Field: an attribute, same data type
Record: related data that describes an entity
File: a collection of related records.
The use of spreadsheets and tables in different parts of the organization can cause it.
a collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data stored in the database. (think electronic filing cabinet)
functions of a DBMS:
data dictionary management
data storage management
data transformation and presentation
multi user access control
backup and recovery management
data integrity management
database access languages and application programming interfaces.
database communication interfaces.
improved data sharing
improved data security
better data integration
minimized data inconsistency
improved data access
improved decision making
increased end-user productivity
frequent upgrade/replacement cycles
– desktop database: a single user database that runs on a personal computer
– multi-user database: supports multiple users at one time.
– work-group database: a multi-user database that supports a small number of users (50 or less)
– enterprise database: a multi-user database that supports a large number of users (50+)
– centralized database: supports data located at a single site.
– distributed database: supports data distributed across several different sites
– operational/transactional/production database: for day-to-day operations
– data warehouse: stores data used to generate info required to make tactical or strategic decisions
– training, licensingm and regulation compliance costs
– vendor dependence – vendors are less likely to offer pricing point advantages to existing customers
– updating of hardware and software; additional training
examples of both types would include:
An invoice. If one were to take an invoice and simply scan it into a graphic, it would be unstructured data. In contrast, if it were processed and put into a database (subsequently becoming structured data), employees could eventually find the monthly averages, amount owed, etc. from various invoices.
While both are prevalent, I would think semi-structured data would be the most common in a typical business. Some data is stored but not processed (unstructured data such as memos), and some others are stored in databases (such as invoices) but most data are only processed to a certain extent that is displayed in a prearranged format but not able to yield all of the information contained within.
support for self-documentation through metadata
enforcement of data types or domains to ensure consistency of data within a column, defined relationships among tables, or contraints to ensure consistency of data across related tables.
lengthy development times
difficulty of getting quick answers
complex system administration
lack of security and limited data sharing
the advent of computerized data repositories
However, it seperated end-users from data. While this increased security, prevented redundancy and the such, it also created a delay in which the end-user could request information from the data and when it was delivered by the DP.