
b. Adobe PhotoShop
c. Microsoft PowerPoint
d. Adobe InDesign
Desktop publishing programs such as Adobe InDesign allow users to create documents that contain both words and graphics. The programs allow for extremely fine control for the layout of the documents. InDesign is a successor to Adobe PageMaker.
a. Microsoft PowerPoint
b. Adobe Acrobat
d. Netscape Navigator
PowerPoint is software that helps create slides to be used as a presentation. The slides contain both textual and graphical information, and allow for fluid changes between slides to make for a more compelling presentation.
a. Oracle Database
b. Microsoft Excel
d. Microsoft Word
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is easy to learn, and has many powerful features. It does not require specialized knowledge to operate.
Distributed data processing (also known as distributed computing) is a method of having multiple computers working at a common objective. Each computer works on one small part of the problem, the results of which are then assembled into the overall solution.
a. No duplication
c. Lower costs
d. Greater security
The most important advantage of the distributed model of computing is that the system easily scales. The downsides are that there is duplication of effort, higher costs, and lessened security.
a. Novell GroupWise
b. Adobe InDesign
c. Oracle Database
d. Microsoft Windows
Novell GroupWise is a software product that allows groups to work together. This collaborative software allows for communication, document management, and calendaring. It can run on a variety of systems, allowing the users to pick their preferred hardware.
a. Database Management System
b. Enterprise Information System
c. Client-Server System
d. Collaborative Software System
An Enterprise Information System is a system that can provide for the needs of an entire enterprise. It must therefore be able to handle large amounts of information, have strong data-integration tools, and run with very little down time.
Sentences are a natural data hierarchy, as they are not based on-or limited by-any computer-internal limitations.
Normalization is a process in which the same data present in multiple fields in one table is moved to a separate table and replaced by a pointer to the data. This reduces the total amount of data stored in the database.
a. Employee ID number
b. Record number
c. Last name
d. Phone number
Since employee ID numbers are unique, there will only be one record with this key. Last names and phone numbers may well be shared by other employees, while the record number-while unique-is not a natural key.
a. The output of the system
b. The DBMS the system is to run on
c. The inputs into the system
d. The data that are to be stored
The logical model of a database is entirely independent of the database system on which it is being run. It should be possible to move the data from one system to another without loss of data.
b. Reliance on networks
c. Improved availability
d. Performance improvements
Since a distributed database depends strongly on the ability of the network over which it is connected to be available, any disturbance to the network can severely hinder the operation of the database.
SQL (Shortened from Sequel-Structured English Query Language) is a language that operates on relational databases. It was designed at IBM, but has been the basis for numerous database products, and is today both an ANSI and ISO standard.
The data definition language in SQL operates on database objects, rather than the data these objects contain. Objects (such as databases and tables) can be created, altered, or dropped. A select statement operates on the data, not the database objects.
Metadata are data about data. In most relational databases, the information about how the tables are set up is stored in a further set of tables. This data is manipulated by the DDL.
a. code-division multiplexing.
b. time-division multiplexing.
c. frequency-division multiplexing.
d. wavelength-division multiplexing.
Time-division multiplexing breaks up the incoming data channels into fixed-length packets, which are interleaved on the outgoing data channel. In this way, large numbers of channels with low data rates can be transmitted on a single, higher-speed channel.
a. No changes must be made.
b. The host must get a new IP address.
c. The host must be physically moved.
d. The router must be reconfigured.
Since the subnetworks on either side of a router are different, the host must have a different IP address when moved. In a bridged network, there would be no need for this reconfiguration.
Under the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), a computer accessing a network is assigned an IP address by the network DHCP server. This address can either be permanently assigned or be recycled once the computer is disconnected from the network.
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and III
d. III only
In the Internet Protocol (IP), each packet of data from a single session may be sent on a different route across the network. In both ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), the connections are fixed before the data begin flowing.
a. equal to the bit rate of transmission.
b. less than the bit rate of transmission.
c. more than the bit rate of transmission.
d. may be less than or the same as the bit rate.
The baud rate expresses the number of changes in the signal being made in a second. However, since multiple bits may be encoded in one change, the bit rate of transmission may be much higher. At a minimum, each change encodes one bit, so the bit rate will, at worst, equal the baud rate.
