A trial minilaunch of a product in limited areas that represent the potential market
The full introduction of a complete marketing strategy and the lunch of the product for commercial success.
Products intended for households or family use
Products that are used directly or indirectly in the operation or manufacturing processes of businesses.
A group of closely related products that are treated as a unit because of similar marketing strategy, production, or end-use considerations
All the products offered by an organization.
The Process of naming and identifying products.
A brand that is registered with the U.S. Patent and trademark office and is thus legally protected from use by any other firm.
Brands initiated and owned by the manufacture to identify products from the point of production to the point of purchase.
Private Distributor Brands
Brands, which may cost less that manufacturer brands, that are owned and controlled by a wholesaler or retailer.
Products with no brand name that often come in simple packages and carry only their generic name.
The external container that holds and describes the product.
The presentation of important information on a package.
The degree to which a good, service, or idea meets the demands and requirements of customers.
Charging the highest possible price that byers who want the product will pay.
A low price designed to help a product enter the market and gain market share rapidly.
encouraging purchases based on emotional rather that rational responses to the price.
Temporary price reductions often employed to boost sales.
A group of organizations that moves products from their producer to customers; also called a channel of distribution
Intermediaries who by products from manufacturers (or other intermediaries) and sell them to consumer for home and household use rather that for resale or for use in producing other products
Intermediaries who buy from producers or from other wholesalers and sell to retailers.
a form of market coverage whereby a product is made available in as many outlets as possible
a form of market coverage whereby only a small number of all available outlets are used to expose products
The awarding by a manufacturer to an intermediary of the sole right to sell a product in a defined geographic territory
All the activities necessary to move products from prouder to customers; inventory control, transportation, warehousing, and material handling
the shipment to products to buyers.
The design and operation of facilities to receive, store and ship products.
The physical handling and movement of products in warehousing and transportation
Integrated Marketing Communications
coordinating the promotion mix elements and synchronizing promotion as a unified effort
A paid form of nonperson communication transmitted through a mass medium, such s television, magazine advertisements, and online ands.
Designing a series of advertisements and placing them in various media to reach a particular target market
Direct, two0-way communication with byers and potential buyers.
Nonpersonal communication transmitted through the mass media but not paid for directly by the firm
Direct inducements offering added value or some other incentive for buyer to enter into an exchange
An attempt to motivate intermediaries to push the product down to their customers
The use of promotion to create consumer demand for product so that consumers exert pressure on marketing channel members to make it available
The use of promotion to create an maintain an image of a product in buyer’ minds