Disaster Management Ch. 14

Delayed stress reaction
Occur after a disaster and can include exhaustion and an inability to adjust post disaster routines.
Emergency support functions (ESF’s)
The 15 functions used in a federally declared disaster. Each function is headed by a primary agency.
Mitigation
The act of “working to minimize the damage cause by an event that cannot (always) be prevented.” –Can prevent or reduce severity of the disaster’s effect.
Public health experts consider it secondary prevention.
Example of Mitigation
We cannot prevent car crashes; however, we can mitigate the results by designating automobiles with seat belts, airbags and insisting that young children be transported in safety car seats.
Mitigation activities
-Awareness and Education: holding/attending community meetings on disaster preparedness
-Disaster Prevention: building a retaining wall to divert flood water away from residence
-Advocacy: Supporting actions and efforts for effective building codes and proper land use
National Response Framework (NRF)
The successor to the national response plan. NRF presents the guiding principles to enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to diseases and emergencies.
-Focuses on response and short-term recovery.
-Helps define the roles, responsibilities, and relationships critical to effective emergency planning, preparedness, and response to any emergency or disaster
Recovery
The last stage in a disaster; when agencies join to restore the economic and civic life of the community.
Triage
Process of separating casualties and allocating treatment based on the victim’s potential for survival.
The most recent disasters in this century are associated with…
Global instability, economic downturns, political upheaval with its often accompanying wars or collapse of governments, famine, mass population displacements, and violence and civil conflicts.
The average cost for a single disaster event is $___ million in developed countries and $__ million in underdeveloped countries
$318 million for developed; $28 million for underdeveloped
In disasters, who suffers the worst?
The poor because their houses are less sturdy and they have fewer resources and less means of social security.
Why are disaster recovery costs are growing because..
The number of people involved and the amount of technology that must be restored
Examples of Human-made disasters
Conventional warfare, Nonconventional warfare (nuclear, chemical), Transportation accidents, Structural collapse, Explosion/bombing, Fires, Toxic materials, Pollution, Civil Unrest (riots, demonstrations)
Disasters may affect the health of a community by…
-Causing premature death, illnesses, and injuries in the affected community.
-Destroy the local health care infrastructure and prevent an effective response to the emergency,
-Create environmental imbalances, ^ing the risk of communicable Dz & environmental hazards
-Affect the psychosocial, emotional, and social wellbeing of the people
-Cause shortages of food and H2O
-Displace pop. of people
Does an event have to cause injury or death to be considered a disaster?
NO
The goal of NPG (National Preparedness Goal), NRP (National Response Plan), NIMS (National Incidence Management System) is to establish…
A unified all-disipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incidence management.
NRP was changed to what in 2008
NRF (National Response Framework)
An objective to ensure healthy homes and healthy communities is to…
Ensure that state health depts. establish training, plans, & protocols, & conduct multiinstitutional exercises to prepare for response to natural and technological disasters
What are the stress management programs designed to do?
Prevent & decrease the psychological dysfxn that occurs in disaster situations.
Why must a disaster plan be realistic and simple?
-No plan will ever exactly fit the disaster as it occurs
-All plans must be able to be implemented regardless of which key members of the disaster team are there at the time
How are plans designed so that they can reduce community vulnerability, allow for development of disaster response plans, & provide training before any hazardous event?
Education, team planning, mock disaster events, and clear assignment of responsibility to health care professionals in the community.
What is FEMA? What is CBRNE?
-Federal Emergency Agency
-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive
What is the purpose of prevention?
To deter all potential terrorists from attacking America, detect terrorists before they strike, prevent them and their instruments of terror from entering our country, and take decisive action to eliminate the threat they pose.
What preventions have been done to prevent water floods?
Work has been done to strengthen levies and other barriers
What must nurses assess for and report for disasters?
Environmental health hazards such as unsafe equipment, faulty structures, & the beginning of disease epidemics (measles or flu)
-They must also be aware of high risk targets and current vulnerabilities and what can be done to eliminate of mitigate the vulnerability.
Targets of vulnerability include..