Plain old telephone service (POTS) has been the standard for telephone connections since the end of the 19th century. Although it technically has 64k bandwidth, the fact that data must be converted into and out of analog signals reduces the true bandwidth to maximally 56k.
a. Can transmit either voice or data signals
b. Have separate control channels
c. Can be used to call any phone worldwide
d. Can do call waiting and caller ID
One advantage that ISDN systems have is that, in addition to the voice/data channel or channels, they also have separate control channels so that information can continue to flow to or from a phone while it is being used.
a. Transport layer
b. Network layer
c. Physical layer
d. Application layer
The physical layer is the lowest of the layers referred to in the OSI reference model. The physical layer consists of all network cables, including their physical attributes, as well as such hardware as routers, switches, and hubs.
a. The space in which the network resides
b. The pattern of links between network nodes
c. The network’s speed
d. The standards used by the network
A network’s topology refers to the pattern made by the links (cables or other connectors) and the nodes (computers or other network devices) that constitute the network. Network topologies depend on the hardware and protocols used by the network.
a. User dale at computer bert
b. User tom at computer bert
c. User bert at computer tom
d. User bert at computer dale
In UUCP, the address is a list of computers between the sending and the receiving computers, followed by the user name at the receiving computer. In the above example, the message would pass through computers dale and fred before arriving at computer tom, where the message would be placed in the inbox of user bert.
The IANA has reserved 3 blocks of IP addresses for use by private networks. One of these blocks is from 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255, in which 192.168.45.121 is contained. Any addresses within this block are not globally unique.
a. Higher bandwidth
b. Can cover greater distances
c. Easier to splice
d. Less crosstalk
Copper cables are easier to splice than fiber optic cables, making them the choice for simple, lower-cost, and lower-power cabling jobs.
a. Reverse engineering
The process of reverse engineering takes a system and analyzes it in order to describe it at a higher level of abstraction.
c. Code generation
Refactoring is the term for changing the structure of a computer program’s source code without changing what the program does. It is done to improve readability or to allow for further changes to be done to the code.
An Integrated Development Environment is a tool used by programmers to help in developing programs. It includes editing, compiling (or interpreter), and build tools. Many IDEs also include versioning and debugging tools.
b. Reverse engineering
d. Code generation
Reverse engineering done by a UML tool takes existing source code and creates the UML diagram that describes the data structures. Reverse engineering can be done either to understand code written by others or to help in reengineering the code.
a. Installing software
b. Upgrading hardware
c. Training users
d. Classifying users
Before end-user computing can be introduced, the users in question must be classified in order to determine which level of software should be given to each one. This requires determining what they are expected to achieve, and thus how open their computer should be.
The phased approach to project management sets up the steps to completion of the project at the very beginning of the project, while newer methods work in much shorter time frames, completing an iteration in a short period of time.
Documentation should be produced during the design and development phases of the system life cycle. Documentation must be available to users during the implementation phase of the process.
a. Define the need for a system.
b. Define the requirements of a system.
c. Define the outputs of a system.
d. Define the inputs to a system.
The preliminary investigation step of systems life cycle development is interested entirely in determining what the current situation is and whether it is necessary for a new system to be developed. The output of this step would be a document defining the need for a new system (or that the current setup can continue to be used).
d. Any number
One hallmark of extreme programming is the use of paired programming, where two developers sit at one workstation to produce code.
a. Program manager
b. Technical lead
During development, the users are not part of the active team. Their input has been sought during analysis, and will be important during testing and delivery.
a. The system contains complex data that needs to be transferred.
b. A small system needs to be converted.
c. Only a small number of users are affected by the migration.
d. A new system with new data is being created.
Pilot conversion programs make the most sense when the data that need to be converted are quite complex, in order to ensure that the conversion routines are working fully before continuing migration.
a. It may not get the data needed for analysis.
b. It can create too much data to be fully analyzed.
c. It looks only at certain aspects of the enterprise.
d. It does not look at interactions with other enterprises.
Enterprise analysis is a method for looking at an entire enterprise to determine how it works and how it can be improved. Though a powerful tool, it tends to create too much data, and be too complicated a method for any but the smallest enterprises.
a. I only
b. III only
c. I and II
d. II and III
The spiral model of systems development was designed to take into account both top-down and bottom-up strategies of systems development. The spiral model assumes that there will be continuous iteration of analysis, design, coding, and testing of software, with each iteration bringing the system closer to the final design.
During the installation stage of systems development, software and hardware are installed so that users can use them. To do so, users must be trained and data must be converted from the old system to the new system. While this is being done, tests must be continually run to ensure that the system works as well in practice as it does in development.
a. BSP is not oriented to data as much as modern systems are.
b. BSP does not cover all areas newer methods do.
c. BSP is very comprehensive and therefore time consuming and expensive.
d. BSP does not have a firmly defined set of steps.
BSP is a system devised in the early 1970s. It was designed to be as comprehensive as possible, and therefore has been supplanted by methods that are not as expensive in time and money.
