Dr. Leopkey: Sport Management

History
Sport management landmarks:
-(1957) Walter O’Malley (Brooklyn Dodgers) wrote a letter to Dr. James Mason (Ohio University) inquiring about the status of educational programs for sport administrators; Found out no education programs at that time
-(1966) Creation of master’s level sport administration program at OU
**Foundational program of study: Ohio University**
-Growth large and quick
-Now over 200 universities offer undergraduate, master’s, and PhD programs
Basic Terms
Sport Management:
-The study and practice of all people, activities, businesses, or organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any sport-related business or product
-Name given to many university-level academic programs designed to prepare students to assume positions in the sport industry
-Broad and includes a wide variety of sport careers
Sport vs. Sports
Sports: Implies a collection of separate activities, items in a series that can be counted
Sport: All encompassing; Collective noun that includes all sporting activities
Sport Management vs. Sport Administration
Administration: Top level of organization, decisive functions, determine objects and policies, planning and organizing function

Management: Middle-level executive function, implement policies made by administration, motivating and controlling functions, “the art of getting things one”

Nature and Scope of Industry
Sport Settings: Sites where individuals with a background in sport management might be needed
-Single sport
-Multi sport
-College sport
-Events
-Media
-Sport sponsors
-Professional services
-Facilities
-Manufacturers/Retailers

Sport Sectors:
-State or public sector
-Nonprofit or voluntary sector
-Professional or commercial sector

Unique Features of Sport
-People develop irrational passions
-Interdependent nature of relationships between sporting organizations
-Anti-competitive behavior
-Sport product is of variable quality
-High degree of product or brand loyalty
-Sports fans exhibit a high degree of optimism
-Sports organizations are reluctant to adopt new technology
-Sport often has a limited supply
Sport Management Competencies
Organization Management: Leadership skills
-Budgeting
-Accounting
-Coordinating
-Managing personnel
-Managing facilities
-Controlling
-Directing
-Evaluating
-Leading

General Sport Management Tasks: All sport managers must be proficient
-Marketing and sales
-Correspondence
-Public Speaking
-Community Relations
-Record keeping

Communication Management: Written and oral skills
-Writing
-Selling
-Working with media
-Developing publications
-Keeping game notes and statistics
-Interviewing
-Promoting
-Advertising
-Fundraising

Most Recognized Symbols
1. Red cross
2. Olympic
Sochi 2014
-Using tinder at Olympic village
-Fashion large topic
-Infrastructure/facility research or volunteer work
-Stray dog adoption by athletes
-Research: LEGACY
Legacy of Olympics
“The success of the Olympic Games depends in no small measure on the legacy is leaves the world”

Legacy: All planned and unplanned, positive and negative, intangible and tangible structures created by and for a sporting event that remains for a longer tim than the event
-Used to justify the involvement of the public sector to show ROI
-Increasingly important concept
-Proactive and strategic planning

Legacy Considerations:
-Affects local populace, urban regime, event owners
-Considered during bidding/organzing; up to 10 years pre-event, indefinitely post-event

Challenges and Issues:
-Commonly discussed as positive
-Legacy semantics
-Assumed to be self evident lack of planning
-Considered a side issue, successful planning and delivery of the event comes first
-Requires time and resources to measure true impact of event legacy
-Living legacy: Need to continue to reevaluate strategies based on needs of local stakeholders

Legacy Governance Mechanisms: Systems responsible for managing/monitoring decisions involving legacy
-Actors: Constant, Context specific, emergent
-Controls: Contracts/agreements, Olympic charter, bid guidelines, local/national laws and policies, IOC board decision, governance structures, strategic planning docs