-Military and civilian gov. facilities, health care facilities, international airports and other transportation systems, large cities, and high-profile landmarks.
-Terrorists may also target large public gatherings, water or food supplies, banking and finance, information technology, postal and shipping services, utilities, and corporate centers.
Psychological or sociological health hazards that the nurse should observe and report are…
overcrowding, extreme disrespect, and anger in vulnerable populations that could lead to unrest and violence.
The ARC and FEMA have devised a….
personal check list to help individuals and families prepare for disasters before they strike.
Emergency Supplies needed in case of a disaster..
-A 3 day supply of H2O (1 gallon/person/day), food that will not spoil, & manual can opener. Remember, you may not have water, gas, or electricity
-1 change of clothing and protective foot ware/person & 1 blanket or sleeping bag/person
-First aide kit with 1 weeks supply of meds including OTC. Also have a list of meds, dosages, allergies, and physicians.
-Emergency tools (battery powered radio, flashlight, plenty of extra batteries, candles & matches)
-An extra set of Car keys and Credit cards, Cash, or Travelers checks, ID, Proof of address, Birth certificate, insurance policies, family contact info, & maps with marked evacuation routs
-Sanitation supplies (toilet paper, soap, hygiene items, & trash bags)
-specialty items for infants, OA, or disabled family members (extra pair of eye glasses)
-Pet supplies
How can a nurse ensure that his/her family is protected during a disaster?
By providing them with the skills and knowledge to help them cope.
The ARC provides…
A comprehensive program of disaster training for health professionals, to enable them to provide assistance within their own communities and to other affected communities and countries.
What does WMD stand for?
Weapons of mass destruction
The level of community preparedness is only as good as…
the people and organizations in the community make it.
Who are often the front lines in preparing for and dealing with an emergency or disaster?
Public health departments
At the state, country, tribal, and local level, the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) is responsible for…
developing and coordinating emergency response plans within their defined area.
-They are in charge of creating a comprehensive, all-hazard plan. The plan should deal with the 4 phases of emergency management & provide planning and training services to local governments, including financial and technical assistance
During an actual emergency or disaster, the state/county OEM..
State: coordinates a state response and recovery program if necessary.
County: in charge of creating a comprehensive all-hazard plan that should address realistic dangers to the community and list available resources.
Actions recommended regarding childcare emergency supplies..
-Have a family readiness kit and disaster supply kit
-Gather supplies recommended by the ARC
-Store things such as first-aid supplies, emergency blankets, meds, icepacks, and nonperishable food in backpacks or rolling containers
-Put copies of each child’s medical info, parent contact info, and local emergency phone # in portable container.
-Take with you the attendance list of children and some comfort items (games, toys, blankets, crayons, and paper)
The ARC requires workers to complete the __________________________ before assigning an individual to a disaster site as a Red Cross Rep.
disaster health services or disaster mental health services course work
Mass casualty drills or mock disasters are key parts of preparedness. They are done to…
Promote confidence
Develop skills
Coordinate activities and participants
Part of planning for a bioterrorism attack is
learning the s/sx of illnesses that are likely to be caused by infectious agents.
Signs of a tornado
Hail, strong rain, & green sky.

**Signs for a human-made disaster may not be as clear, but being aware of suspicious activity is important.

FEMA interviens on disasters when…
the president declares a disaster
Three ways to classifying a disaster
1. Disaster Type- The agent that produced the event, such as a hurricane, a hazardous material accident, or transpiration accident
2. Disaster Level- The anticipated or actual ARC response and relief cost required by the event:
-Level 1: cost <$10,000 -Level 2: cost $10,000-$50,000 -Level 3: cost $50,000-$250,000 -Level 4: cost $250,000-$2.5 million -Level 5: cost >$2.5 million
3. Disaster Scope- The basic characteristic of the event’s magnitude and the ARC unit or units affected and responding to the event
Disaster Scope types
*Single-family disaster: to a person or family
*Local disaster: affects more than one family
*State disaster: affects multiple families
*Major disaster: multiple ARC units, affects more than 1 state, nuclear chem. or bio. weapons involved,
*Presidentially Declared disaster: requires full or partial implementation of the NRP.
5 principles of NRF
-Engage partnerships
-Tiered Response
-Scalable, Flexible, Adaptable Operational capabilities
-Unity of effort through unified command
-Readiness to act