II. Production support
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and II
d. I, II, and III
MIS departments exist mainly to help design, implement, and support systems for use in their own company. They do not sell their services to outside entities.
b. Operations research
c. Electrical engineering
d. Computer science
Operations research is marked by its ability to look at entire systems, rather than a specific aspect of it. It is thus a field whose results give a number of methods for an MIS management team to use in analyzing a system.
a. Sales figures
b. Demographic data
c. Worker productivity
d. Production costs
Demographic shifts affect the focus of an enterprise, and are an important input into forecasting tools used. An MIS that is used for this purpose should be able to import and process this sort of data.
a. From one moment to the next
b. Gradually, step by step
d. In order of increasing value to the company
Direct cutover is a term for replacing an old system by a new one on a specific day. This approach requires a maximum of planning, testing, and teaching in order to work smoothly.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems help in automating business practices for operations, production, and distribution in manufacturing companies. A key aspect of ERP systems is the control of business activities such as billing, quality management, and sales.
a. All current and historical data
b. Historical data only
c. Current data only
In order for management reporting tools to work on the analysis of data, all data-both current and historical-about an organization must be kept in the data warehouse. Tools to analyze this data can deliver insightful reports only if the data are kept complete and current.
a. office automation systems.
b. back office systems.
c. decision support systems.
d. electronic meeting systems.
Back-office systems take care of such activities as accounting that are required to keep a company operating, but are not visible by the customers.
b. Gantt chart.
c. candlestick chart.
Gantt charts show time on the x-axis of a graph and different resources on the y-axis. This allows an easy overview of the timing of a project. Interdependencies can also be shown with vertical lines connecting two resource timelines.
a. consists of multiple, different databases.
b. allows for queries using a common query tool.
c. allows for multiple standards.
d. is a repository for all business data.
Data warehouses house all the important business data in a single, uniform way that allows for queries done by a single query tool. They integrate the data from the various source databases before storing them, speeding up queries and other searches.
c. Pie charts
Executive support systems are used to present company data to the executives running the company in a straightforward and easily read format. A pie chart would be an excellent way of displaying certain types of this data.
a. Read a document written by someone else.
b. Change a document without logging changes.
c. Forward a document to another user.
d. Set protections on a document so no one else can read it.
The principal task of an EDM is to ensure that any changes made to a document are logged, and that preferably, all intermediate versions of a document are saved so that previous versions can always be recovered.
b. vice president.
c. clerical worker.
Decision support systems support the user in making decisions. The most likely decision maker in the list would be a vice president.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a term derived from manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) that followed material requirements planning (MRP). ERP systems typically handle the manufacturing, logistics, distribution, inventory, shipping, invoicing, and accounting for a company.
a. It can adapt.
b. It uses precepts of artificial intelligence.
c. It can only solve pre-defined questions.
d. It can analyze itself.
Intelligent agent software is software that uses artificial intelligence to adapt itself to the problems set by the user. Also referred to as an autonomous agent, this software is capable of answering a wide variety of questions.
a. A system for tracking customer issues
b. A system for automating administrative duties
c. A system for managing hardware
d. A system for tracking the sourcing and purchasing of inventory
Supplier relationship management (SRM) is an information system used to automate all aspects of supplier interaction. Some of the subsystems of SRM are sourcing, purchasing, and supplier relations.
a. data-driven DSS.
b. model-driven DSS.
c. document-driven DSS.
d. knowledge-driven DSS.
A document-driven DSS can manage, search, and retrieve electronic files that have no fixed internal structure. These DSSs are used when dealing with data from many sources in many different formats. They differ from a data-driven DSS in that the data in the latter are well formatted and usually all from one source.
a. They are executive information systems.
b. They are group decision support systems.
c. They are management information systems.
d. They are transaction-processing systems.
Although electronic meeting systems (EMS) are a type of MIS, they are best described as group decision support systems. EMS assist groups in creating and discussing ideas, which will assist in finding decisions.
a. Transaction processing systems
b. Expert systems
c. Office automation systems
d. Telecommunications systems
Expert systems use backward chaining (also called goal-driven reasoning) to work from known goals to find data that will support these goals.
a. Public companies must retain all records, including electronic records, pertaining to the company’s performance.
b. Any attempt to circumvent anti-piracy measures built into software is a crime.
c. Provides for ensuring that the integrity, quality, and objectivity of data released by federal agencies is maximized.
d. Requires banks to report certain transactions to the government.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in reaction to the corporate scandals of the 1990s. It expanded the role of the CIO in signing off on audits, and required that electronic data would be handled in the same way as paper-based records.
The Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) algorithm was the first algorithm useful for both signing and encryption. It uses public-key encryption, making it useful for a wide variety of applications.
A password should consist of a series of letters and numbers that do not make a real word. Any word that is in the dictionary is vulnerable to the brute-force method of password guessing.
Physical computer security involves stopping any unauthorized physical access to computer hardware and software. Authentication ensures that only users who correctly identify themselves are allowed to access the resources of a computer.
c. Code obfuscation
d. Code completion
Code is obfuscated by removing any obvious hints to what the code does by renaming classes, attributes, and methods to meaningless sequences of letters. Code obfuscation makes reverse engineered code much more difficult to understand, and is important in keeping the methods of encryption undetectable.
a. Damages caused by incorrect software
b. Money borrowed from others
c. Damages caused by incorrect application of software
d. Pension obligations
In information systems, liability is the term used for damages caused by faulty software that must be made good in some way. Software manufacturers try to limit their liability to the value of the software, rather than the damages done by the software.
Enterprise Resource Planning systems have built-in controls to help determine whether unauthorized users are accessing the system. Since ERP systems are installed in many mission-critical areas of a company, keeping unauthorized users from accessing the data is an important part of the ERP system’s job.
ASCII is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, and has become the standard way to represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other text-based devices.
A cache stores data so that they are available more quickly than if the data were to be retrieved from their original storage medium (which could be the main memory or the hard disk, or any other storage). Caches are used when the data are being repeatedly accessed, and the overhead from retrieving the data from the original medium is too high.
c. data .
Though “information” and “data” are often treated as synonyms, information is data plus a context. Because of this, and to point out the difference, data are often also called “raw data.”
a. A kilobyte
b. A terabyte
c. A megabyte
d. A gigabyte
Tera- is a prefix meaning “Trillion.” A terabyte is one trillion bytes. A gigabyte is one billion; a megabyte one million; and a kilobyte, one thousand bytes.
a. Parallel processing
b. Transaction processing
c. Batch processing
Batch processing refers to a process by which programs are queued up for processing. While each process is run, it has sole control over the computer. Batch processing was used extensively with early mainframes; most computers now have schedulers that keep any single process from monopolizing the CPU.
a. the character “k” into a social security number field.
b. a misspelled name into a last name field.
c. a birth date over 100 years old into a day-of-birth field.
d. an entry of “green” into an eye-color field.
In running reasonableness checks on data entered, only such data that are provably wrong can be rejected. Since there is no way of determining how, exactly, someone spells their last name, there can be no check that determines whether it is spelled right or wrong. Social security numbers consist entirely of the numbers 0-9, plus the “-” character. Any other input should be rejected.
Decompilers take executable-or other low-level code-and reconstruct the high-level code that could have created the lower level code. Decompilers exist to help in recovering lost source code as well as aiding in computer security, interoperability, and error correction.
a. probabilistic system.
b. open system.
c. closed system.
d. relatively closed system.
Open systems can take both predefined and unknown inputs. Closed systems have no input or output. Relatively closed systems allow only for well-defined inputs and outputs.
a. Slack capacity
c. Flexible resources
d. A buffer
Clustering is a method to bring multiple subsystems closer together, in order to simplify the interfaces between them. Slack capacity and buffering allow for greater processing from either the supplying or receiving subsystem without additional coordination. Flexible resources allow for last-minute changes.
a. probabilistic system.
b. artificial system.
c. open system.
d. deterministic system.
A deterministic system is one in which the same output is generated every time, given the same input. A probabilistic system, in contrast, has outputs that vary from time to time, so it is impossible to predict which output will happen in a given run. Properly working software and hardware are examples of deterministic systems.
a. All decoupling in the system must be avoided.
b. The system must be turned into a closed system.
c. The objectives of the system must be rethought.
d. Subsystems must be made more independent.
A just-in-time system is one in which decoupling has been removed as much as possible. There is no slack in the inventory or the productive resources. The subsystems are tightly integrated with one another.
a. Constraints and integration
b. Interfaces and integration
c. Objectives and interfaces
d. Objectives and constraints
In analyzing a system, the first objective should be to determine the objectives of a system (what the system is to do) and its constraints (what the parameters of the system are to be). Once these have been determined, the interfaces to other systems can be codified, while integration is the final step in implementing a system.
a. A list of items to be added to the inventory
b. A query about items in stock
c. A request to remove an item from stock
d. A list of items in low supply
The inputs of a system consist of all pieces of information to be added to a system. This includes all queries, as well as data that will be physically included. Outputs are generated by the system. The list of items in short supply is an output from the system.
a. A human-machine system
b. An automated system
c. An autonomous system
d. A black-box system
The monitoring of a nuclear power plant is a complex and dynamic system that requires both automatic and human responses. These types of systems are called human-machine systems.
a. The database
b. The ability to add new inputs
c. The original intention of the system
d. The response time of the system
Diachronic attributes of a system are those relating to a system’s change or evolution. Allowing new inputs would be one of these. Diachronic attributes should be considered in designing a system, to allow for change where it might be needed in the future.
a. influence one another.
b. are physically adjacent.
c. cannot communicate.
d. transmit data.
The output of one coupled subsystem influences the input of the next subsystem. They do not have to be physically juxtaposed or transmit data directly, but do need to be able to communicate in some way.
a. A customer support engineer mentions to the CIO that the bug-tracking system is broken.
b. A tester enters a new bug into the bug-tracking system.
c. The head of testing sends an e-mail to the CIO indicating the number of bugs currently being tracked.
d. The CIO calls a meeting with the programmers to discuss the number of unresolved bugs.
The system described here has multiple channels of communication available to the users. The one that is not foreseen is a customer support engineer talking to the CIO. This is a back-channel communication.
b. Punch cards
d. Paper tape
Punch cards and paper tape were early input media for computers, keyboards were added soon thereafter and continue to be the most important method of inputting data into computers.
Abstraction is used in data modeling to determine the fundamental similarities between two sets of data. This helps generate a template for the data that can be programmed.
Compiled programs run more quickly than interpreted programs, as the conversion from human-readable code to machine-runnable code is done before the program executes. Neither the size of the original code nor whether it is object-oriented or not has any direct effect on the speed of execution.
a. Binary executable
c. Platform independent
d. Platform specific
Programs that can run under a variety of different operating systems and on different hardware platforms are called platform independent. Care must be taken that there are no platform-specific calls within the programs, even if the programming language being used is platform independent.
Object code is the output from a compiler. It is a compact representation of the source code and must be linked with other modules or libraries before it can actually be executed on a computer.
a. cross compiler.
b. cross assembler.
c. virtual machine.
Cross compilers create executable code for systems under which they do not run. They are useful for writing code for machines that aren’t powerful enough to run a compiler, as well as for allowing the same code to be compiled in order to run on multiple machines.
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is nonvolatile memory that can only be erased by exposing it to UV light. They cannot be selectively erased, and can be erased and rewritten any number of times.
c. Main memory
d. Hard disk drive
The registers in a CPU are very fast memory locations. They are used to briefly hold intermediate results of calculations. There are only a very limited number of registers in any CPU.
High-level languages such as C belong to the third generation of computer languages, succeeding machine languages and assembly languages. High-level languages allow a much greater abstraction from the internals of the computer being used.
Repositories, interfaces, and channels are all part of the physical structure of an information system. Messages are part of the behavior of the IS.
a. is 256.
b. is 65,536.
c. is 16,777,216.
d. depends on the system.
A system using 3 bytes, 24 bits, per pixel can display 224 different colors. 224 is 16,777,216.
Writing software to be used by individuals or workgroups is usually not cost effective, while running software that others do not have access to makes the enterprise level the most likely to use custom software. Software written for a single individual or workgroup usually does not pay for itself in time or manpower savings.
a. Microsoft Word
b. Microsoft Outlook
c. Microsoft Access
d. Microsoft Publisher
Microsoft Outlook is a tool that allows users to create, edit, send, and receive e-mail messages. Outlook passes these messages to an e-mail server that then transmits them via the Internet.
A workgroup is best connected with a local area network (LAN) that allows for high-speed transmission of data between geographically close computers. LANs do not require leased telecommunications devices, as all connections are locally owned and maintained.
When distributing documents, it is important that the document can be read by every user who needs to read it. Furthermore, PDF documents will appear exactly the same on every computer that displays them. Finally, third parties cannot easily modify the document, so that errors cannot be added later by unauthorized users.
a. a sysadmin.
b. an outside vendor.
c. an adhoc working group.
d. the CIO.
Since Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are extremely large and complex, they are usually implemented by outside vendors or consulting companies, who have experience in implementing such systems.
a. When members must read texts written by other members
b. When members must edit texts written by others
c. When texts are to be sent to users outside the workgroup
d. When users need to read texts downloaded from the Internet
When editing documents is to be a collaborative effort, it is important that users have access to the same editing software. Although most editors offer the possibility of exporting files in different formats, this often results in mangled documents that must first be reformatted before they can be properly edited.
d. Message board
A message board (also Internet forum) allows users to have online discussions that are available for all to see. Every user may start a discussion thread or add a comment to an existing thread. There is a wide variety of software available to run this, and any web browser can be used to access the board.
OpenOffice is an open source, free version of the Microsoft Office suite. OpenOffice can import and export any Office file format, as well as a wide variety of other formats.
a. Configuration management
b. Search engine
c. Knowledge base
A knowledge base is a database containing such documents as white papers, manuals, articles, and troubleshooting guides that are used in an enterprise. They are carefully classified for easy retrieval and usually have a search engine for aiding in finding the needed document.
a. Cooperative processing
b. Interactive processing
c. Parallel processing
d. Dynamic processing
Cooperative processing is done in systems in which two or more processors are needed to complete a single transaction. The subsystems on the different computers need not be running simultaneously for the transaction to be completed.
b. Data conferencing
d. Document management
Groupware consists of communication tools, both asynchronous (such as email) and synchronous (such as conferencing), and management tools such as document management, workflow systems, and calendars. A spreadsheet might be used to create a document, but would not be considered part of the groupware system.
a. Microsoft Excel
c. Mozilla Firefox
d. SAP R/3
SAP R/3 is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system that can integrate and automate many of the processes used in a corporation. It is installed at the enterprise level in order to give it the maximum leverage in acquiring data.
A data hierarchy is a systematic organization of data in hierarchical form. The data is stored using parent-child relationships.
Data indices are created to help organize data for easier searching. Instead of having to search through every entry to find data entries with specific values in non-key attributes, the database system can use the index to find this data.
a. a record.
b. a transaction.
c. a schema.
The schema of a database is the model of the data to be stored in the database. It is written in-and can be modified by-the data definition language (DDL).
Atomicity is the first of four rules that transactional databases must follow. It means that in each transaction, the transaction must either be completed in the database or the database must be returned to the state in which it was before the transaction began. A transaction is therefore atomic and indivisible.
I. SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE id < 100; II. SELECT name FROM table1 WHERE id >; 100
III. SELECT FROM table1 WHERE id < 100; a. I only b. II only c. I and III d. I, II, and III.
An SQL select statement must end with a semicolon, and must contain either a list of fields or “*” to indicate which fields are to be returned. Only I has both of these, and is therefore a correct SQL statement.
Adabas is a hierarchical database and one of the first commercial database systems, released in the late 1970s. It continues to be used on a variety of systems due to its strong transactional capabilities, high reliability, and replication technologies.
a. I, only.
b. II only
c. I and III
d. I, II, and III.
Embedded SQL can be run from a large number of programming languages, called host languages. SQL has been embedded into most commonly used programming languages, including Java, COBOL, and FORTRAN.
a. Exactly 1
b. 1 or 2
c. Exactly 2
d. More than 1
The network model allows parents to have any number of children, and children to have any number of parents. This allows for extreme flexibility in storing data, but slows down searches.
a. file sharing.
d. remote mounting.
Tunneling allows a user to send data securely through an insecure system-in this case, the Internet. An example is SSH tunneling used in Windows. By starting an SSH session, a user can remotely mount a file system without fear that someone else watching the traffic on the Internet can read the data. The data is encrypted at one end and decrypted at the other without the user having to do any further work.
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a communications technology in which multiple streams of data are multiplexed together over a transport medium such as fiber optics. It is assumed that the data streams will have slightly different clock speeds, which the system can adjust for by signaling that bits are missing and will be ignored during demultiplexing.
a. there is space between any two bytes transmitted.
b. all transmission errors are caught.
c. some transmission errors are caught.
d. transmissions do not need to be repeated.
Parity bits are simple tests to see whether the preceding data contains errors. However, if there are too many errors, a parity bit may not catch them. If an error has been found, the only way to fix the problem is to retransmit the data.
A wide area network (WAN) is a system for connecting geographically disparate computers together. The Internet is the best known WAN, and is used daily by companies with worldwide reach to communicate.
a. The clocks of the sender and receiver must be in phase.
b. The sender and receiver must be connected.
c. It can be used to connect a computer to a printer.
d. Data can flow in either direction.
The chief advantage of asynchronous communication is that it is not necessary for the clocks of the sending and receiving systems to be synchronized. Data can be sent in either direction.
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) covers all the point-to-point telephone lines in the world, much as the Internet covers all the computers connected to that network.
Private branch exchanges (PBX) are privately owned and used telephone exchanges that can connect calls both within the company and externally. They allow companies to have greater control over their local phone system, often allowing for more functions than would be possible otherwise.
Crosstalk is the term used for communication from one channel leaking into another channel. On a telephone, this can often be heard as snippets of other conversations or other signals. In other communications systems, it adds noise to the signal, lowering the amount of signal that can be passed through the system.
IANA and later ICANN have a list of recommended ports to be used for specific protocols. HTTP has two ports assigned to it: the primary port is 80; the secondary (if a second HTTP server is running on the same machine) is 8080.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) has become the standard for sending e-mail across the Internet. It replaced X.400, which was much more complicated. SMTP is a simple, text-based protocol that can be easily implemented and tested.
The top-level domain is the last part of an Internet address, the part after the last dot; in this case, “com.” The domains represented in an address get progressively more definitive from right to left, so the “com” represents the broadest area in which this address is located.
TELephone NETwork (TELNET) is a simple terminal emulator used to connect to another computer. Its main flaw is that it is unencrypted, and should therefore only be used on local networks or over secure networks.
The final step in the systems development life cycle is maintenance of the installed system. This is necessary to ensure that hardware problems and software bugs are found and corrected, and to ensure that the system evolves as needed in response to changing environmental factors.
c. Rational Rose
WinRunner is a tool that allows the automated testing of GUI-based software. It can run through a suite of tests automatically, leaving testers to do finer tests that require real human input.
a. The relationship between the classes used by the system
b. The sequence of activities run by the system
c. The functions used by the end user of the system
d. The operational workflow of the system
A UML object model shows the classes, with attributes and methods, and their relationships. It does not show what function the system has, or what the internal workflow is.
a. Word-processing systems
d. Visual BASIC
Spreadsheets are the most widely used applications in end-user computing. Creating a spreadsheet to solve a particular problem is a task best suited to the person (or group) that will actually be using the program.
Composition is the term for one object containing another. Aggregation is when one object contains a pointer to another object.
In traditional software development methods, there is a linear progression from analysis to maintenance. In agile development, this process is iterated over multiple times, with the end result of each iteration a running software system that includes slightly more functionality than that produced by the previous iteration.
c. Source code
The main output of the design phase is a series of specifications that describes how the system will be implemented. These specifications describe what is to be provided in later steps, and can be used to ensure that the final results match the original intentions.
a. Tests individual pieces of software
b. Tests the entire system at once
c. Tests groups of software modules
d. Tests each method of a module
Integration testing combines different modules that have been individually tested and tests them as one complete subsystem. Once all subsystems have been validated, the entire system can be subjected to system testing.
a. Unit testing code
b. Class code
c. Integration testing code
Writing test code before writing the code to pass these tests is called test-driven development and is used in extreme programming. The test code should follow closely the requirements of the final system, so that the tests are meaningful.
a. Managers think the prototype is the finished product.
b. Programmers reuse prototype code in the final product.
c. End-users’ needs are not met by the final product.
d. There’s too much emphasis on the GUI design and user interface.
Since prototyping quickly offers a view to the user of what the final product will look like, the users get a better sense of what the product will-and will not-do. This facilitates communication with the programmers, and lessens the chance that the final product will not address the issues important to the users.
a. Problem definition
c. Information evaluation
d. Information acquisition
The four steps of decision making are: problem definition, information acquisition, information evaluation and choice.
a. Working code
b. Blueprint with specifications
c. Outline of information needs
d. System needs
During systems design, the specifications-hardware, software, resources-for the final product are set down. The output should be a blueprint of specifications that describe the final system and give a road map to follow during coding of the system.
a. The final design of the product is available before coding begins.
b. Coders can get started on writing code as quickly as possible.
c. Estimates become more accurate as time progresses.
d. Changes that are necessary are easier to include.
In iterative development methods, the final design is not available until shortly before the product is finished. The design is constantly being refined as the system is being created.
a. Analysis and design
b. Design and implementation
c. Implementation and maintenance
d. Investigation and analysis
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools can be used in every aspect of software design, but are most often used during the analysis and design phase.
a. Integrated development environments
b. Revision control systems
d. Web browsers
Revision control software is used to keep multiple versions of the same software stored so that multiple programmers can make changes without the changes affecting others. The system can also track the evolution of the code so that it can be determined what changes were made, when and by whom.
c. Data extraction
d. Data modeling
Migration is the technical term for extracting data from an old system, revising the data to fit the new system’s data model, and entering the data into the new system.
a. Users and system administrators
b. Steering committee and MIS managers
c. Chief information officer
d. Chief executive officer
Steering committees and MIS managers are responsible for ensuring that management information systems that are to be created and installed in a company are appropriate to the long-term goals of the company.
a. The software may not do what is needed.
b. The initial costs are much higher.
c. Software changes rapidly due to new releases.
d. Feature-bloat makes the software run slow.
The advantage of custom software is that it does exactly what it is supposed to, with no extra features. The software also changes only as needed by the users. However, writing software is a very expensive proposition in both time and money and requires extensive testing before it can be installed and used.
Outsourcing is giving any work formerly done in-house to another company. It requires sending out an exact specification for the work that is to be done.
a. Perfective maintenance
b. Adaptive maintenance
c. Corrective maintenance
d. System maintenance
System maintenance consists of three different types of maintenance. Adaptive maintenance changes the system by adding new features that become necessary as the needs of the company using the system change.
a. Determine a quality measure of data.
b. Repair data found to be incorrect.
c. Document causes for bad data quality.
d. Create an assessment report.
During the audit, no data are changed. Data are simply examined to make sure that they contain no errors, and recommendations are made to ensure that future additions to the data will be correct.
a. I only
b. II only
c. II and III
d. I, II, and III.
Management information systems support decision making on all levels: operational, tactical and strategic. The information made available to managers can assist on any of these levels.
a. Software that performs a service
b. Software that is accessible to the user over the network
c. Software that is locally installed by a service provider
d. Software that can be downloaded from a central server
Software as a Service (SaaS) is a term for allowing software to be run from a central server, rather than being locally installed. The plus is that there is no need for the user to keep track of versions of the software. If new versions are released, the central copies are updated and the user can access them thereafter.
a. Lotus Notes
b. Microsoft Exchange
d. Oracle database
Lotus Notes is client-server groupware that is used for workflow management. Although any software can be considered part of workflow management, groupware such as Lotus Notes is specifically designed for the task.
a. there is no single correct solution to a problem.
b. human input is not needed.
c. databases must be kept up-to-date.
d. data analysis is being made.
Expert systems apply rules to information inputted by the operator to find the most likely answers to a problem. The specific answers delivered by the system must then be analyzed by the operator to determine which is the correct answer.
a. Managing a team of programmers
b. Programming a database system
c. Writing reports based on outside information
d. Deciding which application to install
Knowledge work systems are primarily used by knowledge workers, whose primary task is to work with information. They use as input information gleaned from many sources, and as output distill this information into a format useable by others. Writing reports based on outside information would be a likely task.
a. Expert system
b. Neural network
c. Artificial intelligence
d. Decision support system
An expert system has a limited field of expertise in which it operates. The questions it asks and answers it seeks can only come from a set of rules covering a sharply delineated area of knowledge.
Transaction processing systems are systems that ensure that all transactions performed by them are done correctly. A payroll system is designed to run transactions related to people’s money, so it must ensure that the transactions are completed properly.
a. management information system.
b. enterprise information system.
c. decision support system.
d. executive information system.
Enterprise information systems refer to a class of systems that can handle the complete data output of an organization, while being available 24/7. Many types of management information systems can be enterprise information systems, but not all MIS are enterprise information systems.
a. Number of bugs filed per day
b. Number of bugs resolved per day
c. Average time between filing and resolution of bugs
d. Number of bugs filed per person
Determining how long, on average, it takes to resolve a bug is an important measure in dealing with bugs. Reducing this average time ensures that customers with problems will have their problems solved quickly and makes for happier customers.
c. Expert systems
Executive information systems (EIS) are systems that organize data in a way that allows executives to make better, more informed opinions. As such, they are a subclass of decision support systems (DSS), which can be implemented at any level of a company.
a. Networked computers
b. A hands-free telephone
c. A projection screen
Although EMS may be used in a distributed manner, this is not necessary. If the system is used locally, no telephone is needed.
a. Decision support systems
b. Electronic meeting systems
c. Expert systems
d. Transaction processing systems
Sensitivity analysis is the determination of what effect changes in inputs have on the outputs of a process. In the business case, this allows managers to determine what costs have the most effect on profit. A decision support system would use this type of analysis to assist managers in their decisions.
The relevant section of the Communications Decency Act (CDA) reads: “No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.” By not being treated as a publisher, the online service is not liable for anything that a user uploads, and therefore cannot be sued for information uploaded by a user.
HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a protocol for sending data to and from a web browser in a secure way. All data is encrypted before it is sent and decrypted at the other end.
a. During processing
b. While entering data
c. Before processing
d. After processing
Edit checks are tests run against the entered data after input has finished but before processing begins to make sure that there are no obvious errors in the data. This may be as simple as verifying that there are no non-numeric characters in input fields to running verifying checksums of data to comparing the sum total of data against known parameters to ensure they are legitimate.
a. software security.
b. logical computer security.
d. physical computer security.
Logical computer security involves the use of passwords and encryption to stop unauthorized access to computers via the Internet or other network.
b. Clipper Chip
The clipper chip was developed and promoted by the U.S. government to encrypt telecommunications. It has been criticized because the algorithm used in the chip is classified, so that it cannot be tested for the quality of security it gives.
Countermeasures are policies or actions that seek to minimize the possibility of someone breaking into a computer system. Countermeasures can be both automated and manual, and protect both from unauthorized access as well as data loss from external events such as power outages.
a. Communications Decency Act
b. The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
c. Telecommunications Act of 1996
d. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 entitled “Privacy of Customer Information” states that telecommunications carriers have a duty to protect the confidentiality of data pertaining to customers. To achieve this, there are restrictions placed on the use and disclosure of certain customer information. The ECPA, in contrast, only disallows the dissemination of the content of communications.